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Manutenção da capacidade inovadora na externalização do desenvolvimento de produtos: o caso da indústria automobilística. ; Innovative capacity maintenance by automakers in a product development outsourcing scenario - the case of brazilian automotive industry.

Mello, Adriana Marotti de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/08/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Mello, Adriana Marotti de - Manutenção da Capacidade Inovadora na Externalização do Desenvolvimento de Produtos: O Caso da Indústria Automobilística. 2006. Dissertação (Mestrado) – Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, 2006. Com o objetivo de diversificar o portfolio de produtos e reduzir prazos e custos de desenvolvimento, cada vez mais as empresas externalizam o Desenvolvimento de Produtos (DP) para fornecedores. Se por um lado, o maior envolvimento de fornecedores garante acesso a novas tecnologias, por outro lado pode no longo prazo impactar negativamente na capacidade inovadora da empresa, através da dependência do conhecimento de seus fornecedores. Então, como poderia uma empresa manter sua capacidade inovadora mesmo com a externalização do DP? Este trabalho tem como objetivo discutir essa questão, analisando quais seriam as variáveis mais relevantes que interfeririam na manutenção da Capacidade Inovadora da empresa, quando esta externaliza o Desenvolvimento de Produtos. Através de pesquisa bibliográfica e empírica, conclui-se que a manutenção da Capacidade Inovadora, quando da externalização do DP, poderia ser afetada pela manutenção docontrole sobre Conhecimento de arquitetura do produto...

Gestão de pessoas em estúdios de animação: entendendo as pequenas empresas da indústria criativa brasileira; Human resource management in animation studios: understanding Brazilian creative industry small businesses

Machado, Marta Corrêa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/11/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
O propósito deste trabalho é contribuir para o entendimento da gestão de pessoas em estúdios de animação enquanto ambientes da indústria criativa brasileira. Ao realizar um estudo qualitativo em quatro estúdios de animação brasileiros, constatou-se que as práticas de gestão de pessoas nesse setor ainda são bastante incipientes, recebendo pouca atenção de seus gestores, que contam com um corpo administrativo insuficiente para atender às diversas questões associadas ao gerenciamento dos recursos humanos. Quatro dilemas fundamentais enfrentados pelos gestores desse segmento da indústria criativa vieram à tona através dos dados levantados. O primeiro deles diz respeito ao tamanho da organização. Há uma percepção por parte da maioria dos entrevistados que o crescimento ampliaria os problemas a serem gerenciados e que se manter pequeno significa também manter os problemas em número mais controlável. O segundo dilema perpassa a contraposição da imagem do artista e do empresário, sendo que a primeira parece mais valorizada que a segunda pelos entrevistados. O terceiro dilema está conectado também a essa percepção e diz respeito à opção pela dedicação exclusiva à realização de conteúdos autorais ou a prestação de serviços para terceiros em paralelo à criação de conteúdos próprios. O quarto dilema se refere à combinação harmônica entre a forte motivação intrínseca encontrada nos trabalhadores do setor e a implantação de sistemas gerenciais que alavanquem o potencial operacional dessas empresas. De certo modo...

Análise crítica do processo de auditoria de sistema de gestão da qualidade no setor aeroespacial

Souza, Luciano Pereira de; Faria Neto, Antonio; Muniz Jr., Jorge
Fonte: Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar) Publicador: Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 31-41
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
A auditoria de sistema de gestão da qualidade é utilizada pelas organizações para melhorar o seu desempenho por meio de avaliações sistemáticas dos processos. Ao mesmo tempo, a atividade de auditoria vem sendo questionada quanto à sua capacidade de promover essa melhoria. Diante deste cenário, este artigo objetiva analisar fatores que afetam o processo de auditoria de certificação do sistema de gestão da qualidade, de modo a indicar oportunidades de melhoria das auditorias. A pesquisa é delimitada a auditorias no setor aeroespacial, que são orientadas pela NBR 15100. Foi realizada uma survey com auditores experientes nos anos de 2009 e 2010. São identificados fatores como comunicação, seleção da equipe, conhecimento do setor e os resultados mostram a existência de discrepâncias consideráveis entre o nível de importância e de aplicação desses fatores nas organizações auditadas.; The audit of the quality management system is used by organizations to improve their performance through systematic evaluations of the processes. At the same time, the traditional audit system has been questioned about its ability to promote such improvement. Hence, this paper aims to analyze factors that affect the audit process for certification of quality management system to indicate opportunities for audit improvement. This research focuses on audits conducted within the aerospace sector based on the NBR 15100. A survey of experienced auditors was conducted in the years of 2009 and 2010. Some factors were identified (e.g. communication...

A indústria aeroespacial em Portugal: contributos para um novo modelo económico

Ribeiro, João Alberto Varandas
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /10/2001 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.22%
Mestrado em Economia, Gestão de Ciência e Tecnologia; A indústria aeroespacial para além de constituir um sector de elevada intensidade tecnológica proporciona uma multiplicidade de inovações para as restantes indústrias e serviços. As tecnologias de informação e electrónica representam hoje as componentes chave da extensa cadeia de valor da indústria aeroespacial. Observa-se neste trabalho a situação actual dos principais actores da indústria aeroespacial em Portugal, assim como a experiência de algumas empresas que mais se têm relacionado com esta indústria. Para esse efeito, recorreu-se à recolha de informação documental e ao contacto directo com alguns dos principais intervenientes destas entidades. A situação da indústria aeroespacial no contexto Mundial, em especial no que se refere aos EUA e à Europa, e a evolução recente da indústria em Portugal, as suas potencialidades e razões para o seu desenvolvimento futuro, constituem o enquadramento à análise efectuada. Portugal dispõe hoje de conhecimentos e de experiência que lhe permitem aderir a complexos projectos internacionais na indústria aeroespacial, de grande valor acrescentado para a economia do país. A situação de impasse vivida actualmente no sector resulta...

Futures of automobile industry and challenges on sustainable development and mobility

Moniz, António Brandão; Paulos, Margarida Ramires
Fonte: IET Publicador: IET
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /04/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Portugal had only very few foresight exercises on the automobile sector, and the most recent one was a survey held in a project on work organisation systems in the automobile industry, its recent historical paths and the special strategies of location of companies (the WorTiS project). This involved several teams with different disciplinary backgrounds and from two Portuguese universities. The provisional main results of the first round of a Delphi survey held in Portugal on the automotive sector were already published, but a further analysis was not yet done. This foresight survey was done under the WorTiS project, developed in 2004 by IET – Research Centre on Enterprise and Work Innovation (at FCT-UNL), and financed by the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology. Some of this experience on foresight analysis is also been transferred to other projects, namely the WORKS project on work organisation restructuring in the knowledge society that received the support from EC and still is running. The majority of experts considered having an average of less knowledge in almost all the scenario topics presented. This means that information on the automotive industry is not spread enough among academics or experts in related fields (regional scientists...

Re-inscribing Gender in New Modes of Medical Expertise: The Investigator–Coordinator Relationship in the Clinical Trials Industry

Fisher, Jill A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
This article analyses the ways in which research coordinators forge professional identities in the highly gendered organizational context of the clinic. Drawing upon qualitative research on the organization of the clinical trials industry (that is, the private sector, for profit auxiliary companies that support pharmaceutical drug studies), this article explores the relationships between predominantly male physician-investigators and female research coordinators and the constitution of medical expertise in pharmaceutical drug development. One finding is that coordinators actively seek to establish relationships with investigators that mirror traditional doctor–nurse relationships, in which the feminized role is subordinated and devalued. Another finding is that the coordinators do, in fact, have profound research expertise that is frequently greater than that of the investigators. The coordinators develop expertise on pharmaceutical products and diseases through their observations of the patterns that occur in patient–participants’ responses to investigational drugs. The article argues, however, that the nature of the relationships between coordinators and investigators renders invisible the coordinators’ expertise. In this context...

Electrical innovations, authority and consulting expertise in late Victorian Britain

Arapostathis, Stathis
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.22%
In this article I examine the practices of electrical engineering experts, with special reference to their role in the implementation of innovations in late Victorian electrical networks. I focus on the consulting work of two leading figures in the scientific and engineering world of the period, Alexander Kennedy and William Preece. Both were Fellows of the Royal Society and both developed large-scale consulting activities in the emerging electrical industry of light and power. At the core of the study I place the issues of trust and authority, and the bearing of these on the engineering expertise of consultants in late Victorian Britain. I argue that the ascription of expertise to these engineers and the trust placed in their advice were products of power relations on the local scale. The study seeks to unravel both the technical and the social reasons for authoritative patterns of consulting expertise.

Development of an Industry Specific Web Site Evaluation Framework for The Australian Wine Industry

Davidson, R.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
This paper advocates the use of the Australia/New Zealand Risk Management Standard (SA/SNZ, 1999) in conjunction with of a modified version of Birch and McEvoy’s (1992) Structured Risk Analysis for Information Systems (SRA-IS) to identify information systems security risks in SMEs. The use of Internet based commerce by SMEs exposes them to information systems security risks that they are ill equipped to recognise let alone mitigate. Unlike the identification of some business risks, identification of risks associated with information systems requires certain technical expertise. The structure of the existing information system must be understood and modelled before risks can be identified and it is acknowledged that the required technical expertise may not be present in SMEs, thus the involvement of information systems consultants may be necessary. Once the information system has been modelled little information systems expertise is required to complete the analysis, keeping consultant involvement to a minimum and maximising owner/manager involvement.; http://www.collecter.org/archives/2002/2002.htm; Robyn Davidson; PDF attached with permission from author

An analysis of political and economic factors that impact sustainment of the Japanese defense industry

Ishida, Ryota.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 59 p. : col. ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Japan Defense Agency (JDA) is under pressure to reduce its procurement costs. As a result, the Japanese Defense Industry (JDIB) receives fewer orders from the JDA. The customer for the JDIB is, in essence, limited to the JDA due to the country's unique circumstances. The Japanese government has tried to help the JDIB in various ways. The Japanese government has created demand for the JDIB through high procurement costs, and the JDIB has maintained defense divisions and improved its technological expertise. The research goal is to identify some key political and economic factors to allow the JDIB to continue. This thesis describes the characteristics of the JDIB and the current circumstances surrounding the JDIB, and evaluates factors that influence continued development and sustainment of the JDIB. Subsequently, this thesis concludes with recommendations that would enable the JDIB to continue in a new environment.; Lieutenant, Japan Maritime Self Defense Force

An exploration of innovation in the Australian minerals industry : an innovation systems approach

Vandermark, Sarah E.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.25%
Comparatively little attention has been given to the role of innovation in Australia's minerals industry. Historical accounts of Australian development acknowledge the major economic and social advances derived from exploitation of mineral resources. However, a capacity for innovation is not seen as a factor in this success. Indeed, Australia's continued exploitation of its mineral endowment is typically seen as a handicap to broader economic diversification, particularly through the creation of knowledge-based industries and Australian engagement in the knowledge economy. This exploratory case study of innovation in Australia's minerals industry is based upon an innovation systems theoretical framework, and uses the innovation systems approach as a heuristic to guide the collection and analysis of empirical information. Its research design organises this exploration around three levels of analysis or analytical lenses, each with a distinct focus upon minerals innovation. In each level of analysis, empirically derived evidence is presented in case study subunits of minerals innovation that provide the base of evidence required for studies of innovation systems. The role of innovation in the minerals industry is explored in terms of its systemic nature...

Development of Construction Industry : A Literature Review

Mir, Aized H.; Durrani, Amer Z.; Tanvir, Mehreen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
The construction industry in Pakistan is well aware of the challenges it faces and its issues, constraints, and recommendations are also well documented in reports published from time to time. This study shows that business environment (demand-side), Human Resources (HR), equipment and materials are key factors restraining growth therefore showing that there are no short-term fixes for these problems. A sustained long-term committed approach to developing the construction industry (contractors, consultants, and, clients) is of paramount importance. Considering the Government of Pakistan's (GoP) ambitious development plans for the coming years, innovative and out of the box solutions will be required to deliver the proposed infrastructure projects.

Modelling design of multiphase bubble-bed reactors for advanced food-industry applications

Zahradnik, Jindrich; Ruzicka, M. C.; Markoš, J.; Teixeira, J. A.; Generalis, S.; Thomas, N.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2001 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
An EC project (IC15-CT98-0904 / PL979021) under this title commenced November 1998 courtesy of Dr Jindrich Zahradnik, sadly since deceased. In dedication to his memory overviewed here are contributions from the four partners whose lead investigators appear as authors (plus coordinator as corresponding author) with principals and researchers recognised in cited literature. A website (www.copernicus.aston.ac.uk) has been launched to disseminate major individual components and collaborations facilitated by study exchanges, also envisaged exploitation by industries. Drawing on this material we outline partners' established expertise and its unification under EC umbrella funding. To avoid confusion on due credit for contributions, references are designated by first letters of the above-named authors. At risk of appearing to favour ones' own wares, we humbly refer readers to our cited papers for contextual commentaries.

An analysis of the impact of modularization and standardization of vehicles electronics architecture on the automotive industry

Gaillard, Christophe-Loïc, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 120 p.; 7077729 bytes; 7085116 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
The growing use of electronics in automobiles designs and their dependency on it, has increased the level of complexity of the car-system and created new challenges. But at the same time, it has created new opportunities and the potential to reduce complexity through modularization. This represents a new architectural paradigm for OEMs and suppliers. This thesis suggests an approach to this new era of automobiles designs. It looks at the effect of modularization and the advent of electronics on the supply chain in other industries. It evaluates the risks of value migration in the automotive industry and studies the mechanisms of such migrations through several interviews, financial data research, systems functional decomposition and system dynamics analysis. Electronics, along with software and control algorithms, enable an encapsulation of functionalities by creating higher levels of abstraction. While early vehicles had an all-mechanical interface between operator and actuation, electronics has allowed the separation of the processing of signals coming from the operator, the control/functionality infusion, the transfer of information and the transfer of energy. Thus, what was once integral has now the potential to be modular.; (cont.) Such a separation increases the modularizability of the automobile's architecture and gives it an opportunity to get closer to a lower bound "essential complexity" floor. While integrality helps prevent knowledge from fleeing away...

Center of excellence in research and development for the food industry; Center of excellence in research and development for the food industry

Dictuc s.a.; Dictuc s.a.; Wageningen university and research centre; Wageningen university and research centre; Amelie Sorphear Kim Cheang; Amelie Sorphear Kim Cheang
Fonte: Corporação de Fomento da Produção Publicador: Corporação de Fomento da Produção
Tipo: proyecto
Publicado em 08/04/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.49%
ICEFOOD-Wageningen UR main mission is to transform Chile into a Food Innovator . For this Wageningen UR will open its extensive R&D knowledge infrastructure for Chilean counterparts from academia research institutions and industry. Main focus will be the transfer of innovative technologies knowhow and expertise and to build human capacity. The ultimate goal is geared to increase the international competitiveness and integration of the Chilean agro-food sector. ICEFOOD-Wageningen UR will generate scientific knowledge and technological excellence through research and development in the agro-food complex. Developed knowhow technologies scientific insights will help to sustain a continuous flow of innovation and this will further strengthen the Chilean food industry to provide high quality healthy food which meets the demands of the modern consumer. The general objective is to attract and generate knowledge technology infrastructure and labor for the Chilean agro-food industry. The ICEFOOD consortium between Wageningen UR the co-executors the representatives of the government and the participating food industry will generate results to improve food quality safety and competitiveness as well as environment protection and will generate a positive impact in the complete food chain starting from primary sector (primary production) all the way to the consumers. This objective will be fulfilled by installation of ICEFOOD-Wageningen UR in Chile for development new knowledge competitive technologies and innovative products by collaboration and complementation between Wageningen UR and the Chilean co-executors and stakeholders. Then development new knowledge competitive technologies and innovative products in consumer and health in food processing and structuring in food safety and in food chain sustainability and dynamics.Management Units in this project are a) Research line N° 1 Consumer and Health b) Research line N° 2 New Product and Processes c) Research line N° 3 Food Safety d) Research line N° 4 Food Chain sustainability and corporateThe immediate impact of the installation and operational phases will be to increase the funding infrastructure and expertise available to the co-executors in Chile. The initial research projects (described later in this document) will draw heavily on the current R&D focus of the co-executors and will provide additionality in terms of personnel equipment consumables and infrastructure (office and laboratory space). This will immediately impact on the productivity of the R&D projects and will provide links with the existing Wageningen international network. These immediate benefits will be ensured through cooperative R&D agreements. A critical aspect of the additionality is that by collaborating under the umbrella of ICEFOOD the co-executors and future collaborating partners will be able to take advantage of each other s infrastructure share resources pool talent and drive forward research more efficiently. On the short term Chile s food industry academia and governmental agencies can immediately link up with Wageningen UR and its extensive international network in science education and training. This implies that partners of ICEFOOD-Wageningen UR have the opportunity to work together with Wageningen UR on international innovation and scientific programs. One example is the participation in the European framework programs. Wageningen UR has established many effective scientific international coalitions which will be opened to Chilean counterparts. Also on the short term projects will be started with access to funding infrastructure and expertise available through the Chilean and the Wageningen UR network.; Corporación de Fomento de la Producción

Why do foreign oil companies continue to operate in exploration and production actitives in Bolivia´s hydrocarbon industry after its 2006 nationalization?

Rodríguez Lozada, Verónica Hali
Fonte: Universidad de Chile Publicador: Universidad de Chile
Tipo: Tesis
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.26%
Magíster en Estrategia Internacional y Política Comercial; This report explores the question: Why do foreign oil companies continue operate in exploration and production activities in Bolivia’s hydrocarbon industry after its 2006 nationalization? The history of Bolivia’s hydrocarbon industry is filled with cycles of nationalization and privatization. Each cycle has produced dramatic changes in Bolivia’s petroleum fiscal regime. Bolivia’s 2006 nationalization of its hydrocarbon industry has given Bolivia an international reputation as a high risk country to investment in. However, foreign direct investment is still occurring since the 2006 nationalization. The most interesting aspect of this continued foreign direct investment is that, the majority of it is from existing foreign companies that were there before the 2006 nationalization. This report exposes the underlying reasons as to why foreign companies continue to operate in Bolivia’s hydrocarbon sector despite its most recent nationalization in 2006. A historical analysis will be conducted on Bolivia’s hydrocarbon industry; more specifically, the time period between 1990 until 2009 will be the main focus of this report. The legal changes in Bolivia’s hydrocarbon industry since the 1990s will be evaluated in order to understand Bolivia’s strategy of nationalization in 2006. Throughout the history of Bolivia’s petroleum fiscal regime...

Industry Expertise, Information Leakage, and the Choice of M&A Advisors

Chang, Xin; Shekhar, Chander; Tam, Lewis H. K.; Yao, Jiaquan
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbfa.12165; This paper examines the impacts of M&A advisors? industry expertise on firms? choice of advisors in mergers and acquisitions. We show that an investment bank's expertise in merger parties? industries increases its likelihood of being chosen as an advisor, especially when the acquisition is more complex, and when a firm in M&A has less information about the merger counterparty. However, due to the concerns about information leakage to industry rivals through M&A advisors, acquirers are reluctant to share advisors with rival firms in the same industry, and they are more likely to switch to new advisors if their former advisors have advisory relationship with their industry rivals. In addition, we document that advisors with more industry expertise earn higher advisory fees and increase the likelihood of deal completion.; Chang acknowledges financial support from Rega Capital Management Limited and Academic Research Fund Tier 1 provided by Ministry of Education (Singapore). Shekhar acknowledgesfunding provided under the Faculty Research Grant scheme of the Faculty of Economics and Commerce, the University of Melbourne. Tam acknowledges research funding (MYRG074(Y1-L2)-FBA11-THK) provided by University of Macau.

The Effect of client industry structure on client prference for privacy and auditor concentration

Dey, R. Mithu
Fonte: Emerald Publicador: Emerald
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of a client's potentially conflicting needs for privacy and industry expertise on auditor concentration. Design/methodology/approach - The method examines the distribution of auditor concentration assuming that auditor choice occurs randomly. It then examines the observed distribution within the random assignment to consider whether the privacy or expertise motive dominates. Findings - The main finding is that at the client industry level, clients in a dominant film industry structure prefer privacy; whereas clients in a competitive market structure prefer expertise. Research limitations/implications ... An implication of this paper is that an increase in the number of large auditors may change auditor concentration in client industries that prefer privacy, an auditor different from its competitor. Practical implications - Policy makers should note that auditor concentration is not only a function of the number of auditors, but also of the client industry structure. Originality/value - The results provide a new measure for industry specialists and provide additional insight regarding auditor choice when privacy is relevant.

Corporate diversification: The role of industry-specific expertise and the impact of mergers and acquistions accounting.

Custodio, Claudia Perdigao Dias
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.57%
This thesis is organised in three chapters. The first two chapters link the industry-specific expertise of managers to the value of conglomerates and diversifying acquisitions. The third chapter explains how Mergers and Acquisitions (MandA) accounting can explain the diversification discount. The first chapter studies the cross sectional variation of conglomerate's value. I test the hypothesis that unrelated diversification destroys value because managers (CEOs) lack expertise outside the core business. I test two main implications: firms with more business activities outside the core business should have lower value and the discount should be greater for firms with more activity in unrelated-to-core secondary segments. The evidence supports both hypothesis. I test more directly if the results are linked to a lack of managerial expertise by using an industry index of managerial discretion. I find that increasing non-core business sales weight by 10% decreases firm value up to 3%, if the firm has high managerial discretion. The second chapter quantifies the value of CEO industry-specific experience, using diversifying MandA announcements. I find that industry experienced CEOs add value for their shareholders. The abnormal return is between 1.0% and 1.3% higher when the acquirer's CEO has top management experience in the target's industry. Analyzing potential mechanisms...

Human capital and decision making within the firm

Metzger, Daniel
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.41%
This thesis analyzes the market for executive and non-executive directors of firms with particular emphasis on the role of human capital such as industry expertise. The first chapter analyzes how the human capital of CEOs affects corporate decision making and ultimately corporate performance. Analyzing diversifying mergers and acquisitions, it shows that CEO characteristics matter for the bidders' performance in takeovers. When the bidding CEO has experience in the target's industry, the abnormal announcement returns are between two and three times higher than those generated by a CEO who is new to that industry. We provide evidence that this performance is mainly driven by an experienced CEO's ability to capture a larger fraction of the surplus. Industry experts redistribute surplus in favor of their share- holders by negotiating better deals and by paying a lower premium. We also ?nd that industry expert CEOs select low surplus deals on average. We argue that this evidence is consistent with industry experts having superior negotiation ability. The second chapter analyzes the determinants of the board structure (including human capital, such as industry expertise) in banks. We show that country charac- teristics explain most of the cross-sectional variation in bank board independence. In contrast...

Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health

Saloojee,Yussuf; Dagli,Elif
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to ‘‘resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence’’. The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information...