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Aspectos semânticos dos nomes classificados em Munduruku; Some semantic aspects of the language Munduruku (Tupi language of the Munduruku family)

Martines, George Verges
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/10/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Este trabalho apresenta os estudos realizados de alguns aspectos semânticos da língua Munduruku (do tronco lingüístico Tupi), falada por mais de 7500 índios da nação conhecida pelo mesmo nome, que estão distribuídos por cerca de noventa aldeias no Pará, Amazonas e inclusive no Mato Grosso. Este trabalho circunscreveu-se ao grupo pertencente à aldeia Munduruku "Praia do Mangue", no oeste do Pará. Após uma sucinta apresentação do povo, parte-se para uma breve descrição morfossintática da língua, onde deparamos com o tema principal dessa dissertação: os classificadores nominais. Nesta língua, os substantivos são acrescidos de afixos nominais, que possuem a função de estabelecer uma relação associativa entre o nome e seu referente espacial. Neste trabalho busca-se provar que os classificadores geram significado através da carga semântica que possuem e, para poder chegar a esses resultados, revisamos as teorias da motivação ou arbitrariedade do signo lingüístico, a metáfora e suas peculiaridades, a metonímia com suas relações e a possível migração de uma estrutura metafórica existente para uma metonímica. O fundamento principal dessa dissertação é a propositura de Ullmann de que, em muitas línguas...

Lingua matis (Pano) : uma descrição gramatical; Matis language (Panoan): a gramatical description

Rogerio Vicente Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/08/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Esta tese tem por objetivo apresentar uma descrição morfossintática da língua matis (família lingüística Pano), falada por 262 pessoas que habitam no médio Ituí - noroeste amazônico. o trabalho é composto de doze capítulos. No capítulo 1, apresentamos a situação do povo matis e fazemos considerações sobre algumas diferenças entre as línguas Matis e Matsés - por muito tempo classificadas como uma única língua. Nos capítulos dois a doze, descrevemos aspectos fonológicos e morfossintáticos da língua matis. Por se tratar de uma língua que não apresenta qualquer descrição morfossintática prévia realizada por outros pesquisadores, procuramos descrever sua morfologia de maneira mais abrangente possível, procurando explicar, assim, a função de cada morfema dentro de cada classe gramatical. Abordamos, ainda, aspectos gerais da sintaxe. Enfim, o estudo da língua matis é o resultado de uma pesquisa que objetiva descrevê-Ia em seus aspectos fonológicos, morfológicos e sintáticos. O trabalho colabora para o melhor conhecimento dessa língua, tanto para a família Pano quanto para as pesquisas lingüísticas em línguas indígenas brasileiras; The objective of this thesis is to present a morphosyntactic description of the Matis language (Panoan linguistic family)...

Estudo lexical da lingua matis : subsidios para um dicionario bilingue; Lexical study of the matis language - subsidies for a bilingual dictionary

Vitoria Regina Spanghero Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/06/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
O objetivo desta tese é apresentar o léxico da língua matis, propondo um dicionário bilíngüe matis-português. Essa língua, da família Pano, é falada por 250 pessoas no estado do Amazonas, sendo a grande maioria monolíngüe em matis. O trabalho inclui a etno-história dos matis, seu modo de vida atual e sua língua, bem como algumas características da família Pano. Apresenta ainda, um estudo sobre alguns princípios de lexicologia e lexicografia e do fazer lexicográfico, como também as relações entre a lexicografia, a lexicologia e a semântica. Algumas considerações sobre dicionários bilíngües são feitas a partir da comparação de cinco dicionários bilíngües indígena-português. Esclarecemos os procedimentos adotados na compilação do dicionário matis-português, pondo em prática a metodologia lexicográfica. Consta, também, nesta tese, um capítulo sobre alguns tópicos descritivos da morfossintaxe da língua matis, a fim de auxiliar o leitor no entendimento dos verbetes do dicionário. Por fim, apresentamos o dicionário matis-português, precedido de algumas explicações concernentes à sua organização. O dicionário apresentado nesta tese compreende 1547 entradas, organizadas em ordem alfabética. A notação utilizada é a fonológica. Para cada entrada são fornecidas informações gramaticais...

Koho Yoko Havovo/O Tuiuiu e o Sapo : biletramento, identidade e politica linguistica na formação continuada de professores Terena; Koho Yoko Havovo/O Tuiuiu e o Sapo : identity, biliteracy and language policy in continued formation of the Terena teachers

Onilda Sanches Nincao
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Esta tese teve como objetivo geral refletir sobre o processo de produção detextos em língua indígena, por parte de professores Terena do município de Miranda, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Motivados pela ausência de textos escritos em sua língua tradicional que pudessem vir a compor materiais didáticos de apoio para o desenvolvimento de atividades de pós-alfabetização em suas escolas, esse grupo de professores se propôs a elaborar, coletivamente, textos em Terena durante oficinas realizadas como parte de sua formação continuada. Tendo escolhido o tema da primeira narrativa a ser produzida, os professores Terena preferiram, surpreendentemente, primeiro escrevê-la em português (?O Tuiuiú e o Sapo?) para, depois, traduzi-la para a língua indígena (?Kóho Yoko Hovôvo?). Os discursos produzidos durante o processo de elaboração das duas versões da narrativa em questão se constituíram no corpus principal analisado nesta tese. Discursos acerca da produção de uma cartilha de prevenção de DST, escrita em Terena e a utilização do texto ?Kóho Yoko Hovôvo? em um evento de letramento ocorrido durante um acampamento de retomada de terra na aldeia Cachoeirinha constituíram registros secundários de investigação. A análise dos dados foi realizada considerando que (a) toda prática discursiva revela processos de construção identitária (MAHER...

Bilingual education, indigenous language and culture: the case of Apyãwa Tapirapé

Gorete Neto,Maria
Fonte: Faculdade de Letras - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Publicador: Faculdade de Letras - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Bilingual schools are recognized as an important resource to increase the chances of language survival but in many cases have proven to be ineffective. Within the Apyãwa Tapirapé Indian Tribe (central Brazil), an effective bilingual school does exist; however, this study shows that even a successful school brings complications for the community. Audio-recorded interviews, in which teachers and leaders discuss their bilingual school and its consequences for the Apyãwa Tapirapé people, reveal that they feel that the school has changed the Apyãwa Tapirapé lifestyle in both negative and positive ways. A continuous evaluation and ongoing reconstruction of educational aspects is proposed as a way to both attend to the needs and to relieve the worries of groups like the Apyãwa Tapirapé with respect to the impact of their school on the community.

Línguas cruzadas, histórias que se mesclam: ações de documentação, valorização e fortalecimento da língua Chiquitano no Brasil; Mixed languages and histories that merge: documentation, appreciation and strenghtening of the Ciquitano in Brazil language

SANTANA, Aurea Cavalcante
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Letras e Linguistica; Linguistica, Letras e Artes Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Letras e Linguistica; Linguistica, Letras e Artes
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Chiquitano, poorly known in Brazil, are part of the contemporary Indian groups, segregated and silenced by the different contexts of population density of the geopolitical frontiers. Living currently in the frontier between Brazil and Bolivia, the Chiquitano of the Brazilian communities live in a process of ethnogenesis, searching for favorable ways to ressignification of the ethnic collectivity and to the citizenship of law through the identity recognition and the demarcation of their lands. And in this way, attempting to contribute for the strengthening and the revitalization of the Chiquitano language is that this work is contextualized. Based on several theoretical and methodological premises, this Thesis addresses historical, sociolinguistic, phonetic and phonological aspects of the Chiquitano language in the Brazilian communities of Vila Nova Barbecho, Acorizal, Central and Fazendinha, in the municipality of Porto Esperidião, in the State of Mato Grosso. Reflections about the situation of endangered language experienced in these communities and the Indigenous people´s involvement in the actions for the strengthening of the identity and in the initiatives for the revitalization of their ancestral mother tongue are also presented in this thesis. It is also shown how the dialogic contact among the research for Doctorate...

Indigenous Language Reclamation: The Learners Perspective

Sherry-Kirk, Laurie
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
ABSTRACT This study explored the link between learning an Indigenous language and the meanings second language learners attach to their language recovery experiences. The study delves into the factors that motivate, enhance and serve as barriers to individual language revitalization efforts. With the goal of reasserting an Indigenous world view, the traditional teachings of the Ojibwe medicine wheel were combined with the lessons of the seven Grandfathers to provide a methodological basis for conducting ethical research with and for the benefit of First Nations people. Within the context of our relationships with self, community, spirit and environment, the pairing of Indigenous theory with the practical community experiences of Indigenous second language learners, demonstrates how Indigenous systems of thought and ontology lend themselves well to the critical understanding necessary to enhance the recovery our own endangered languages. These research findings indicate that there is a definite link between ancestral language reclamation and increased levels of self-esteem, a sense of grounded cultural identity and resilience, an overall sense of healing and the social responsibility that comes with receiving the gift of language. The barriers associated with learning an ancestral language intersect on multiple and often simultaneous levels making it difficult for the language learners to discover their origin.This research found that it was important for language learners to identify that they often carry a collective sense of shame associated with an internalized attachment to the modality of Indigeneity. Once the origin of this shame was acknowledged – as resulting from settler/assimilation logics...

Using the human rights system to protect and preserve indigenous language use

Baumgartner, Joanne
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 133639 bytes; 366 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
The presentation today is about the different ways of using the human rights system to protect and preserve indigenous language use. These include international, national and local or state and Territory, human rights mechanisms within Australia. There are three different organisations where Complaints regarding human rights violations, including indigenous issues, can be made. They are: 1) The United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations. 2) The Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission. 3) The State or, in this case, the Northern Territory Human Rights Office. The first part of this paper deals with the United Nations system, and will be followed by reviewing Australian mechanisms for handling Human rights discrimination cases.; no

Taking to the airwaves: a strategy for language revival

Amery, Rob
Fonte: Australian Linguistic Society; http://www.als.asn.au Publicador: Australian Linguistic Society; http://www.als.asn.au
Tipo: Conference paper; Published Version Formato: 22 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
The re-introduction of an Indigenous language into an English-speaking community presents an enormous challenge. School programs, workshops and songwriting projects have typically been the starting point for language reclamation with small numbers of participants involved. Increasingly, reclaimed languages are being used in public to give speeches of “Welcome to Country” or by choirs in the singing of songs. At the same time, reclaimed languages are appearing in signage and works of art. However, the opportunity to hear reclaimed languages spoken is rare. Radio and associated podcasts and downloads offer a means of reaching a wider audience. This paper will discuss a project to develop and broadcast two-hour-long radio programs in and about the Kaurna language, the original language of the Adelaide Plains, which is being reclaimed on the basis of 19th century written records (see Amery, 2000). Strategies have been developed to engage with an English speaking audience in a way that makes the Kaurna language interesting and accessible. This may serve as a model for other languages in similar situations to follow.; Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts & Sport, Office for the Arts, Indigenous Languages Support (ILS) program; ANU College of Arts & Social Sciences...

Sad stories: a preliminary study of NAPLAN practice texts analysing students’ second language linguistic resources and the effects

Angelo, Denise
Fonte: Australian Linguistic Society; http://www.als.asn.au Publicador: Australian Linguistic Society; http://www.als.asn.au
Tipo: Conference paper; Published Version Formato: 31 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper analyses practice texts produced by Indigenous students who are first language (L1) speakers of the local variety of Torres Strait Creole, and second language (L2) learners of Standard Australian English (SAE). Writing such texts served as preparation for the writing component of the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). These students had been exposed to classroom instruction on the schematic discourse organisation of the preannounced test genre, a narrative, and had been given repeated practice of writing this genre under NAPLAN-like conditions. Analysis of their texts reveals that they attempt to implement this classroom instruction, but their levels of L2 proficiency impact greatly on the texts they generate. Their writing displays a wide range of non-target language features, which suggest that teaching approaches would need to include explicit instruction of SAE. This preliminary study raises issues for further investigation around the narrowed or even hidden curriculum for L2 learners of SAE in a high stakes testing environment.; ANU College of Arts & Social Sciences, School of Language Studies; ANU College of Asia and the Pacific, School of Culture, History and Language; The conference proceedings can be found at http://hdl.handle.net/1885/9404. "The 2011 Conference of the Australian Linguistic Society was ... hosted jointly by the School of Language Studies and the School of Culture...

Indigenous language education in remote communities

Fogarty, William; Kral, Inge
Fonte: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/ Publicador: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 12 pages
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This Topical Issue is based upon a submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry into language learning in Indigenous communities, and has a specific focus on lessons the authors have learnt from working with Indigenous peoples in remote regions as both educators and researchers. The focus is on the role of Indigenous languages in emergent development activity in remote Australia and the out-of-school language and literacy needs of Indigenous adolescents and young adults, with a focus on the digital economy.; "A version of this Topical Issue was provided as a submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry into language learning in Indigenous communities ... Submissions to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry into language learning in Indigenous communities can be viewed at

Taking to the airwaves: a strategy for language revival

Amery, R.
Fonte: Australian Linguistic Society; online Publicador: Australian Linguistic Society; online
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The re-introduction of an Indigenous language into an English-speaking community presents an enormous challenge. School programs, workshops and songwriting projects have typically been the starting point for language reclamation with small numbers of participants involved. Increasingly, reclaimed languages are being used in public to give speeches of “Welcome to Country” or by choirs in the singing of songs. At the same time, reclaimed languages are appearing in signage and works of art. However, the opportunity to hear reclaimed languages spoken is rare. Radio and associated podcasts and downloads offer a means of reaching a wider audience. This paper will discuss a project to develop and broadcast two-hour-long radio programs in and about the Kaurna language, the original language of the Adelaide Plains, which is being reclaimed on the basis of 19th century written records (see Amery, 2000). Strategies have been developed to engage with an English speaking audience in a way that makes the Kaurna language interesting and accessible. This may serve as a model for other languages in similar situations to follow.; http://hdl.handle.net/1885/9404; Rob Amery

Indigenous-driven mission : reconstructing religious change in sixteenth-century Maluku

Baker, Brett Charles
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
During the sixteenth century, tens of thousands of people in the region which the Europeans called Maluku embraced Christianity. Contemporary writers of both secular and mission chronicles celebrated this Christianisation as the work of Europeans, both colonial administrators and missionaries, who had won over the converts by persuasion, by godly attributes, and by military prowess. Though always focussed on European actors, these chroniclers also expected indigenous rulers to play a role in conversion. These kings and chiefs, once they had been persuaded by captains or missionaries to become Christians themselves, were understood to have the power to bring their subjects with them into the new faith in an effortless top-down process. Consequently, religious change was often reported as instances of passive and rather superficial 'mass conversion.' This representation of early Christianisation in Maluku has persisted in texts as divergent as reports written by seventeenth-century Dutch ministers, twentieth-century Catholic mission histories, and more recent works by secular scholars. During the past four decades, thousands of pages of contemporary letters and reports composed by colonial authorities, Portuguese merchants, and Jesuit missionaries have been published by the Portuguese Government and the Society of Jesus. Careful...

Larrakia language project: a living culture in a changing world – a tribute to Yirra

Roman, Sue; Harvey, Mark
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 153451 bytes; 366 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Larrakia country covers the areas of Darwin and surrounds. It is bounded by the mouth of the Finniss River, Manton Dam, and around to the mouth of the Adelaide River. The Larrakia Language Project is introduced by a summary discussion of the changes that occurred in the lives of Larrakia people during the first half of the twentieth century. Particular examples of such change are examined from the personal perspective of an individual whose life spanned the first fifty years of the past century. The effect of the changes experienced on the Larrakia language is demonstrated in the life of this person and that of her children. Today's talk begins with the introduction of the person central to my presentation.; no

Sociolinguistic vitality of Manx after extreme language shift: authenticity without traditional native speakers

Ó hIfearnáin, Tadhg
Fonte: De Gruyter Publicador: De Gruyter
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
peer-reviewed; This article draws on sociolinguistic fieldwork among speakers of one of Europe's smallest indigenous language communities, a speaker group which persists after the loss of all of its traditional speakers within living memory. The extreme language shift experienced by Manx has not led to loss of the language as a spoken and literary medium due to the efforts of significant numbers of language activists and enthusiasts over several generations, from before the loss of the traditional language community to the present. Their actions have resulted in significant linguistic institutionalisation and a rapidly expanding number of speakers of various abilities, some of whom form a new speaker community . It discusses the constructions of linguistic authenticity and alternative models for the revival speaker, showing how core groups of speakers have been bestowed with authenticity by the wider non-speaker population, for whom linguists' interest in language endangerment and language death are not primary concerns. The article shows how speakers appropriate and are accorded forms of authority and legitimacy in the absence of traditional native speakers; Published; peer-reviewed

A designação de língua : sentido, argumentação e o texto no ciberespaço; The designation of language : sense, argumentation and the text in cyberspace

Claudia Freitas Reis
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/08/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Esta tese propõe um estudo semântico-enunciativo em torno da pergunta qual a designação da palavra "língua" em textos postados no site da UNESCO? Em busca desta resposta, ancorados teoricamente nos conceitos da Semântica do Acontecimento, faremos um percurso que discute, pela relação que se coloca com nosso corpus de estudo, primeiramente, a questão do espaço de enunciação que nos permite pensar na relação entre línguas afetada pelo político e a consideração da Internet enquanto um espaço de enunciação que nos possibilitará pensar, posteriormente, o funcionamento do texto no ciberespaço pelo viés enunciativo. Esta questão se delineia não somente por uma construção teórica, mas, sobretudo, pelas análises que desenvolvemos, as quais nos levam para além de uma designação da palavra: permite-nos esta aproximação e o convite ao deslocamento teórico no tratamento do texto. Outra questão importante sobre a qual nos debruçamos é a reflexão sobre a tradução e a proposta de democratização linguística enunciada e materializada no site. Por conta do nosso percurso, discutimos o conceito de língua na Linguística; pela Antropologia (Linguística) apresentamos formulações sobre a relação entre língua e cultura. Discutimos também a questão da divulgação científica e do lugar da Linguística enquanto a ciência da linguagem pelo modo como é significada nos textos analisados. Todo o percurso serve de base para nossas descrições na construção do domínio semântico de determinação (DSD) da palavra estudada...

Resiliency in Native Languages : Three Indigenous Communities’ Experiences with Language Immersion

Aguilera, Dorothy
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Este texto se presentó como comunicación al II Congreso Internacional de Etnografía y Educación: Migraciones y Ciudadanías. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 5-8 Septiembre 2008.; This paper examines the outcomes of language immersion models implemented by three Indigenous communities to revitalize and preserve their native languages through ethnographic research design and methods. The history and implementation of language instruction in three Indigenous communities are described. The multi-stage analysis includes an examination of national and state test scores and other qualitative and quantitative data for the school communities. School demographics and standardized tests are used in the comparison of case studies as well as the relevant issues featured in the research literature about indigenous language revitalization. Data findings are summarized and include analysis of additional anecdotal information and test data used to explore research questions about academic achievement and Native language-medium education.

Um evento de (bi)letramento em língua indígena: reflexos de uma política linguística Terena; An event of (bi)literacy in indigenous language: reflections of a Terena linguistic policy

Nincao, Onilda Sanches; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul
Fonte: Revista Horizontes de Linguistica Aplicada Publicador: Revista Horizontes de Linguistica Aplicada
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/03/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Este texto apresenta dados de pesquisa realizada junto a professores indígenas a partir de oficinas de produção de textos em língua Terena que tiveram como objetivo produzir textos nessa língua a fim de servirem à produção de material didático na escola. A metodologia adotada seguiu os preceitos sugeridos por Vóvio e Souza (2005) para pesquisas na área de Linguística Aplicada que focalizam práticas sociais de letramento. As oficinas de produção de textos em língua Terena tiveram a participação de 16 professores indígenas. Os dados foram analisados a partir do pressuposto de que (a) em contextos bilíngues, as línguas não ocupam compartimentos isolados (Maher, 2007a), (b) há uma conjunção entre as práticas de letramento nas duas línguas em questão (Hornberger, 1989/2003) e (c) o letramento não tem o mesmo significado nos diferentes contextos culturais (Street, 2006). Os resultados demonstraram que o biletramento que emergiu nas oficinas de textos focalizadas evidencia um procedimento cultural Terena que encontra justificativa nas construções identitárias desse povo ao longo da história, emergindo a escrita em uma função simbólica de indianidade Terena, com força política e combativa.; This paper presents data from research with indigenous teachers at text production workshops in Terena language. Such workshops aimed to produce texts in this language in order to serve the production of teaching materials at schools. The adopted methodology followed the precepts suggested by Vóvio and Souza (2005) for research in the area of Applied Linguistics...

Democratisation and Standardisation - conflicting objectives for indigenous languages?

Kützé,Ernst
Fonte: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe Publicador: Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.62%
At first blush, the two concepts, democratisation and standardisation, seem to be in conflict if the objectives underlying the processes they describe are compared, in particular if they are applied to the field of language planning and politics, and especially within the context of the colonial history of Africa and further afield. It is in the nature of standardisation not to tolerate much variety, even in the language to be standardised (especially in the formal registers). The functional requirements of stylistic, sociolectal or geolectal variants in a language community, on the other hand, reflect a wide spectrum of varieties in a given language. Underlying the need for standardisation is the requirement for communication in the form of a unitary code (i.e. a language) which is understood and used by as many members of the community as possible, necessarily and usually in formal contexts. However, a standardised language, like all others, also has need of neutral and informal registers for which the appropriate vocabulary should be available. Such vocabulary originates in everyday speech, while "formal" terminology aimed at the higher functions of language is often compiled by bodies such as language commissions. The standardisation of language is often the result ofa political process...

The war of the alphabets: indigenous peoples between the oral and the written

Franchetto,Bruna
Fonte: Mana Publicador: Mana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Based on ethnographic fragments from linguistic research among the Taurepáng, Macuxi, Wapichana and Kuikuro, conducted in distinct times, regions and situations, this article analyzes the conflict occurring between orality and writing when the orthographization of an indigenous language transforms and crystallizes sounds and speech on sheets of paper. This is an open arena where different representations and agents of writing emerge, interact and clash: missionaries, researchers, agents of the state, indigenous teachers, indigenous preachers, the indigenous community itself and so on. Here I approach writing more as a metaphor or emblem than a simple technology of correspondences between codes. The article provides, then, an interpretation of the meaning of writing that may help us to understand, among other things, the reasons behind the successes and failures of bilingual education, literacy projects and the introduction of schooling. The Indians also observe, often with considerable perplexity, the wars or dances of the letters, where orthographization consecrates whatever it includes and condemns what it excludes - the vital organs of a language.