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Mediterranean Urban Green Spaces with an Eclogical and Economic Sustainability-study cases

Castro, Maria Conceição
Fonte: St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnic University Publishing House Publicador: St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnic University Publishing House
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Mediterranean urban green spaces with an ecological and economic sustainability – study cases. Maria da Conceição Castro Dep. Planeamento Biofísico e Paisagístico, Universidade de Évora, Apartado 94, 7002-554 Évora, Portugal (mccastro@uevora.pt) Instituto de Ciências Agrárias Mediterrânicas, ICAM The dynamic of urban development and the public take away from the daily contact with nature, produce in landscape architects a great responsibility on the design of green spaces. These areas must be ecological, economic and social sustainable and must contribute to the improvement of human well-being. It is important to emphasize the positive characteristics of the local and preserve or reintroduce indigenous plants as a way of contributing to the biodiversity preservation and provide attractive complements to the design areas. It is urgent to reduce the outputs related with water, fertilizers and pesticides which have a negative impact in landscape. The plants are able to exercise a positive influence on climate and air in the surroundings. They reduce the amplitude of air temperature and air pollution. At the same time they are responsible for the seasonal changes (blooming, flowering) that are very important for the physical and psychological balance of the public. The most distinctive feature of Mediterranean climate involves the seasonality of air temperature and precipitation...

Identification of medicinal plants of Urmia for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

Bahmani,Mahmoud; Zargaran,Arman; Rafieian-Kopaei,Mahmoud
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
The gastrointestinal tract is one of the most important organs of the human body and is vulnerable to different diseases. Available drugs often have low efficacy or are associated with many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative drugs are necessary to treat gastrointestinal complications. This study intended to identify medicinal plants in Urmia, Iran, that can affect common gastrointestinal disorders and diseases. Data was collected from public resources via interviews and questionnaires applied from April to June 2013. Herbarium specimens were collected from the region and authenticated by a botanist. A total of 41 indigenous medicinal plants from the Urmia region, belonging to twenty families, have a traditional medicinal role in the treatment of parasitic and infectious diseases, diarrhea, reflux, gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer, constipation, bloating, among other gastrointestinal tract disorders. Analysis showed that most plants affecting the gastrointestinal tract belonged in the Asteraceae family (24%). The most used part of the plants was the seed at 17%. Decoction at 65% was the most popular form of treatment used. Some of the medicinal plants discussed in this article have new implications presented for the first time. Pharmacological studies on the therapeutic effects of the indigenous plants mentioned in this study are necessary in order to investigate their claimed clinical effects and the use of their effective compounds to produce natural and useful drugs. Currently...

Plants with possible psychoactive effects used by the Krahô Indians, Brazil

Rodrigues,Eliana; Carlini,E A
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
OBJECTIVE: In spite of the richness of the Brazilian biodiversity, no phytomedicines have been developed from this flora with the purpose of being used in psychiatric treatments. The objective of the present study was to document the use of plants with possible psychoactive effects in rituals performed by the Krahô Indians, who live in the cerrado savannahs biome in the central region of Brazil. Also, the present data were compared with the data obtained during a review of the literature on the use of psychoactive plants by 25 Brazilian indigenous groups. METHOD: The study was carried out during two years of fieldwork during which anthropological and botanical methods were employed. RESULTS: Seven local shamans were interviewed and they indicated 98 formulas, consisting of 45 plant species that appear to have psychoactive properties and were used in 25 different treatments. Some of the psychoactive properties were "prevention of madness", "stimulant effect", "tranquilizing effect", "prevention of tremors", "longer sleeping period", "open mind" and "induction of sleep". This article also describes the review of literature, which recorded 58 plants that may have psychoactive effects used by 25 Brazilian Indian cultures. CONCLUSION: The treatment of psychological/psychiatric disorders based on the plants used by the Krahô Indians is very rich. It is also observed among other Brazilian indigenous groups. Future phytochemical and pharmacological studies on these plants may develop new medicines to treat psychiatric disorders.

Indigenous Plants Reported for Hypoglycemic Activity

Roy, Shipra; Agrawal, Venu
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Plants are the only source of a well established traditional and modern drugs and phytochemicals. Many plant species are known in folk medicine of different cultures to be used for their hypoglycemic properties and therefore used for treatment of diabetes. The evaluation of these plants and of their active natural principles is logic way of searching for new drugs to treat this disease. The present paper deals with the uses of indigenous plants for curing diabetes.

In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia

Hawaze, S.; Deti, H.; Suleman, S.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
The leaves extracts of two indigenous plants of Ethiopia: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentration dependent. Methanol and petroleum ether extracts of C. burgensis leaves exerted greater inhibitory effects than C. longicauda extracts whereas aqueous extracts of both plants were inactive. The MIC study revealed a concentration of 0.78 mg/ml on bacteria and 3.125 mg/ml on fungi for methanol extract and 1.56 mg/ml on both fungi and bacteria for petroleum ether extract. Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of proteins, fixed oils, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. Preliminary chromatographic investigation showed fluorescing spots with Rf values that ranged from 0.05 to 0.96 for phenolic compounds and saponins. As the study is one of the first reports on the two indigenous species of Clematis; isolation...

Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural African Communities: An Overview of Measures to Maximise the Medicinal Potentials of Indigenous Plants

Njume, Collise; Goduka, Nomalungelo I.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities.

TIPdb: A Database of Anticancer, Antiplatelet, and Antituberculosis Phytochemicals from Indigenous Plants in Taiwan

Lin, Ying-Chi; Wang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Jheng, Jhao-Liang; Li, Jih-Heng; Tung, Chun-Wei
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
The unique geographic features of Taiwan are attributed to the rich indigenous and endemic plant species in Taiwan. These plants serve as resourceful bank for biologically active phytochemicals. Given that these plant-derived chemicals are prototypes of potential drugs for diseases, databases connecting the chemical structures and pharmacological activities may facilitate drug development. To enhance the utility of the data, it is desirable to develop a database of chemical compounds and corresponding activities from indigenous plants in Taiwan. A database of anticancer, antiplatelet, and antituberculosis phytochemicals from indigenous plants in Taiwan was constructed. The database, TIPdb, is composed of a standardized format of published anticancer, antiplatelet, and antituberculosis phytochemicals from indigenous plants in Taiwan. A browse function was implemented for users to browse the database in a taxonomy-based manner. Search functions can be utilized to filter records of interest by botanical name, part, chemical class, or compound name. The structured and searchable database TIPdb was constructed to serve as a comprehensive and standardized resource for anticancer, antiplatelet, and antituberculosis compounds search. The manually curated chemical structures and activities provide a great opportunity to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship models for the high-throughput screening of potential anticancer...

TIPdb-3D: the three-dimensional structure database of phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants

Tung, Chun-Wei; Lin, Ying-Chi; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Wang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Jheng, Jhao-Liang; Li, Jih-Heng
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The rich indigenous and endemic plants in Taiwan serve as a resourceful bank for biologically active phytochemicals. Based on our TIPdb database curating bioactive phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants, this study presents a three-dimensional (3D) chemical structure database named TIPdb-3D to support the discovery of novel pharmacologically active compounds. The Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94) was used to generate 3D structures of phytochemicals in TIPdb. The 3D structures could facilitate the analysis of 3D quantitative structure–activity relationship, the exploration of chemical space and the identification of potential pharmacologically active compounds using protein–ligand docking.

Indigenous Knowledge : The East Africa-South Asia Learning Exchange - An Example of South-South Cooperation

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Inspired by the success of the pilot study tour, the Africa Region embarked on an initiative to build cross-regional partnership between East Africa and South Asia seeking to integrate indigenous knowledge and practices into Bank supported operations. The aim was to leverage the experience of IK good practices from South Asia into Bank supported projects in East Africa. This would also help foster new partnerships for South-South dialogue, cooperation and technical assistance. The focus was on indigenous knowledge as it is a key element of the social capital of the poor, assisting them in their struggle to improve their livelihoods. For example, farmers have used organic fertilizers to increase soil fertility in parts of Asia and Africa for centuries; similarly, local healers have used medicinal plants in India and Tanzania to treat common human, and animal diseases. Many local organizations, institutions, and communities have a wealth of knowledge of IK practices. However, these practices are not disseminated effectively because community-based organizations lack the capacity to capture...

Indigenous Knowledge and HIV/AIDS : Ghana and Zambia

Naur, Maja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
The note reviews the cultural role of traditional healers in communities in Ghana, and Zambia, as one of the best hopes for treating, and stemming the spread of AIDS. However, healers rely on medicinal plants which have significantly decreased, as their habitats are lost through deforestation, cultivation, overgrazing, burning droughts, and desertification among others. This has been exacerbated by poor management of local, and international demand for medicinal plants, and by the identification by traditional healers, of the loss of indigenous knowledge regarding traditional medicine, which is part of the cultural heritage of local communities, usually transmitted orally. Based on the importance to preserve this ethno-medical knowledge, with the support of the World Bank, the governments of these two countries aim at establishing a bridge between environment, and health in fighting HIV/AIDS, through the Environmental Support Program in Zambia, and the Northern Savanna Biodiversity Conservation Project in Ghana. The note describes the AIDS components...

Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights

Prakash, Siddhartha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
The note emphasizes the critical importance of documenting indigenous knowledge in writing, which can then be used to challenge a patent claim on knowledge that is already in the public domain. It also highlights the usefulness of other forms of intellectual property rights, other than patents, such as geographical indicators. These may be of more use to indigenous communities seeking to regulate access over their resources, as they can be applied to knowledge that evolves over time, and with the input of the local community at large. This leads us to the possibility of widening the Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), to ensure that patents disclose the origin of genetic resources, and use of indigenous knowledge, and, consider sui generis forms of intellectual property, such as community based rights, to secure equitable benefit sharing.

Health : Indigenous Knowledge, Equitable Benefits

Moran, Katy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
The note looks at the intellectual property rights connected with the use, and value of medicinal plants, which has become a metaphor to describe indigenous ownership of traditional knowledge, generating options for contractual mechanisms to ensure benefits return to source cultures, and countries. However, through time, the extinction rate of species, and cultures continues to accelerate, while human health further deteriorates from diseases for which no cure exists. The note seeks answers on how to apply lessons from the Convention on Biological Diversity, and how to move on to implementing such lessons. Through the case study in Nigeria, practical information shows how countries, companies, and cultures can cooperate. It explains the work of the Bio-Resources Development and Conservation Program, organized as a focal point for collaborative research, that builds technical skills in Nigeria, thus generating pharmaceutical leads that target therapeutic categories for tropical diseases. Within this setting...

Women and Indigenous Knowledge : A South-South Perspective; Femmes et savoirs locaux: une perspective Sud-Sud

Pidatala, Krishna; Rahman Khan, Aisha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
The gendered nature of Indigenous Knowledge - IK - is often overlooked, marginalized or neglected. While the differences may tend to be more subtle in industrial countries, the same cannot be said of developing countries. Information, especially IK-related information, tends to be viewed, perceived, and acted upon differently by the different genders. This note seeks to provide an understanding of the role of gender, and the way it impacts the intrinsic value of local knowledge systems, critical to the understanding, interpretation, and dissemination of indigenous knowledge. As a result of this gender differentiation and specialization, the IK and skills held by women, often differ from those held by men, affecting patterns of access, use, and control, thus resulting in different perceptions and priorities for the innovation and use of IK. It also impacts the way in which IK is disseminated, documented, and passed on to future generations. In attempting to achieve cross-regional exchange of women's IK...

Indigenous Knowledge for Development; Indigenous knowledge for Development: Les Savoirs locaux au servce du developpement

Mohan, P.C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
The Indigenous Knowledge for Development Program, started in 1998, was the Bank's response to clients, and civil society who called for a more systematic integration of the indigenous knowledge (IK) in the development process. The program developed partnerships, and collaborative links with mostly nongovernmental organizations-operated IK resource centers in Africa, and, its objectives include raising awareness about the potential use of IK in development, disseminating pertinent information, and integrating IK into Bank projects, and capacity building of local institutions. The note reviews the impact on the ground of Bank projects, of research cooperation between NGOs, and/or other institutions on medicinal plants, of sharing environmental management programs, and of information exchange and dissemination. Lessons address the need to recognize IK existing trends, and institutionalize selectively, while seeking partnerships to foster the process with a national, local, and institutional official support. Moreover...

The use of medicinal plants by an indigenous Pataxó community in NE Brazil

Cunha,S.T. Lima; Rodrigues,E.D.; Alves,C.; Merrigan,T.L.; Melo,T.; Guedes,M.L.S.; Nascimento,A.F.; Toralles,M.B
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
We identified and classified 48 medicinal plants used by the Pataxó Indians in south Bahia, Brazil. The location is an ecologically threatened area designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The aim of this paper is to document phytotherapeutic practices in the indigenous community of Mata Medonha. We conducted interviews with the 25 families present at the area. Of the 48 medicinal species identified, only 14 (29%) had been examined for mechanism of action or isolation of biochemical compounds, according to bibliographic research. The plants were deposited at the Alexandre Leal Costa Herbarium of the Federal University of Bahia. We gathered information about the preparation and uses of the plants. The species are used for a variety of maladies, including flu, congestion, bronchitis and headaches, pain, snake bites, and some were only used for women's disorders. The Pataxó ethnopharmacological knowledge is under pressure from the economic outmigration of the community and threats to the biodiversity from logging, mining, and tourism. The plants studied here include important drug candidates. Additional research on the molecular aspects of the species cited should be performed.

Exotic woody invader limits the recruitment of three indigenous plant species

Ens, Emilie-Jane; French, Kris
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
The demographic response of indigenous plants to the invasion of exotic woody plants has rarely been quantified, however, could be beneficial to restoration efforts. We determined which life history stages of three indigenous plants: Correa alba var. alba

A Study of Religion, Culture, and Medicinal Plants of Three South American Indigenous Groups

Childs, Daniel
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Peter G. Roe; This project is focused around an inventory of medicinal plants which I compiled after conducting ethnobotanical fieldwork with three South American indigenous populations. These groups were the Shipibo Indians, of the Peruvian monta??a, the Atacame??o Indians, native to the Chilean Atacama Desert, and the Mapuche Indians, inhabitants of the temperate valleys of southern Chile. This information is critical during a time when both the habitats and cultures of indigenous peoples are disappearing at an alarming rate. While the efficacy of indigenous medicinal plant use has just recently begun to receive recognition by the Western scientific community, these individuals have known the therapeutic worth of the phytochemicals for millennia. In order to depict this information that I collected as knowledge passed down from for thousands of years, I have decided to mainly focus on the traditional histories of these groups, supplementing information from modern times by drawing on what I saw during my time conducting research with them. In order to do this, I describe the natural origins of these biomes, and how the indigenous peoples existed in the biomes in both in pre- and post-Columbian times. Furthermore, traditional religious practices also necessitate discussion when talking about tribal use of medicinal plants. Therefore...

Padrões de raridade das plantas vasculares indígenas dos Açores : implicações para a conservação e gestão

Goulart, Marisa Nascimento Santos
Fonte: Universidade dos Açores Publicador: Universidade dos Açores
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 02/10/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Dissertação de Mestrado, Engenharia do Ambiente, 2 de Outubro de 2015, Universidade dos Açores.; [...]. O objetivo geral deste trabalho consiste em definir o tipo de raridade das 160 plantas indígenas dos Açores de acordo com a amplitude da sua distribuição geográfica (abrangente ou restrita), abundância da espécie (abundante ou esparsa) e especificidade do habitat (generalista ou especialista), seguindo a metodologia proposta por Deborah Rabinowitz em 1981, que resulta na obtenção de oito categorias, sete das quais raras. Os dados utilizados para responder ao objetivo foram obtidos nos trabalhos clássicos de Lüpnitz (1976), Dias (1996), Elias (2001), Schäfer (2002) e Elias (2007) e ainda em dados não publicados obtidos por Rui B. Elias em 2013, que contêm simultaneamente informação de distribuição, abundância e ecologia; foram excluídos outros trabalhos publicados acerca da flora dos Açores por não cumprirem estes requisitos. [...].; ABSTRACT: [...]. The overall objetive of the work is to define patterns of rarity of 160 Azorean indigenous plants according to their geographical range, abundance and habitat specificity, following the methodology proposed by Rabinowitz in 1981, resulting in obtaining eight categories...

O desenvolvimento participativo da área de medicina tradicional indígena, Projeto Vigisus II/Funasa; The participant development in traditional indigenous medicine area, Project Vigisus II/Funasa

Ferreira, Luciane Ouriques
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/05/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
O artigo trata sobre o desenvolvimento participativo das ações da Área de Medicina Tradicional Indígena (AMT) do Projeto Vigisus II/FUNASA. A Área tem como objetivo a construção de estratégias para a articulação entre os sistemas médicos indígenas e o sistema oficial de saúde, conforme preconizado pela Política Nacional de Atenção a Saúde dos Povos Indígenas. As principais atividades executadas foram os projetos participativos de pesquisa-ação que podem ser classificados em três eixos transversais: sistemas tradicionais de parto indígenas; plantas medicinais; xamanismo e intermedicalidade. Os resultados qualitativos alcançados pelo eixo sistemas de parto indígenas são aqui apresentados de modo a demonstrar o quanto a articulação dos serviços de saúde com as medicinas tradicionais indígenas é condição fundamental para a efetivação do princípio da integralidade em um modelo diferenciado de atenção à saúde indígena.; The article presents the participative planning of health care actions in the Indigenous Traditional Medicine Department, of Project Vigisus II/Funasa (National Foundation for Health). This department's function is to build strategies for the articulation between the indigenous medicine systems and the official health care system...

Plants, people and health: Three disciplines at work in Namaqualand

Green,Lesley; Gammon,David W.; Hoffman,Michael T.; Cohen,Joshua; Hilgart,Amelia; Morrell,Robert G.; Verran,Helen; Wheat,Nicola
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
In Paulshoek, Namaqualand, three research projects focusing on medicinal plants were developed concurrently. The projects were based in the disciplines of anthropology, botany and chemistry. In this paper, we explore how these projects related to one another and describe the conversations that occurred in the process of searching for transdisciplinary knowledge. The projects ostensibly shared a common object of knowledge, but it was through working together that the medicinal plants constituted us as a community of scholars. As our insight into our respective disciplinary relationships with the plants grew, so did our understanding of the limitations of our respective disciplinary positions. The process made possible a 'reimagination' of both the object of study and our relationships to it and to one another. The research project, conceptualised in 2009, engaged current debates on indigenous knowledge and its historical erasures, and offered an approach that has potential to produce new knowledges while respecting the integrity of the disciplines. This approach requires a non-competitive attitude to research and one that acknowledges the contributions that can be made by multiple approaches.