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Integralidade e indígenas urbanos: análise dos relatos de profissionais e usuários de uma unidade básica de saúde no município de São Paulo; Comprehensiveness and the indigenous urban population: analysis of reports by professionals and users of a basic health unit in the city of Sao Paulo

Fidelis, Juliana Gonçalves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/05/2014 PT
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Analisamos a possibilidade de oferta de ações integrais em saúde em um serviço de Atenção Primária na região oeste do município de São Paulo. Esse serviço atende à uma comunidade indígena da etnia Pankararu, residente na favela Real Parque no bairro do Morumbi, através de uma equipe específica da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). Verificamos em que medida o exame de relatos de profissionais e usuários indígenas deste serviço básico de saúde poderia identificar a atenção integral às necessidades de uma comunidade específica. Utilizamos a metodologia qualitativa e examinamos 05 entrevistas realizadas a sujeitos chave, contendo profissionais e usuários indígenas, liderança indígena e profissionais não indígenas. Estas entrevistas foram realizadas por pesquisadores da pesquisa "Caminhos da Integralidade" e sua utilização foi autorizada para nosso estudo. Na análise e interpretação dos dados utilizamos a análise de conteúdo segundo BARDIN. Classificamos o material em quatro categorias pré-definidas segundo os sentidos atribuídos à noção de Integralidade: 1) como boa Medicina, 2) como modo de organizar as práticas de saúde, 3) como demandas específicas e 4) como construção de projetos de felicidade. Identificamos nos relatos expressões favoráveis e desfavoráveis para uma atenção integral à saúde em cada categoria. Destacamos como variáveis favoráveis: o acesso "diferenciado" dos indígenas aos serviços de saúde; a importância da formação profissional e o interesse individual de aproximação com a cultura indígena; e a possibilidade de articulação entre serviços de atendimento ao indígena nos diferentes níveis de atenção. Como variáveis desfavoráveis: a equipe de saúde indígena tomada como "privilégio"; a falta de abertura para expressões culturais no encontro entre profissional e usuário indígena e na relação entre profissionais indígenas e não indígenas; a falta de conhecimento sobre a etnia assistida; dificuldades entre as especificidades da equipe indígena e os protocolos seguidos pela equipe Estratégia Saúde da Família. Constatamos um paradoxo essencial em nossa pesquisa: a presença da equipe de saúde indígena facilitou o acesso dos Pankararu às ações de saúde...

‘You got any Truck?’ Vehicles and decentralised mobile service-provision in remote Indigenous Australia

Fogarty, William
Fonte: Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR) Publicador: Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR)
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 17 pages
EN_AU
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Service provision in remote Indigenous Australia is highly dependent on vehicle availability and profoundly affected by usage constraints. This paper seeks to explore elements of conflict and points of alignment in the intercultural exchange between service providers and those Indigenous people dependent on vehicles for service provision. Drawing on the example of education provision to remote homelands in the Arnhem Land area of the Northern Territory, as well as existing literature of ownership and exchange in Indigenous Australia, the paper outlines a re-alignment of service provision using a decentralised, mobile model of delivery. Based on these case studies, the paper proposes a rethinking of the importance of transport in program implementation and the resulting outcomes, and the relationship between this and Indigenous lifestyle and cultural imperatives. This paper is based on extensive experience in Indigenous education and policy, the bulk of this living and working with the Kuninjku, Djinang, Burarra, Kune and Rembarrnga peoples in the homelands surrounding Maningrida in Arnhem Land.

Governance for sustainable development: strategic issues and principles for Indigenous Australian communities

Dodson, Mick; Smith, Diane E.
Fonte: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); www.anu.edu.au/caepr/ Publicador: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); www.anu.edu.au/caepr/
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 35 pages
EN_AU
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This Discussion Paper examines the concepts of ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘sustainable development’ in the context of Australian Indigenous communities and regions. It explores the hypothesis that there is vital link between governance and sustainable development. The first half of the paper defines the key concepts and reviews the existing barriers facing Indigenous communities and their organisations in securing sustainable socioeconomic development. It identifies the key ingredients of successful development and then those over which Indigenous Australians actually have some local control. On the premise that it is best to make a start in areas where local control can be exercised, building ‘good governance’ is identified as the key ingredient—the foundation stone—for building sustainable development in communities and regions. The second half of the paper then proposes a set of key ingredients and core principles which Indigenous communities might use to build more effective governance. These draw on the professional and field experience of the authors and other Australian research, the international findings of the Harvard Project in the USA, and the Gitxsan leader Neil Sterritt’s applied research on governance with Canadian First Nations.

Estimating the components of indigenous population change, 1996–2001

Kinfu, Yohannes; Taylor, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 279844 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Every five years, the national Census of Population and Housing provides a window on the demographic, social and economic characteristics of Australia’s Indigenous population. Of particular interest to demographers is the opportunity that this provides to benchmark intercensal population estimates and to estimate the components of intercensal population change. In line with each census count of Indigenous Australians since 1971, when a question on self-identified Indigenous origins was introduced, the 2001 count produced an intercensal change in numbers that cannot be explained by demographic processes alone. Unpredictability thus remains a hallmark of Indigenous population growth. In accounting for the unexplained component of population growth we refer to changes in census coverage rather than specifically to changes in propensity to identify. The former may include the latter, although to what extent is unknown. In truth, we still cannot determine the factors that contribute to non-demographic population growth, although it is possible to speculate. There is evidence of a highly systematic movement of people into the census-identified Indigenous population in 1996, and out of the population in 2001. This is suggestive of procedural or processing change...

Practical reconciliation and recent trends in Indigenous education

Hunter, Boyd; Schwab, Robert G.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 381816 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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The release of 2001 Census data provides an opportunity to evaluate the Howard government’s performance in Indigenous affairs in broad terms. One major policy shift has been the call for a more ‘practical’ reconciliation that attempts to address the immediate needs of Indigenous people in areas such as employment, health, housing and education. If practical reconciliation were a reality, then one would expect there to be some evidence of a convergence in the last two censuses in the economic and educational status of Indigenous and other Australians. Furthermore, enhancing Indigenous education is important in ensuring that Indigenous engagement with the mainstream economy is sustainable, especially in view of the skill bias evident in recent economic growth. This paper analyses recent trends in the engagement of Indigenous people with the Australian education system between 1986 and 2001. A cohort analysis of changes in educational participation is presented, along with an analysis of the differences between the level and type of educational qualifications of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians over the last four censuses. The main finding is that while there have been some absolute improvements in Indigenous educational outcomes over the period 1986 to 2001...

Indigenous education: experiential learning and learning through country

Fogarty, William; Schwab, Robert G.
Fonte: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/ Publicador: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 24 pages
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In Indigenous policy circles there is an increasingly desperate desire to lift the educational and employment outcomes of remote Indigenous students, relative to their non-Indigenous peers in the rest of Australia. A lack of engagement with education and a scarcity of jobs underpin this policy anxiety. This paper queries some current policy approaches to these issues and seeks to provide a practical and grounded perspective to education programs in remote Indigenous Australia. We question and challenge the weight current policy agendas are ascribing to literacy and numeracy attainment through direct and classroom based instruction. Alternatively, we seek to reinvigorate the notion that quality education can comprise other modes of learning and include community based educational approaches. As an example we outline the importance of Indigenous land and sea management (ILSM) as a development and employment activity for Indigenous people living in remote regions of Australia, and show how remote education programs are connecting to ILSM to provide local ‘Learning through Country’ solutions. From research conducted in a diversity of remote Aboriginal education and employment contexts, we find that there is a commonality of issues confronting attempts to link education with work and development activity. We finish by giving voice to some of these issues and offer insights relevant for educators and policy makers.

Indigenous language education in remote communities

Fogarty, William; Kral, Inge
Fonte: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/ Publicador: ANU, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research (CAEPR); http://caepr.anu.edu.au/
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 12 pages
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This Topical Issue is based upon a submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry into language learning in Indigenous communities, and has a specific focus on lessons the authors have learnt from working with Indigenous peoples in remote regions as both educators and researchers. The focus is on the role of Indigenous languages in emergent development activity in remote Australia and the out-of-school language and literacy needs of Indigenous adolescents and young adults, with a focus on the digital economy.; "A version of this Topical Issue was provided as a submission to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry into language learning in Indigenous communities ... Submissions to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Inquiry into language learning in Indigenous communities can be viewed at

Report on indigenous fishing rights in the seas with case studies from Australia and Norway

Smith, Carsten; Dodson, Mick
Fonte: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Economic and Social Council, United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues; http://social.un.org/index/IndigenousPeoples.aspx Publicador: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Economic and Social Council, United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues; http://social.un.org/index/IndigenousPeoples.aspx
Tipo: Conference paper; Published Version Formato: 20 pages
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At its eighth session, in May 2009, the Permanent Forum appointed Carsten Smith and Michael Dodson, members of the Permanent Forum, as special rapporteurs to prepare a study on indigenous fishing rights in the seas, and requested that the report be submitted to the Permanent Forum at its ninth session, in April 2010. The study includes an analysis of the potential protection of indigenous fishing rights in the seas provided by the existing international framework, including the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Labour Organization Convention No. 169 and Apirana Mahuika et al. versus New Zealand. Case studies from Australia and Norway, with reference to conventions and States in those two respective regions (vis. Papua New Guinea in relation to the Torres Strait Treaty; Sweden and Finland in relation to the Nordic Saami Convention), are presented to enable comparison between these States and with international law.; "Special Rapporteur Michael Dodson would like to acknowledge that the parts of the paper relating to Australia were prepared with the invaluable assistance of Jo-Anne Weinman, Research Associate of the National Centre for Indigenous Studies at the Australian National University." - page 1

Breaking the deadlock: developing an Indigenous response to protecting Indigenous traditional knowledge

Dodson, Mick; Barr, Olivia
Fonte: UNSW Indigenous Law Centre Publicador: UNSW Indigenous Law Centre
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Since the epic journey in 1923 of Haudenosaunee Chief Deskaheh to Geneva to speak to the League of Nations on behalf of the Six Nations of the Iroquois, Indigenous peoples have looked to the international arena as a place to seek protection of their rights and their way of life and as a place for Indigenous voices to be heard. Chief Deskaheh was denied an audience with the League, as were other Indigenous leaders who sought its assistance. Despite this ignominious beginning the international community is now heavily engaged in protecting Indigenous rights and raising awareness of Indigenous issues.

Obesity and overweight in Indigenous Australia

Reid, Frances
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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36.99%
Directly caused by long-term imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure, obesity and overweight are conditions of excess body fat bringing with them a range of adverse health effects. What is less well understood is their intimate connection with the action of the hormone insulin in the body, a hormone which promotes the use of ingested glucose as a primary fuel source and blocks the metabolism of stored fat. In a large number of people, genetic pre-disposition and/ or the presence of overweight leads to insulin resistance, where higher levels of the hormone are required for the same blood glucose regulating effect - a state that is highly conducive to weight gain. Indigenous populations, among them Indigenous Australian people, have a greater incidence of insulin resistance, and exposed to some elements typical of Western lifestyle, are at greater risk of developing overweight and obesity. Generally, overweight and obesity are defined in relation to the body mass index, or BMI. The BMI is a weight-for-height ratio with categories based on increasing health risk. Its universal suitability, particularly as regards muscular individuals and different ethnic groups, is contested. Generally, Aboriginal people will have a higher proportion of body fat...

Indigenous children and receipt of hospital dental care in Australia

Jamieson, L.; Roberts-Thomson, K.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate dental procedures received under hospital general anaesthetic by indigenous and non-indigenous Australian children in 2002–2003. Methods. Separation data from 1297 public and private hospitals were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Hospital Morbidity Database for 2002–2003. The dependant variable was the admission rate of children receiving four categories of dental care (i.e. extraction, pulpal, restoration or other). The explanatory variables included sex, age group, indigenous status and location (i.e. major city, regional or remote). Rates were calculated using estimated resident population counts. Results. The sample included 24 874 children aged from 2 to 14 years. Some 4·3% were indigenous (n = 1062). Admission rates for indigenous and non-indigenous children were similar, with indigenous males having 1·2 times the admission rate of indigenous females (P < 0·05). Indigenous children aged < 5 years had 1·4 times the admission rate of similarly aged non-indigenous children (P < 0·001) and 5·0 times the admission rate of 10–14-year-old indigenous children (P < 0·001). Remote-living indigenous children had 1·5 times the admission rate of their counterparts in major cities or regional areas (P < 0·001)...

The role of location in indigenous and non-indigenous child oral health

Jamieson, L.; Armfield, J.; Roberts-Thomson, K.
Fonte: AAPHD National Office Publicador: AAPHD National Office
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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Objective: To examine the role of location in Indigenous and non-Indigenous child oral health in three Australian states and territories. The Association of Indigenous status and residential location with caries prevalence, severity and unmet treatment need was examined. Methods: Data were collected as part of a national monitoring suivey of 4–14-year-old children enrolled in school dental services in New South Wales, South Australia and the Northern Territory, Australia. Results: Of the 326,099 children examined, 10,473 (3.2%) were Indigenous. Fewer 4–10-year-old rural Indigenous children were caries-free in the deciduous dentition than their non-Indigenous counterparts and rural Indigenous children had almost twice the mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) of rural non-Indigenous children. The % d/dmft was higher among rural Indigenous children than rural non-Indigenous children. Fewer 6–14-year-old rural Indigenous children were caries-free in the permanent dentition than their non-Indigenous counterparts and rural Indigenous children had almost twice the mean DMFT of rural non-Indigenous children. The % D/DMFT was higher in rural Indigenous than rural non-Indigenous children. Living in a rural location was the strongest indicator of canes prevalence...

Dental caries trends among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian children

Jamieson, L.; Armfield, J.; Roberts-Thomson, K.
Fonte: F D I World Dental Press Ltd Publicador: F D I World Dental Press Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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Objective To examine trends in dental caries among indigenous and non-indigenous children in an Australian territory. Basic Research Design Routinely-collected data from a random selection of 6- and 12-year-old indigenous and non-indigenous children enrolled in the Northern Territory School Dental Service from 1989–2000 were obtained. The association of indigenous status with caries prevalence (percent dmft or DMFT>0 and percent dmft>3 or DMFT>1), caries severity (mean dmft or DMFT) and treatment need (percent d/dmft or D/DMFT) was examined. Results Results were obtained for 10,687 6- and 12-year old indigenous children and 21,777 6- and 12year-old non-indigenous children from 1989–2000. Across all years, indigenous 6-year-olds had higher caries prevalence in the deciduous dentition, greater mean dmft and percent d/dmft, and indigenous 12-year-olds had greater percent D/DMFT than their non-indigenous counterparts (p<0.05). From 1996–2000 the mean dmft and percent d/dmft for indigenous 6-year-olds and mean DMFT and percent D/DMFT for indigenous 12-year-olds increased, yet remained relatively constant for their non-indigenous counterparts (p<0.05). From 1997–2000, the percent dmft>3 for 6-year-old indigenous children was more than double that of non-indigenous children...

Having a yarn: The importance of appropriate engagement and participation in the development of Indigenous driven environmental policy, Queensland, Australia

Nursey-Bray, M.; Wallis, A.; Rist, P.
Fonte: Indigenous Policy Network Publicador: Indigenous Policy Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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Across Australia, Indigenous peoples have responsibility for managing country4. Increasingly, policy partnerships between management agencies, mining companies, conservation groups and the pastoral industry are being brokered with traditional owners of land and sea. The successful outcome of these policies necessitates the implementation of participative and culturally appropriate and professional processes of engagement with Indigenous communities. This includes addressing local modes of governance and community relations. This paper compares two Indigenous resource management initiatives with a view to promoting an understanding of the concept of engagement and participative practices in Indigenous communities. It argues that engagement processes in policy need to go beyond ‘having a yarn’ and address deeper issues of social justice and equity in order to achieve conservation outcomes. It concludes with a framework for policy engagement based on the principles of social justice and biodiversity protection.; Melissa Nursey-Bray, Arnold Wallis, Phillip Rist

Principals, parents & partnerships: an investigation into non-enrolment and absenteeism among Indigenous school students in OLD, WA & the NT

Simpson, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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It is now recognised by politicians, experts and Indigenous people throughout Australia that a large gap exists between the educational achievements of Indigenous students compared to non-Indigenous students. There are many 'key performance indicators' that illustrate this: ability to read, count and write; transition from primary to secondary school; retention rates to year twelve; matriculation from school to vocational and tertiary study; and most importantly, school attendance. The Indigenous school attendance percentages in 2006 varied considerably between Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, yet they can be grouped in a range of 71-86 per cent. Non-Indigenous students who are enrolled attend school approximately 95 per cent of the time. This indicates at best a 9 per cent gap, and at worst a 24 percentage point gap. These figures also roughly correlate to the percentage of Indigenous children not enrolled at school, compared to those non Indigenous children who are. The Commonwealth Government wants to close the 'education gap' and has allocated $2.1 billion over four years (2005-2008) to Indigenous education. Much of this comes in the form of Supplementary Recurrent Assistance (SRA) which...

Indigenous housing: a fair approach to basic needs. Response to 'Living in the Sunburnt Country- Indigenous housing: findings of the review of the community housing and infrastructure programme

Upward, Reka
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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36.97%
Indigenous people in Australian typically endure markedly lower standards of housing than non-indigenous Australians. This is reflected in high rates of homelessness, overcrowding, and affordability stress which disproportionately affect Indigenous people living in urban, regional and remote areas. The delivery of what are commonly considered 'essential services', such as water, electricity, sewerage, and medical care, is impeded by economic and logistical barriers particular to remote Indigenous communities. Adequate housing is strongly linked to better outcomes in health, education, and community safety, making it fundamental to strategies aimed at improving the wellbeing of Indigenous people. Questions of appropriateness, effectiveness, and accountability in Indigenous housing are therefore significant public policy concerns. However, a number of persistent conditions affecting both policy and debate in Indigenous affairs have hindered the achievement of improved housing outcomes over recent years. These include inadequate Commonwealth and State funding for the management, construction, and maintenance of housing stock, and a failure to address the large backlog of housing need. Furthermore, mainstream debate has consistently failed to engage Indigenous people in decisions affecting housing and development. The absence of a national representative body for Indigenous people...

Indigenous land in Australia: a quantitative assessment of Indigenous landholdings in 2000

Pollack, David P
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 406064 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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This paper estimates the area of land held by Indigenous people in Australia in 2000. It details the legislation and programs that have lead to the accrual of land for Indigenous people in Australia since the concept of Indigenous ownership of land under Australian law, rather than the allocation of reserve lands, was first addressed in the mid 1960s. It is based on a literature review and data provided by a variety of government agencies and Indigenous organisations around Australia. Using this information, the paper estimates that Indigenous Australians either own, control or have management arrangements over land in the range of 16 to 18 per cent of the Australian continent. The lower range is based on reliable data whereas the higher range is speculative due to the fact that the aggregated area of many small landholdings has never been quantified.

As the paper demonstrates, the types of tenures held by Indigenous Australians differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and within jurisdictions. This is a result not only of the federal system of government in Australia, where land management and administration is the role of the State or Territory governments, but also a product of different priorities and objectives set by Federal...

Indigenous governance: will 'mainstraming' work?

Colson, Kamara
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The history of Indigenous struggles is a conflicted one that has carried on into the 21st century. Governments have implemented and adapted plan after plan in accordance with their beliefs on how Indigenous affairs should be managed. The goal for Indigenous Australians in 1938 was to obtain equal rights and opportunities. The journey has been a long one and still this milestone has not been achieved. However, these goals have been evolving to include being recognized as the First Australians and the entitlements that entails. Having land given back to Indigenous people was one of the original goals that remains to be a critical issue even in debates today. A Northern Territory strike at Wave Hill Station in 1966 shows the first actions toward regaining land rights, "The strike soon becomes a demand for land rights, when the strikers set up camp on their traditional land and seek the transfer of part of the pastoral lease."1 In the early 1900s, what is now referred to as the 'lost generation,' was caused by the government assimilating Indigenous Australians into mainstream Australian culture. It was a 'government manage all ' approach. To help facilitate this movement, children from mixed decent were taken from their families...

More than a job discourses and employment practices for Indigenous Australians in the Australian Public Service

Barton, James A.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The Australian Public Service and the Modern Discourse. Since the development of Western government in Australia, policymakers have struggled with how to interact with Indigenous Australians. The first discourses that framed policy concerned separation, and later segregation, between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Over time, these discourses have evolved into the modern discourse of equality, where Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians are to be considered equal members of a greater Australian society. Since the development of the modern discourse in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the employment of Indigenous Australians in the Australian Public Service (APS) has been an important part of federal policy. As the public employer of the Commonwealth, the APS represents to many people the country's commitment to achieving its goals for Indigenous Australians. Diversity, employment, and service delivery are all key goals, and each is greatly influenced by the modern discourse. Challenges to Realizing the Goals of the Modern Discourse. One of the most pressing challenges to the Commonwealth's goals is historical employment disadvantage among Indigenous Australians. Indigenous unemployment is at least around 40 percent (SCRGSP 2005...

Indigenous representation in Australia

Dollmann, Katharina
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The Whitlam government of the 1970s introduced the principle of self-determination to Indigenous affairs. Since then it has been accepted as an important factor in attaining equality for Indigenous Australians. Self-determination can be broadly understood to mean the transference of political and economic power to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In is understood in terms of Aboriginal people having control over the ultimate decision about a wide range of matters including political status, and economic, social and cultural development and having the resources and capacity to control the future of their own communities within the legal structure common to all Australians. Political representation is a vital aspect of Indigenous self-determination as it is the forum in which Indigenous people can express their views and opinions as well as influence policies concerning their lives and communities and interact with the government in order to achieve the best possible results for all involved. It can be argued that the present government's policies in the area of Indigenous affairs have marked a significant shift away from the policy of self-determination as evident in the dismantlement of representative structures such as ATSIC. The policies of self-determination and self-management led to what Will Sanders describes as two experiments in the creation of government-sponsored Aboriginal representative structures - the National Aboriginal Consultative Committee (NACC)...