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## New challenges for e-learning post-graduation in exact and technological sciences

Caeiro, Sandra; Costa, Fernando Pestana da; Moura, Ana Pinto; Martinho, Ana Paula; Nicolau, Paula Bacelar; Ramos, Maria do Rosário; Araújo, João; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; Rocio, Vitor
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Learning and teaching in an on-line environment are, in many ways, much like teaching and learning in any other formal education context. However, the pervasive effect of the on-line medium creates a unique environment for teaching and learning (Anderson, 2004). This century will see the emergence of a post-modern era of distance education characterized by increased diversity and choice (Garrison, 2000). Such development is made possible by new communication technologies, as exemplified by the evolution of the open universities in their adoption of new models to replace/complement the traditional self-paced, independent learning model of the industrial era (Davis, 1999). The implementation of these new models to formal master courses in specific areas of life sciences, mathematics and technology is a new challenge, where face to face field and laboratory activities are often compulsory. This paper presents a preliminary reflection on the working experience of three masters courses taught at Portuguese distance learning university. In Portugal those courses are novel both in terms of the e- or b-learning regime, and in terms of curricular contents and professional competence outcomes.

## The challenge of implementing a student-centred learning approach in large engineering classes

Danko, Cristina Carvalho; Duarte, António A. L. Sampaio
Fonte: WSEAS Press Publicador: WSEAS Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
The renovation of teaching and learning methodologies, promoted by the onset of the Bologna Declaration, is leading to shifting perceptions of roles and responsibilities of both teachers and students. Particularly in large engineering classes, certain subjects benefit from more active approaches to learning, namely those associated with team work and tutorial practices, rather than traditional lecture/teacher-driven presentations. Project-led education (PLE) and Project/problem-based learning (PBL) are successful studentcentred teaching strategies by directing team work towards independent learning. These new approaches transfer the teacher’s role from a mere transmitter of knowledge to that of advisor and facilitator of the learning process, by providing guidance and suggestions designed to encourage students to find their own solutions for proposed problems. This paper describes a methodology for promoting and encouraging independent team work using tutorial techniques for the practical sessions of the Environmental Impact Assessment course (mandatory and elective) included in the Civil Engineering programme at the University of Minho. The authors were faced with a multifaceted problem: managing and motivating a large class of civil engineering students in a transdisciplinary and non-traditional civil engineering setting. So...

## Characterization of NMDAR-Independent Learning in the Hippocampus

Tayler, Kaycie Kuss; Lowry, Elizabeth; Tanaka, Kazumasa; Levy, Brynne; Reijmers, Leon; Mayford, Mark; Wiltgen, Brian J.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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It is currently thought that memory formation requires the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in the hippocampus. However, recent studies indicate that these receptors are not necessary for all forms of learning. The current experiments examine this issue using context fear conditioning in mice. First, we show that context fear can be acquired without NMDAR activation in previously trained animals. Mice trained in one environment (context A) are subsequently able to learn about a second environment (context B) in the presence of NMDAR antagonists. Second, we demonstrate that NMDAR-independent learning requires the hippocampus and is dependent on protein synthesis. However, unlike NMDAR-dependent learning, it is not contingent on the expression of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc). Lastly, we present data that suggests NMDAR-independent learning is only observed when recently stimulated neurons are reactivated during conditioning. These data suggest that context fear conditioning modifies synaptic plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus and allows subsequent learning to occur in the absence of NMDAR activation.

## What makes a good laboratory learning exercise? Student feedback from the ACELL project

Buntine, M.; Read, J.; Barrie, S.; Bucat, R.; Crisp, G.; George, A.; Jamie, I.; Kable, S.
Fonte: Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia; Australia Publicador: Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia; Australia
Tipo: Conference paper
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
Over the last seven years, a group of Australian universities have been collaboratively running a chemistry education project, now called ACELL (Advancing Chemistry by Enhanced Learning in the Laboratory). One of the key aims of ACELL is to facilitate the development and evaluation of educationally-sound chemistry laboratory exercises with the goal of improving the quality of students’ learning in the laboratory environment in Australia, New Zealand, and throughout the world. As part of this project, ACELL has developed an instrument for investigating students’ perceptions of their laboratory learning experiences. To date, ACELL had collected data on 22 experiments from 1042 students across 8 universities in Australia and New Zealand using this instrument, and this data collection is ongoing. As a consequence, ACELL is in an unusually good position to identify and discuss both procedural and cognitive factors that influence students’ evaluation of their laboratory learning experiences, such as assessment, the quality of notes, interest, and the inclusion of opportunities for independent learning. Our results are both surprising and encouraging, and indicate that students can be highly cognitively engaged, even with traditionally ‘boring’ content...

## The effectiveness of a clinically integrated e-learning course in evidence-based medicine: a cluster randomised controlled trial

Kulier, R.; Coppus, S.; Zamora, J.; Hadley, J.; Malick, S.; Das, K.; Weinbrenner, S.; Meyerrose, B.; Decsi, T.; Horvath, A.; Nagy, E.; Emparanza, J.; Arvanitis, T.; Burls, A.; Cabello, J.; Kaczor, M.; Zanrei, G.; Pierer, K.; Stawiarz, K.; Kunz, R.; et al.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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BACKGROUND: To evaluate the educational effects of a clinically integrated e-learning course for teaching basic evidence-based medicine (EBM) among postgraduates compared to a traditional lecture-based course of equivalent content. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial in the Netherlands and the UK involving postgraduate trainees in six obstetrics and gynaecology departments. Outcomes (knowledge gain and change in attitude towards EBM) were compared between the clinically integrated e-learning course (intervention) and the traditional lecture based course (control). We measured change from pre- to post-intervention scores using a validated questionnaire assessing knowledge (primary outcome) and attitudes (secondary outcome). RESULTS: There were six clusters involving teaching of 61 postgraduate trainees (28 in the intervention and 33 in the control group). The intervention group achieved slightly higher scores for knowledge gain compared to the control, but these results were not statistically significant (difference in knowledge gain: 3.5 points, 95% CI -2.7 to 9.8, p = 0.27). The attitudinal changes were similar for both groups. CONCLUSION: A clinically integrated e-learning course was at least as effective as a traditional lecture based course and was well accepted. Being less costly than traditional teaching and allowing for more independent learning through materials that can be easily updated...

## Autoaprendizaje en el EEES. Una experiencia en magisterio especialidad musical; Self-learning in the eshe. An experience in music teaching training

Esteve Faubel, José María; Molina Valero, Miguel Angel; Espinosa Zaragoza, Juan Antonio; Esteve Faubel, Rosa Pilar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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El presente trabajo es una investigación sobre la adecuación del material empleado en las actividades de autoaprendizaje y su valoración en la asunción de las competencias de la guía docente de Lenguaje Musical para el alumnado de la diplomatura de Magisterio Musical. Para ello, la información se ha obtenido mediante dos cuestionarios autoadministrados a los alumnos, uno cuantitativo y otro cualitativo. Los resultados afirman y muestran la influencia de la formación previa de los estudiantes en la culminación y nivel de progresión del trabajo autónomo, la necesidad de tutorización y el desarrollo de cuestiones prácticas. Por último, se plantea la insuficiencia de medios, tanto personales como materiales, para el desarrollo correcto de la nueva metodología basada en el EEES.; This paper is a research study on the suitability of the materials used in self-learning activities and their impact on the acquisition of competences according to the teaching programme of Music Theory in the context of university students studying Primary Education with Music as a major subject. For this purpose, qualitative and quantitative questionnaires were filled in by the students. The results show and demonstrate the influence of students´ previous knowledge of music in the achievement and level of progression of students’ independent work; also they underline the need for tutor-led sessions and for the development of practical issues. Finally...

## Learning and Results in World Bank Operations; Toward a New Learning Strategy, Evaluation 2

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report is the second in a program of evaluations that the independent evaluation group (IEG) is conducting on the learning that takes place through World Bank projects. Learning and knowledge are treated as parts of a whole and are presumed to be mutually reinforcing. The evaluation program addresses the following overarching questions: how well has the World Bank learned in its lending operations?; and what is the scope for improving how it generates, accesses, and uses learning and knowledge in these operations? Evaluation two includes findings from seven country case studies and interviews with Bank staff about their early experience of working within the Bank’s new global practices structure, which became operational on July 1, 2014. The aim is to assess the pre-FY2015 evidence in light of the new structure and roles, and to ask how long-term trends are likely to be modified as reforms evolve. Surveys and interviews reveal that, when it comes to managing projects, Bank staff rely first and foremost on a process of informal learning...

## Russian Federation : E-Learning Policy to Transform Russian Schools

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Russia is reforming its education system to meet the needs of the country's evolving economic structure with its changing focus on information and services. This is known as the information - or knowledge - economy. The reform effort is now being expanded to incorporate the support that technology can give to new systems of teaching and learning. Currently the Government of Russia is investing a significant part of its limited education budget into Information and Computer Technology (ICT) equipment for general schools and initial vocational education. The report intends to help to maximize the social and educational impact of these investments. This report focuses on the analysis needed to facilitate I C T integration at the level of general and Initial Vocational Education (IVE). Both the general and the vocational streams have fallen behind Higher Education (HE) in the introduction and integration of ICT. However, IVE has been particularly neglected, not only in respect of funding for hardware and software...

## From Schooling Access to Learning Outcomes, An Unfinished Agenda : An Evaluation of World Bank Support to Primary Education

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Education for All (EFA) movement, launched in 1990, has resulted in an extraordinary mobilization of World Bank and country resources in support of basic education over the past 15 years. World Bank EFA financing, mostly focused on primary education, has become increasingly progressive, targeting the most disadvantaged countries and often the disadvantaged within countries. Over the years of Bank support for EFA and its world conferences in 1990 and 2000, the Bank's policy objectives for increased support to primary education have been simple and remarkably stable: universal primary school completion, equality of access for girls and other disadvantaged groups, and improved student learning outcomes. This Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation assesses the extent to which these objectives have been met in countries supported by the Bank. and it provide lessons for countries in their development strategies and for the Bank in its support to those strategies.

## World Bank Group Support for Innovation and Entrepreneurship : An Independent Evaluation

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
World Bank Group management welcomes Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) review of innovation and entrepreneurship. The global financial crisis required developing economies to actively seek new sources of economic growth. Natural resource-intensive economies are pursuing new ways to diversify their productive capacity to build resilience to commodity cycles. Middle-income countries (MICs) are looking for ways to escape the middle-income trap. A number of developmental challenges, from climate adaptation to food security and health, require new, efficient technological solutions adapted to developing countries' needs. In such context, innovation and entrepreneurship are increasingly seen as essential ingredients for economic and social prosperity. The report notes there are limited mechanisms in place to share learning about innovation and entrepreneurship and few formal efforts to improve coordination. However, important initiatives are already under way to foster learning, cross fertilization, and codification of knowledge to support innovation policy. The innovation...

## Learning and Results in World Bank Operations : How the Bank Learns, Evaluation 1

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Knowledge, learning, and innovation are one of eight objectives that will be monitored in the Bank's new strategy. The independent evaluation group (IEG) is conducting a program of learning and results evaluations to promote a better understanding of how the World Bank acquires, captures, and transfers knowledge and learning in its lending operations, and what scope there is for improving. The objective of the program is to delineate attributes of effective learning in World Bank lending. These attributes refer to learning into lending (inputs into project design); learning while lending (feedback and modifications of design and implementation while the project is underway); and learning from lending (lessons from the project that were transmitted to other projects). The evaluation program will assess how the Bank can become better at generating, accessing, and using learning and knowledge in its lending operations. It acknowledges the importance of the feedback from knowledge to learning and from learning back to enhanced knowledge. The report is organized as follows: chapter one gives approach and context. Chapter two explores two essential aspects of learning - knowledge exploitation and knowledge exploration and the factors influencing them. Chapter three examines the contribution of mentoring. Chapter four addresses the extent to which incentives...

## La evaluación y el desarrollo de aprendizaje autónomo de los estudiantes del programa de administración de empresas de la UNAD Girardot

Arias Molina, Gilberto Orlando; Villanueva Aragón, Marco Antonio
Fonte: Ibagué: Universidad del Tolima, 2015.; 170 COL CO Publicador: Ibagué: Universidad del Tolima, 2015.; 170 COL CO
Tipo: Trabajo de grado - Maestría; Text; info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/updatedVersion Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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## Mean-Field Theory of Meta-Learning

Plewczynski, Dariusz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
We discuss here the mean-field theory for a cellular automata model of meta-learning. The meta-learning is the process of combining outcomes of individual learning procedures in order to determine the final decision with higher accuracy than any single learning method. Our method is constructed from an ensemble of interacting, learning agents, that acquire and process incoming information using various types, or different versions of machine learning algorithms. The abstract learning space, where all agents are located, is constructed here using a fully connected model that couples all agents with random strength values. The cellular automata network simulates the higher level integration of information acquired from the independent learning trials. The final classification of incoming input data is therefore defined as the stationary state of the meta-learning system using simple majority rule, yet the minority clusters that share opposite classification outcome can be observed in the system. Therefore, the probability of selecting proper class for a given input data, can be estimated even without the prior knowledge of its affiliation. The fuzzy logic can be easily introduced into the system, even if learning agents are build from simple binary classification machine learning algorithms by calculating the percentage of agreeing agents.; Comment: 23 pages

## Distribution-Independent Reliable Learning

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
We study several questions in the reliable agnostic learning framework of Kalai et al. (2009), which captures learning tasks in which one type of error is costlier than others. A positive reliable classifier is one that makes no false positive errors. The goal in the positive reliable agnostic framework is to output a hypothesis with the following properties: (i) its false positive error rate is at most $\epsilon$, (ii) its false negative error rate is at most $\epsilon$ more than that of the best positive reliable classifier from the class. A closely related notion is fully reliable agnostic learning, which considers partial classifiers that are allowed to predict "unknown" on some inputs. The best fully reliable partial classifier is one that makes no errors and minimizes the probability of predicting "unknown", and the goal in fully reliable learning is to output a hypothesis that is almost as good as the best fully reliable partial classifier from a class. For distribution-independent learning, the best known algorithms for PAC learning typically utilize polynomial threshold representations, while the state of the art agnostic learning algorithms use point-wise polynomial approximations. We show that one-sided polynomial approximations...

## Bounds on the Minimax Rate for Estimating a Prior over a VC Class from Independent Learning Tasks

Yang, Liu; Hanneke, Steve; Carbonell, Jaime
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
We study the optimal rates of convergence for estimating a prior distribution over a VC class from a sequence of independent data sets respectively labeled by independent target functions sampled from the prior. We specifically derive upper and lower bounds on the optimal rates under a smoothness condition on the correct prior, with the number of samples per data set equal the VC dimension. These results have implications for the improvements achievable via transfer learning. We additionally extend this setting to real-valued function, where we establish consistency of an estimator for the prior, and discuss an additional application to a preference elicitation problem in algorithmic economics.

## Exact solutions to the nonlinear dynamics of learning in deep linear neural networks

Saxe, Andrew M.; McClelland, James L.; Ganguli, Surya
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Despite the widespread practical success of deep learning methods, our theoretical understanding of the dynamics of learning in deep neural networks remains quite sparse. We attempt to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of deep learning by systematically analyzing learning dynamics for the restricted case of deep linear neural networks. Despite the linearity of their input-output map, such networks have nonlinear gradient descent dynamics on weights that change with the addition of each new hidden layer. We show that deep linear networks exhibit nonlinear learning phenomena similar to those seen in simulations of nonlinear networks, including long plateaus followed by rapid transitions to lower error solutions, and faster convergence from greedy unsupervised pretraining initial conditions than from random initial conditions. We provide an analytical description of these phenomena by finding new exact solutions to the nonlinear dynamics of deep learning. Our theoretical analysis also reveals the surprising finding that as the depth of a network approaches infinity, learning speed can nevertheless remain finite: for a special class of initial conditions on the weights, very deep networks incur only a finite, depth independent...

## From average case complexity to improper learning complexity

Daniely, Amit; Linial, Nati; Shalev-Shwartz, Shai
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
The basic problem in the PAC model of computational learning theory is to determine which hypothesis classes are efficiently learnable. There is presently a dearth of results showing hardness of learning problems. Moreover, the existing lower bounds fall short of the best known algorithms. The biggest challenge in proving complexity results is to establish hardness of {\em improper learning} (a.k.a. representation independent learning).The difficulty in proving lower bounds for improper learning is that the standard reductions from $\mathbf{NP}$-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only one known approach to proving lower bounds on improper learning. It was initiated in (Kearns and Valiant 89) and relies on cryptographic assumptions. We introduce a new technique for proving hardness of improper learning, based on reductions from problems that are hard on average. We put forward a (fairly strong) generalization of Feige's assumption (Feige 02) about the complexity of refuting random constraint satisfaction problems. Combining this assumption with our new technique yields far reaching implications. In particular, 1. Learning $\mathrm{DNF}$'s is hard. 2. Agnostically learning halfspaces with a constant approximation ratio is hard. 3. Learning an intersection of $\omega(1)$ halfspaces is hard.; Comment: 34 pages

## An analysis of the skills and functions of language learning advisers

Mozzon-McPherson, Marina
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article analyses how the increased importance of self-access centres and independent learning has given rise to a new profession: the language learning adviser. It does this by identifying and examining the distinctive features of advising in relation to teaching and learning, and by comparing the advising model - used at the University of Hull and adopted by other Higher Education institutions (Project SMILE)1 with the person-centred counselling model. These models utilise dialogue to encourage reflection on learning and understanding of self in relation to language, and to promote self-organised learning (Harri-Augstein &amp;amp; Thomas, 1991). We conclude by highlighting the need for further research and development to ensure the professionalisation of this role.

## Enhancing the student project team experience with blended learning techniques

Reichlmayr, Thomas
Tipo: Proceedings
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
Integrating student team projects into the engineering and computing curriculum presents a variety of challenges. At the Rochester Institute of Technology, the undergraduate introductory software engineering course has been redesigned from a traditional lecture-lab format to a project-centric studio format. The student team focus has allowed us to better incorporate active learning by promoting collaboration among students and instructors in the development of a term long software project. In order to make the studio format more effective we have adopted a blended learning approach. Blended learning aims to join the best of face-to-face classroom learning with the best of online teaching and learning to promote active independent learning and reduce class seat time. Student satisfaction in courses requiring a collaborative effort among their peers is heavily influenced by their project team experience. The use of blended learning techniques helps to make the experience a more satisfying one by increasing the effectiveness of collaboration in team activities and interaction with the instructor through the application of distance learning and social computing technologies. The challenges faced and the techniques and strategies utilized in the planning and delivery of the course will be discussed...

## As interfaces da EAD na educação brasileira;

Litto, Fredric M.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Superintendência de Comunicação Social Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Superintendência de Comunicação Social
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf