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Distribuição de renda e pobreza no estado de Minas Gerais.; Income distribution and poverty in the state of Minas Gerais.

Simão, Rosycler Cristina Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Minas Gerais é um dos estados que mais se destaca pelas disparidades regionais. Coexistem no estado regiões dinâmicas e modernas em contraste com regiões atrasadas e estagnadas. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi de analisar a distribuição de renda e pobreza em Minas Gerais, destacando as desigualdades regionais do estado, considerando a divisão do estado em 12 mesorregiões. Cada mesorregião apresenta um nível de desenvolvimento medido pelo Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (IDH-M). Para a análise foram usadas medidas de desigualdade, medidas de posição e modelos de regressão múltipla. A principal base de dados utilizada é o Censo Demográfico de 2000 do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Para o cumprimento dos objetivos, foram analisados dois tipos de distribuição: do rendimento domiciliar per capita e das pessoas ocupadas com rendimento. Verificou-se que a desigualdade da distribuição da renda domiciliar per capita tende a ser menor nas mesorregiões mais desenvolvidas do que nas mesorregiões menos desenvolvidas. O rendimento domiciliar per capita foi dividido em 7componentes: rendimento do trabalho principal; rendimento demais trabalhos; aposentadorias e pensões; aluguéis; pensão alimentícia...

A recente evolução da distribuição da renda na Região Norte do Brasil; The recent evolution of income distribution in Northern Brazil

Gabriel, Flávio Braga de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
Este trabalho tem como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento da distribuição da renda domiciliar per capita na Região Norte do Brasil de 2004 a 2012. Como objetivos complementares, buscou-se: expor o debate existente na literatura recente sobre distribuição de renda no Brasil; determinar as causas imediatas de eventuais diferenças da distribuição da RDPC da Região Norte com base no grau de progressividade das parcelas da renda; analisar o efeito-composição e o efeitoconcentração da variação do índice de Gini das parcelas da RDPC, de 2004 a 2012. Para atingir esses objetivos utilizou-se, como metodologia, o cálculo dos Índices de Gini, Mehran e Piesch e suas respectivas decomposições considerando parcelas da renda. Como base de dados, foram utilizados os microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) para o período analisado. Como resultados, os índices de desigualdade da RDPC da Região Norte apresentaram comportamento diferente aos do Brasil e aos da maioria das demais Regiões oficiais, sendo parecidos aos que a Região Centro-Oeste (em especial o DF) apresentou. O índice de Gini da RDPC dos Estados da Região Norte tiveram comportamento não homogêneo no período analisado. A parcela da RDPC formada pela renda de militar e funcionário público da Região Norte se destacou por ter o maior grau de progressividade negativo em comparação ao do Brasil e do Distrito Federal...

Distribuição de renda e crescimento econômico: uma análise à luz da financeirização brasileira; Income distribution and economic growth: an analysis based on Brazilian financialization

Silva, Vivian Garrido Moreira da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Este trabalho se compõe de duas principais frentes de investigação, abordadas por meio de duas vias metodológicas. São investigados os impactos das instituições, especialmente das instituições financeiras, sobre a distribuição de renda no Brasil e os impactos subsequentes da distribuição de renda sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro, ambos desde a abertura econômica e financeira dos anos 90, até os dias atuais. E são utilizadas como metodologias de abordagem, uma via histórico-institucional num primeiro momento e uma via analítico-teórica, num segundo momento. As principais categorias estudadas incluem os condicionantes históricos de uma estrutura distributiva desigual, a consolidação do setor financeiro no Brasil, as relações entre este último, o Estado e a sociedade, a hipótese de uma nova classe média e a proposta de um modelo que contempla parte desses aspectos, procurando contribuir para melhor lidar com eles. Conclui-se pela existência de uma desigualdade estrutural na distribuição de renda (apesar de recentemente atenuada), pela permanência cultural de um elemento de orientação pelo status e emulação de padrões de consumo, pelos riscos significativos de uma trajetória de endividamento dos trabalhadores e pelos privilégios assegurados ao setor financeiro através de sua adequação ao conceito sociológico de "campo". Finalmente...

Regional Income Distribution in Portugal

Guerreiro, Gertrudes
Fonte: ERSA 2012 Publicador: ERSA 2012
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
The structural evolution of the European economy has shown a real convergence between countries and divergence between regions (Mateus et al., 2000), so the economic and social cohesion, namely the approach of the various territories in terms of standard of living is assumed like a primary objective of economic policy. Concerns about inequality in income distribution have gained importance, encouraging the various studies that address specially inequality among individuals [see the studies of Rodrigues (1994, 1999 and 2008)]. Our research aims to address the problem of inequality in income distribution from a different perspective and we want to answer questions like if geography influences the pattern of inequality, or if the Portuguese’s standard of living depends on the place of residence, and finally, if the spatial units that make up the Portuguese territory have been converging in terms of income in the process of growth. The aim of this paper (which emerges from my PhD Thesis) is to study the regional income differences among the regions and municipalities of Portugal. Our individuals are the territorial units. We intend to evaluate convergence or divergence in income growth using a static analysis...

Income distribution and poverty in Portugal [1994/95] : A Comparison between the European Community Household Panel and the Household Budget Survey

Rodrigues, Carlos Farinha
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //1999 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The aim of this study is to give a broad picture of the income distribution and the level of inequality and poverty in Portugal as revealed by the two most recent family surveys produced by the Portuguese Statistical Office: the European Community Household Panel and the Household Budget Survey. The results obtained consistently point to a very unequal distribution of income, with high levels of inequality associated with high poverty rates. These main findings are not influenced by the choice of survey, revealing a high degree of consistency between the two sources.

The Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution : Macro-Micro Evaluation Techniques and Tools

Bourguignon, François; Bussolo, Maurizio; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
This book assembles methodologies and techniques to evaluate the poverty impact of macroeconomic policies. It takes as a departure point a companion volume, the impact of economic policies on poverty and income distribution: evaluation techniques and tools. This volume was primarily a review of microeconomic techniques aimed at assessing policies that are directly concerned with the welfare of poor households or individuals such as changing the level of cash transfers to the poorest households, increasing price subsidies for basic consumer goods, and the like. In addition, the second part of that earlier publication introduced basic techniques to deal with the poverty impact of macroeconomic policies that by definition are not targeted and affect the whole population. This volume presents a comprehensive array of macro-micro modeling frameworks. It begins by highlighting the limitation of macroeconomic models that use representative household groups to link macroeconomic policies and microeconomic data. It then moves to more complexes...

Big Bad Banks? The Impact of U.S. Branch Deregulation on Income Distribution

Beck, Thorsten; Levine, Ross; Levkov, Alexey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Policymakers and economists disagree about the impact of bank regulations on the distribution of income. Exploiting cross-state and cross-time variation, the authors test whether liberalizing restrictions on intra-state branching in the United States intensified, ameliorated, or had no effect on income distribution. The analysis finds that branch deregulation lowered income inequality by affecting labor market conditions, not by boosting the business income of the poor, nor by enhancing educational attainment. Reductions in the earnings gap between men and women and between skilled and unskilled workers account for the bulk of the explained drop in income inequality.

Impacts of Large-Scale Expansion of Biofuels on Global Poverty and Income Distribution

Cororaton, Caesar B.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This paper analyzes the impact of large-scale expansion of biofuels on the global income distribution and poverty. A global computable general equilibrium model is used to simulate the effects of the expansion of biofuels on resource allocation, commodity prices, factor prices and household income. A second model based on world-wide household surveys uses these results to calculate the impacts on poverty and global income inequality. The study finds that the large-scale expansion of biofuels leads to an increase in production and prices of agricultural commodities. The increased prices would cause higher food prices, especially in developing countries. Moreover, wages of unskilled rural labor would also increase, which slows down the rural to urban migration in many developing countries. The study also shows that the effects on poverty vary across regions; it increases in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas it decreases in Latin America. At the global level, the expansion of biofuels increases poverty slightly.

The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Poverty and Income Distribution : Insights from Simulations in Selected Countries

Habib, Bilal; Narayan, Ambar; Olivieri, Sergio; Sanchez, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
As the financial crisis has spread through the world, the lack of real-time data has made it difficult to track its impact in developing countries. The authors use a micro-simulation approach to assess the poverty and distributional effects of the crisis. In Bangladesh, Mexico, and the Philippines, the authors find increases in both the level and the depth of aggregate poverty. Income shocks are relatively large in the middle (and, in Mexico, the bottom) parts of the income distribution. The authors also find that characteristics of people who become poor because of the crisis are different from those of both chronically poor people and the general population. Findings will be useful for policy makers wishing to identify leading monitoring indicators to track the impact of macroeconomic shocks and to design policies that protect vulnerable groups.

Economic Growth, Income Distribution, and Poverty in Poland During Transition

Paci, Pierella; Sasin, Martin J.; Verbeek, Jos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The authors attempt to analyze the linkages between macroeconomic policies and economic growth variables, their movement over time, and their impact on poverty in the case of Poland. Poland, a middle-income country, is of particular interest because its data sources allow for a relatively detailed analysis of such developments, and the macroeconomic environment and the economic growth variables show a relatively sizable degree of variance. In addition, Poland has struggled in the past few years to reduce poverty while still experiencing positive economic growth. The authors show that in Poland, poverty-reducing growth depends heavily on the ability of the economy to generate jobs. During the early years of transition, net job growth was positive, while after the Russian crisis of 1998, productivity gains were accomplished mostly through labor shedding, henceforth, increasing poverty in Poland. In addition, the authors identify how fiscal and social protection policies affect income distribution and poverty in Poland.

Can We Discern the Effect of Globalization on Income Distribution? Evidence from Household Surveys

Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
New data derived directly from household surveys are used to examine the effects of globalization on income distribution in poor and rich countries. The article looks at the impact of openness and of direct foreign investment on relative income shares across the entire income distribution. It finds strong evidence that at low average income levels, the income share of the poor is smaller in countries that are more open to trade. As national income levels rise, the incomes of the poor and the middle class rise relative to the income of the rich. The article explains why using the trade to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio in purchasing power parity terms, as favored by some analysts, is inappropriate in studies of the effect of trade on income distribution.

Global Income Distribution : From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession

Lakner, Christoph; Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
The paper presents a newly compiled and improved database of national household surveys between 1988 and 2008. In 2008, the global Gini index is around 70.5 percent having declined by approximately 2 Gini points over this twenty year period. When it is adjusted for the likely under-reporting of top incomes in surveys by using the gap between national accounts consumption and survey means in combination with a Pareto-type imputation of the upper tail, the estimate is a much higher global Gini of almost 76 percent. With such an adjustment the downward trend in the Gini almost disappears. Tracking the evolution of individual country-deciles shows the underlying elements that drive the changes in the global distribution: China has graduated from the bottom ranks, modifying the overall shape of the global income distribution in the process and creating an important global "median" class that has transformed a twin-peaked 1988 global distribution into an almost single-peaked one now. The "winners" were country-deciles that in 1988 were around the median of the global income distribution...

The impact of trade liberalisation on income distribution in China

Yang, Yongzheng; Huang, Yiping
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 145113 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
While poverty has been declining with strong income growth, China’s income distribution has deteriorated in recent years. Trade policy has been advocated to address income disparities, especially those between rural and urban households. Using a computable general equilibrium model, this paper analyses the impact of trade policy on incomes of different households. Particular attention is given to the various non-farm sources of incomes for rural and urban factor markets.

Unemployment spells and income distribution dynamics

Castañeda, Ana; Díaz-Giménez, Javier; Ríos Rull, José Víctor
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/1995 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
In the U.S., during the 1948-86 period, an approximation to the Gini Index based on the quintiles and on the top 5% of the income distribution yielded a value of 0.351. Further, during this same period, the income share earned by the first quintile was procyclical and 7% more volatile than aggregate yearly output. In this paper we quantify the role played by unemployment spells in determining these and other related issues. To this purpose, we use an extension of the general equilibrium stochastic growth model that includes an endogenous distribution of households indexed by wealth and employment status. Our main findings are the following: i) in a model economy where all households have the same endowments of skills and are subject to the same employment processes, uninsured unemployment spells alone account for a very small share of the concentration of income observed in the U.S., and of the income distribution dynamics -the approximated Gini Index in this model economy is 18% of the one observed in the U.S., and the income share earned by the first quintile is 58% more volatile, ii) this result is robust to including a technology that allows for cyclically moving factor shares, and iii) in a model economy where households are partitioned into different skills groups that are subject to different employment processes in accordance to U.S. data...

Exploring the income distribution business cycle dynamics

Castañeda, Ana; Díaz-Giménez, Javier; Ríos-Rull, J.V.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em //1998 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
We document the business cycle behavior of the US income distribution and explore the extent to which unemployment spells and cyclically-moving factor shares account for this behavior by analyzing four heterogeneous household extensions of the neoclassical growth model. We conclude (i) that partitioning the population into five types subject to type-specific employment processes seems to be enough to account for most aspects of the US income distribution business cycle dynamics, (ii) that the role played by cyclically-moving factor shares is small, and (iii) that the income distribution business cycle dynamics may be essentially independent from the significant part of the observed wealth concentration that these model worlds fail to account for.

Chile's High Growth Economy : Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
The present study focuses on four main objectives. First, it presents an update of poverty, and income distribution measures, reported in 1997 by the Bank; second, it looks at deficiencies in social services, and how to improve social services targeted to the poor; third, it considers how trends in income distribution could be modified, if taking into account the transfer effect of social programs; and, fourth, it looks at some special issues that impact on poverty, namely unemployment, and the problems of indigenous peoples. Given the relatively high levels of unemployment, the persistence in educational deficits, and the low coverage of social programs amongst the poor, recommendations suggest, respectively, a focus on relevant, job creation aspects, in line with labor market demands, not merely responsive to the renewed economic growth, to include as well, further labor code, and unemployment insurance system reforms; efforts to consolidate, and intensify the quality, and equity in education, particularly tertiary education to advance Chile's human capital; and...

Can We Discern the Effect of Globalization on Income Distribution? Evidence from Household Budget Surveys

Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
The effects of globalization on income distribution in rich and poor countries are a matter of controversy. While international trade theory in its most abstract formulation implies that increased trade and foreign investment should make income distribution more equal in poor countries and less equal in rich countries, finding these effects has proved elusive. The author presents another attempt to discern the effects of globalization by using data from household budget surveys and looking at the impact of openness and foreign direct investment on relative income shares of low and high deciles. The author finds some evidence that at very low average income levels, it is the rich who benefit from openness. As income levels rise to those of countries such as Chile, Colombia, or Czech Republic, for example, the situation changes, and it is the relative income of the poor and the middle class that rises compared with the rich. It seems that openness makes income distribution worse before making it better--or differently in that the effect of openness on a country's income distribution depends on the country's initial income level.

Participação das aposentadorias e pensões na desigualdade da distribuição da renda no Brasil no período de 1981 a 2001. ; The participation of retirements and pensions in the inequality of income distribution in Brazil from 1981 to 2001.

Ferreira, Carlos Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
O modelo de financiamento do sistema previdenciário brasileiro é o de repartição simples, bastante sensível a mudanças estruturais de caráter econômico. Algumas dessas mudanças estruturais que afetaram a previdência, tiveram origem na Constituição de 1988, no crescente envelhecimento da população, no aumento da informalidade de vínculo trabalhista e em problemas políticos e administrativos no regime de previdência. Tais mudanças levaram a previdência a apresentar déficits elevados a partir de meados dos anos 90. Verificou-se que alguns princípios previdenciários como solidariedade, redistribuição e eqüidade não foram respeitados. Observou-se a existência de distorções no valor de aposentadorias e pensões, privilegiando poucos e evidenciando a existência de problemas no modelo de repartição simples. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal verificar se o rendimento das aposentadorias e pensões contribuiu para aumentar a desigualdade da distribuição de renda no Brasil. Utilizou-se a metodologia de decomposição do índice de Gini, que consiste em determinar a contribuição de cada parcela do rendimento para a desigualdade total, utilizando-se os dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Amostras Domiciliares (PNAD) de 1981 a 2001. Através dos estratos de rendimento domiciliar per capita agregados...

Functional income distribution in a small European country: The role of financialisation and other determinants

Barradas, R.; Lagoa, S.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em 16/11/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
JEL CLASSIFICATION C22, D33, E25 and E44; This paper makes an empirical analysis of the relationship between financialisation and the evolution of labour income share in Portugal from 1978 to 2012. We estimate an equation for the labour income share that includes standard variables (technological progress, globalisation, education and business cycle) and variables to capture the effect of financialisation. We formulate the hypothesis that the financialisation process may lead to a rise in the inequality of functional income distribution through three channels: the change in the sectorial composition of the economy (due to the increase in the weight of the financial activity and the decrease in government activity), the diffusion of shareholder value governance practices and the weakening of trade unions. Our results show that there is a long-term relationship between all variables and that the financialisation process indirectly affects the labour income share through its impact on government activity and trade union density. The paper also finds evidence supporting the traditional explanations for functional income distribution, namely globalisation, education and business cycle.

CHARACTERIZING INCOME DISTRIBUTION FOR POVERTY AND INEQUALITY ANALYSIS

Paredes, Ricardo D.; Chumacero Escudero, Rómulo Augusto
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Departamento de Economía Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Departamento de Economía
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
This paper presents a systematic empirical characterization of income distribution in Chile. Such characterization helps us to understand the apparent paradox regarding the coexistence of a successful economic performance and persistently high inequality in income distribution and to assess the impact of different social policies dealing with poverty. Segmented sectors seem to be a crucial feature that is generally overlooked in the traditional analysis of income distribution and poverty. As an example, we conduct an exercise to evaluate two types of policies used to alleviate poverty: one focused on increasing coverage of education (wrongly assuming a single population), another in reducing the quality gap (rightly assuming two populations).