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A pena e o cadafalso: observações sobre a literatura carcerária relativa ao período do Estado Novo; The sentence and the scaffold: comments on the incarceration literature in the period of New State

Poli Junior, Ovidio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2009 PT
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66.77%
Este trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo da literatura carcerária brasileira (escrita no cárcere ou sob a forma de reminiscência), com ênfase nos escritores que viveram durante o período do Estado Novo (1937-1945). A partir do exame de textos de caráter ficcional, epistolar e memorialístico, procuramos investigar como os autores operaram em suas obras a representação do cárcere, ou, mais precisamente, como refletiram sobre o universo carcerário e como o recriaram enquanto matéria literária. No âmbito historiográfico, procuramos demonstrar que o fenômeno do encarceramento percorre a história da literatura brasileira, sobretudo após a instauração do regime republicano. Trata-se de um trabalho de caráter panorâmico, que parte de apontamentos introdutórios para depois aprofundar-se nos autores inscritos no período referido anteriormente, situando mais detidamente alguns pontos que seriam comuns às suas obras e, ao final, procurando esboçar uma caracterização geral acerca da literatura carcerária brasileira. Acreditamos que o estudo dos escritos do cárcere constitui ocasião privilegiada para examinar a questão do resgate da memória histórica e da identidade individual enquanto fenômeno que conduziria à idéia de uma ética e de uma estética da resistência...

A mulher detenta, a sua saúde sexual e sua sexualidade: revisão sistemática da literatura brasileira sobre atuação da enfermagem neste processo; Sexual health and sexuality of inmate woman: systematic review of Brazilian literature about the nursing contribution in this process

Silva, Elaine Mara da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2013 PT
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A complexidade que caracteriza o sistema penitenciário brasileiro não exclui o encarceramento feminino. A mulher, ao ser detida para cumprir pena pelo seu ato infracional ou delituoso, passa por momentos de conflitos consigo mesma em função da nova realidade que se apresenta, a da privação de liberdade, que indubitavelmente afeta a sua saúde sexual e consequentemente a sua sexualidade somando a esse processo, a falta de assistência nesse sentido. Baseando nestes referenciais, o presente estudo objetivou fazer uma reflexão perante a literatura existente sobre a possível contribuição da enfermagem na saúde sexual e na sexualidade da mulher detenta, tendo em vista as condições de vulnerabilidade em que ela é exposta às doenças sexualmente transmissíveis no encarceramento. A metodologia utilizada apropriou-se da revisão sistemática da literatura brasileira, cujo propósito foi proceder ao levantamento de dados sobre essas questões , considerando a importância de sintetizar e categorizar os estudos primários realizados no Brasil, no período de 1990 a 2013,tendo em vista, o assunto em apreço. A amostra foi constituída de 14 estudos dos quais, foram identificadas as situações limites através das circunstâncias apresentadas pelos profissionais de enfermagem nas unidades prisionais...

Herniation of Gravid Uterus: Report of 2 Cases and Review of Literature

Saha, Pradip Kumar; Rohilla, Minakshi; Prasad, G.R.V.; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir K.; Gupta, Indu
Fonte: Medscape Publicador: Medscape
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/10/2006 EN
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Anterior abdominal wall hernias are uncommon, and herniation of a gravid uterus into these hernias is even rarer. Although reducible initially, the herniation of pregnant uterus may be complicated by incarceration and subsequent strangulation within the hernial sac, late in the course of pregnancy. There is no consensus over the management of this rare condition. Each case should be individualized. If uncomplicated, a conservative approach until term followed by delivery and herniorrhaphy is a good option. Here, 2 cases of herniation of gravid uterus into the anterior abdominal wall are described along with a brief review of literature pertaining to its presentation, complications, and management.

Penoscrotal incarceration, four rings, and estate department bolt to the rescue

Abogunrin, Funso A.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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Combined penoscrotal incarceration is rarely reported in the literature. It is a urological emergency. Depending on the nature of the constricting object, duration of constriction, and with no defined treatment methods, inventiveness is usually required in removing difficult objects. This is a report of a penoscrotal incarceration by four closed steel rings, treated in Northern Ireland with a few minor points reiterated.

Genital incarceration: an unusual case report

Cassidy, Darby J.; Mador, David
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 EN
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Incarceration or strangulation of the penis is a rare clinical situation that requires emergent urologic management to prevent potentially devastating outcomes. Many different techniques have been described in the literature to remove genital foreign objects, but there is no universally successful technique. We present an unusual and challenging case involving incarceration of both the penis and scrotum by multiple metallic rings that required operative removal using an orthopedic high-speed drill.

Incarceration of a colonoscope in an inguinal hernia: Case report and literature review

Tan, Victoria Ping-Yi; Lee, Yuk Tong; Poon, Jensen Tung Chung
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.6%
Incarceration of an endoscope in an inguinal hernia may occur during the course of routine colonoscopy. The incarceration may occur on insertion or withdrawal and frequently the hernia is not suspected prior to the colonoscopy. Most commonly, a left sided inguinal hernia is involved, however right inguinal hernias may be implicated in subjects with altered anatomy post abdominal surgery. Incarceration of an endoscope in an inguinal hernia has been seldom reported in the literature which is likely to be related to under reporting. A range of techniques have been suggested by various authors over the last four decades to manage this unusual complication of colonoscopy. These techniques include utilizing fluoroscopy, manual external pressure and/or the fitting of a cap onto the tip of the colonoscope to facilitate colonoscopic navigation. The authors present a case report of incarceration of the colonoscope on withdrawal in an unsuspected left inguinal hernia with a review of the literature on the management of this colonoscopic complication. A management strategy is suggested.

The Paradox of Probation: Community Supervision in the Age of Mass Incarceration

PHELPS, MICHELLE S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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After four decades of steady growth, U.S. states’ prison populations finally appear to be declining, driven by a range of sentencing and policy reforms. One of the most popular reform suggestions is to expand probation supervision in lieu of incarceration. However, the classic socio-legal literature suggests that expansions of probation instead widen the net of penal control and lead to higher incarceration rates. This article reconsiders probation in the era of mass incarceration, providing the first comprehensive evaluation of the role of probation in the build-up of the criminal justice system. The results suggest that probation was not the primary driver of mass incarceration in most states, nor is it likely to be a simple panacea to mass incarceration. Rather, probation serves both capacities, acting as an alternative and as a net-widener, to varying degrees across time and place. Moving beyond the question of diversion versus net widening, this article presents a new theoretical model of the probation-prison link that examines the mechanisms underlying this dynamic. Using regression models and case studies, I analyze how states can modify the relationship between probation and imprisonment by changing sentencing outcomes and the practices of probation supervision. When combined with other key efforts...

Amyand’s hernia: A review

Ivashchuk, Galyna; Cesmebasi, Alper; Sorenson, Edward P.; Blaak, Christa; Tubbs, Shane R.; Loukas, Marios
Fonte: International Scientific Literature, Inc. Publicador: International Scientific Literature, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/01/2014 EN
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26.41%
Amyand’s hernia is defined as when the appendix is trapped within an inguinal hernia. While the incidence of this type of hernia is rare, the appendix may become incarcerated within Amyand’s hernia and lead to further complications such as strangulation and perforation. Incarceration of the appendix most commonly occurs within inguinal and femoral hernias, but may arise to a lesser extent in incisional and umbilical hernias. Incarcerated appendix has been reported in a variety of ventral abdominal and inguinal locations, yet its indistinct clinical presentation represents a diagnostic challenge. This paper reviews the literature on incarceration of the appendix within inguinal hernias and discusses current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of Amyand’s hernia and complications that may arise from incarceration of the appendix within the hernia.

Paternal Incarceration and Father–Child Contact in Fragile Families

Geller, Amanda
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father–child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father–child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated—between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release.

Are Blacks and Hispanics Disproportionately Incarcerated Relative to Their Arrests? Racial and Ethnic Disproportionality Between Arrest and Incarceration

Harris, Casey T.; Steffensmeier, Darrell; Ulmer, Jeffrey T.; Painter-Davis, Noah
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Do large racial and ethnic disparities in prison populations reflect systematic racial and policy discrimination in the criminal justice system, or do they reflect disproportionate involvement of blacks and Hispanics in “serious” or street crime? Our investigation of this question keys off the approach initiated by Alfred Blumstein is his pioneering studies on the topic. While yielding important findings, there are, however, substantial gaps in the empirical literature on the racial disproportionality issue. We attempt to fill those gaps by (1) using both data on prison admission as well as in-stock prison populations, (2) presenting more recent racially and ethnically disaggregated arrest and incarceration data from Pennsylvania for 2003–2007, and (3) including Hispanic offenders in our racial and ethnic disproportionality comparisons. Our results indicate, first, that the representation of blacks, whites, and Hispanics among offenders admitted to state prison and in the prison population corresponds closely to their representation in arrest statistics. Second, using arrests as a marker of violent offending, the overrepresentation of blacks among offenders admitted to state prisons occurs because they commit a disproportionate number of frequently imprisoned (i.e....

Religion, Acculturation, and Incarceration: Determinants of Substance Use among Hispanic Adults in the United States

Becerra, Benjamin J.; Becerra, Monideepa B.; Gerdine, Miryam C.; Banta, Jim E.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Objective. The influence of religion, acculturation, and incarceration on substance abuse has been studied, though predominantly among adolescents. Little research exists on how such factors influence substance use among Hispanic adults. The objective of this study was to assess key determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Methods. Public access 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was utilized. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted while accounting for complex survey design to obtain population-weighted estimates. Receiver operator curve analysis was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each variable. Results. Importance of religious influence in life and Spanish language interview were associated with lower odds of substance use, while history of incarceration increased the likelihood of substance use among Hispanic adults. Other factors associated with lower odds were increasing age, being female, and currently married. Other factors associated with increased odds were high school graduate and some college in addition to living above the 200% federal poverty level. Discussion. Results from this study add to the limited body of the literature on determinants of substance use among Hispanic adults. Health education measures should target acculturated Hispanic adults and those with incarceration history to reduce substance use.

Therapeutic Community Treatment of an Inmate Population with Substance Use Disorders: Post-Release Trends in Re-Arrest, Re-Incarceration, and Drug Misuse Relapse

Galassi, Alexandra; Mpofu, Elias; Athanasou, James
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
This systematic literature review maps the evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic community interventions (TCI) in reducing re-arrest, re-incarceration or drug misuse following release from prison, including the extent to which these effects are retained over time. The databases searched for the review included PsychINFO, Medline and Scopus and reference lists from relevant articles published between 2007 and 2014. Only quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of TCI for a prisoner population with drug dependence at the time of initial incarceration were considered. Fourteen studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Three-quarters of the studies reported TCI were effective in reducing rates of re-incarceration. About 70% of studies that examined follow-up rates of drug misuse relapse found TCI effective in reducing rates of drug misuse amongst participants. TCI participation reduced re-arrests events in 55% of the studies. Results suggest TCI effective in the short-term rather than longer term for reducing rates of re-incarceration among participants, and to a slightly lesser extent, drug misuse relapse.

Paternal Incarceration and the Housing Security of Urban Mothers

Geller, Amanda; Franklin, Allyson Walker
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
High rates of imprisonment among American fathers have motivated an ongoing examination of incarceration’s role in family life. A growing literature suggests that incarceration creates material and socioemotional challenges not only for prisoners and former prisoners but also for their families and communities. The authors examined the relationship between fathers’ incarceration and one such challenge: the housing insecurity of the mothers of their children. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,125) and a series of longitudinal regression models, they found that mothers’ housing security was compromised following their partners’ incarceration, an association likely driven in part, but not entirely, by financial challenges following his time in prison or jail. Given the importance of stable housing for the continuity of adult employment, children’s schooling, and other inputs to healthy child development, the findings suggest a grave threat to the well-being of children with incarcerated fathers.

Crime and Violence in Development : A Literature Review of Latin America and the Caribbean

Heinemann, Alessandra; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The authors review the recent literature on crime and violence in Latin America and the Caribbean and present a broad overview of the main ideas and empirical findings. They provide estimates of the magnitude of the problem, trends, and the manifestations of crime and violence in Latin America. They also discuss the ways in which violence affects development, the root causes of violence, and the empirical evidence on the determinants of crime. The authors conclude by stressing that preventive measures and innovative social policies are efficient and underutilized strategies to address the problem and call for both more research and operational experimentation.

How can a Justice Reinvestment approach disrupt the synergy between social determinants of health and the incarceration of Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander juveniles and young people?

Connell, Caitlin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The 1991 Royal Commission into Aboriginal deaths in Custody (RCIADC), told us unequivocally that “incarceration as a deterrent has been shown to be an ineffective means of dealing with the issue of aboriginal juvenile offending. The RCIADC went on to conclude that prison may actually be crime producing rather than crime preventing” (Satya & Barson, 2011, p. 87). Notwithstanding the findings presented twenty four years ago, on any single day in 2013-2014, fifty eight percent of the juvenile population in custody were in fact Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) young people (AIHW, 2015, p. 7). There has been a significant increase, rather than decrease, of ATSI juveniles within the criminal justice system despite an accumulation of reports affirming the recommendations from the Royal Commission. The exclusion of justice targets by consecutive governments has been detrimental in addressing the complex issues of ATSI youth within the criminal justice system. Despite successive literature stressing the need for justice targets and the importance of early intervention as a crucial factor in redressing the perpetuation of intergenerational ATSI offending, governments have not adequately adhered to or adopted these strategies. Clearly a new approach to ATSI youth problem behaviour and crime needs to be found. The cost of detaining a young person in a correctional facility in Australia stands at just over $600 per day (Hudson...

Indigenous Incarceration: Insights from those in the Criminal Justice System

Davidson, Ruth
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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2016 will mark 25 years since the final Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCIADIC) report was tabled. In the RCIADIC report, the disproportionately high levels of aboriginal deaths in custody were attributed to the significant over-representation of indigenous people in custody (Hammond et al. 1991, Nat Reports Vol 1, Ch. 1, 1.3). In the intervening years, despite significant government resources being allocated to the problem, the indigenous incarceration rate has continued to rise, with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) people ‘15 times more likely to be imprisoned than non-indigenous Australians’ (AHRC 2014, p100). The effects of the high level of indigenous incarceration are numerous, including but not limited to health impacts (PHAA 2010, p3), intergenerational impacts (Weatherburn 2014, p 8), a higher risk of recidivism ((Weatherburn 2014, p 8) and other socio economic impacts (Weatherburn 2014, p 8). The logical response to the continuing high rates of indigenous incarceration is to seek further information and perhaps alternative insights into why the problem continues to get worse. This research project seeks to add to the body of knowledge about the problem of indigenous incarceration through harnessing the opinions and expertise of those at the coal face...

Carceral Acoustemologies: Sonic Enactments of Space and Power in Prisons

Hemsworth, KATIE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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Cultural geographers have long been interested in “the everyday,” but rarely is everyday life acknowledged in the context of incarceration. In Canada, the recent adoption of “tough-on-crime” policies has meant that increasing numbers of individuals spend their daily lives behind bars. In this dissertation, I ask: what do prisons sound like, and what is the role of sound in the way prisons are managed, conceptualised, and embodied? The recent flourishing of scholarship on carceral geographies has made crucial inroads in the study of the cultural politics and spatialities of incarceration, yet the notion of incarceration as a multi-sensory, embodied experience remains under-researched. Drawing on Feld’s notion of acoustemologies, or auditory knowledges, I argue that one way to better understand the production of carceral space is through engagement with sonic techniques, histories, and materialities of prisons. Thinking about sound as a tangible and intangible force, I show how different conceptualisations of sound – including silence, noise, and music – (re)shape power relations in Canada’s prisons. In the midst of overcrowding and segregation in prisons, Canada’s political climate reverberates through its carceral soundscapes...

Uterine Incarceration: Rare Cause of Urinary Retention in Healthy Pregnant Patients

Slama, Richard; Barry, Mike; McManus, Ken; Latham, Doug; Berniard, Matthew
Fonte: Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine Publicador: Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.18%
Gravid uterine incarceration (GUI) is a condition that is well discussed in literature; however, there are few acute diagnoses in the emergency department (ED). We present a case series where three multiparous females presented to the ED with non-specific urinary symptoms. On bedside ultrasound, each patient was noted to have a retroverted uterus and inferior bladder entrapment under the sacral promontory. GUI is a rare condition that can lead to uremia, sepsis, peritonitis, and ultimately maternal death. Emergency physicians should include GUI in their differential diagnosis in this patient population and use bedside ultrasound as an adjunct to diagnosis.

Incarceration of Meckel's diverticulum in a left paraduodenal Treitz' hernia

Gerdes, Christoph; Akkermann, Oke; Krüger, Volker; Gerdes, Anna; Gerdes, Berthold
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.18%
Meckel’s diverticula incarcerated in a hernia were first described anecdotally by Littré, a French surgeon, in 1700. Meckel, a German anatomist and surgeon, explained the pathophysiology of this disease 100 years later. In addition, a congenital paraduodenal mesocolic hernia, known as a Treitz hernia, is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. These hernias are caused by an abnormal rotation of the primitive midgut, resulting in a right or left paraduodenal hernia. We treated a patient presenting with pain and diagnosed extraluminal air in the abdomen after a computed tomography examination. We performed a laparotomy and found a combination of these two seldomly occurring congenital diseases, incarceration and perforation of Meckel’s diverticulum in a left paraduodenal hernia. We performed a thorough review of the literature, and this report is the first to describe a patient with a combination of these two rare conditions. We considered the case regarding the variety of terminology as well as the treatment options of these conditions.

Effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals.

Griffin, M. M.; Ryan, J. G.; Briscoe, V. S.; Shadle, K. M.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1996 EN
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a critical problem among the incarcerated population, with rates as high as 17% being reported for prison systems in New York. The literature suggests that stressful living conditions and inherent defects in the immune system associated with HIV infection make prison populations more susceptible to a disproportionate decrease in their CD4 counts. To determine the effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals, the charts of 800 inmates were reviewed. Baseline (draw 1), 2- to 5-month (draw 2), and 6- to 12-month (draw 3) CD4 cell counts were obtained. Mean cell counts were calculated, and paired t-tests were used to identify differences. The group receiving antiretrovirals throughout showed no difference in mean CD4 cell count between draws 1 and 2 or between draws 1 and 3. The group not receiving HIV medications did not show a significant difference in CD4 cell counts between draws 1 and 2, but did show a significant difference between draws 1 and 3. For this group, the rate of decline in CD4 cells was greater than among an outpatient setting. The subsample of subjects initiating therapy prior to the second blood draw showed a significant increase in mean CD4 cell counts at draw 1 versus draw 2...