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Anterior genu corpus callosum and impulsivity in suicidal patients with bipolar disorder

MATSUO, Koji; NIELSEN, Niels; NICOLETTI, Mark A.; HATCH, John P.; MONKUL, E. Serap; WATANABE, Yoshifumi; ZUNTA-SOARES, Giovana B.; NERY, Fabiano G.; SOARES, Jair C.
Fonte: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.33%
Suicidality is a life-threatening symptom in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Impulsivity and mood instability are associated with suicidality in mood disorders. Evidence suggests that gray and white matter abnormalities are linked with impulsivity in mood disorders, but little is known about the association between corpus callosum (CC) and impulsivity in BID. We examined the relationship between CC areas, impulsivity and suicidality in BID patients. We studied 10 female BD patients with a history of suicide attempt (mean +/- SD age 36.2 +/- 10.1 years), 10 female BD patients without suicide attempt history (44.2 +/- 12.5 years) and 27 female healthy subjects (36.9 +/- 13.8 years). Impulsivity was evaluated by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). We traced MR images to measure the areas of the CC genu, anterior body, posterior body, isthmus and splenium. The genu was divided into anterior, middle and posterior regions. The suicidal and non-suicidal BID patients had significantly higher BIS total, attention and non-planning scores than the healthy subjects (ps < 0.01), and the suicidal BID patients had significantly higher BIS motor scores than the non-suicidal BD and healthy subjects (ps < 0.01). There were no significant differences among the three groups on any regional CC areas...

A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Frontal Gray Matter Correlates of Impulsivity

MATSUO, Koji; NICOLETTI, Mark; NEMOTO, Kiyotaka; HATCH, John P.; PELUSO, Marco A. M.; NERY, Fabiano G.; SOARES, Jair C.
Fonte: WILEY-LISS Publicador: WILEY-LISS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
Impulsivity is a personality trait exhibited by healthy individuals, but excessive impulsivity is associated with some mental disorders. Lesion and functional, neuroimaging Studies indicate that the ventromedial prefrontal region (VMPFC), including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala may modulate impulsivity and aggression. However, no morphometric study has examined the association between VMPFC and impulsivity. We hypothesized that healthy subjects with high impulsivity would have smaller volumes in these brain regions compared with those with low impulsivity. Sixty-two healthy Subjects were Studied (age 35.4 +/- 12.1 years) using a 1.5-T MRI system. The Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS) was used to assess impulsivity. Images were processed using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol. We calculated the correlations between BIS scale scores and the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes of VMPFC and amygdala. GM volumes of the left and right OFC were inversely correlated with the BIS total score (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Left ACC GM Volumes had a tendency to be inversely correlated with the BIS total score (P = 0.05. Right OFC GM Volumes were inversely correlated with BIS nonplanning impulsivity...

Conceptualizing impulsivity and risk taking in bipolar disorder: importance of history of alcohol abuse

HOLMES, M. Kathleen; BEARDEN, Carrie E.; BARGUIL, Marcela; FONSECA, Manoela; MONKUL, E. Serap; NERY, Fabiano G.; SOARES, Jair C.; MINTZ, Jim; GLAHN, David C.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
Elevated levels of impulsivity and increased risk taking are thought to be core features of both bipolar disorder (BD) and addictive disorders. Given the high rates of comorbid alcohol abuse in BD, alcohol addiction may exacerbate impulsive behavior and risk-taking propensity in BD. Here we examine multiple dimensions of impulsivity and risk taking, using cognitive tasks and self-report measures, in BD patients with and without a history of alcohol abuse. Thirty-one BD subjects with a prior history of alcohol abuse or dependence (BD-A), 24 BD subjects with no history of alcohol abuse/dependence (BD-N), and 25 healthy control subjects (HC) were assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the computerized Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Both BD groups scored significantly higher than controls on the BIS. In contrast, only the BD-A group showed impaired performance on the BART. BD-A subjects popped significantly more balloons than the BD-N and HC groups. In addition, subjects in the BD-A group failed to adjust their performance after popping balloons. Severity of mood symptomatology was not associated with performance on either task. The current study supports a primary role of prior alcohol abuse in risk-taking propensity among patients with bipolar disorder. In addition...

Variable delay-to-signal : a fast paradigm for assessment of aspects of impulsivity in rats

Almeida, Hugo Leite; Melo, António; Pêgo, José M.; Bernardo, Sara; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Sousa, Nuno; Almeida, Armando; Cerqueira, João
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
Testing impulsive behavior in rodents is challenging and labor-intensive. We developed a new behavioral paradigm-the Variable Delay-to-Signal (VDS) test-that provides rapid and simultaneous assessment of response and decision impulsivity in rodents. Presentation of a light at variable delays signals the permission for action (nose poke) contingent with a reward. 2 blocks of 25 trials at 3 s delay flank a block of 70 trials in which light is presented with randomly selected 6 or 12 s delays. Exposure to such large delays boosts the rate of premature responses when the delay drops to 3 s in the final block, an effect that is blunted by an acute methamphetamine challenge and that correlates with the delay-discounting (DD) paradigm (choice impulsivity). Finally, as expected, treatment with the NMDA antagonist MK-801 caused a generalized response increase in all VDS blocks. The pharmacological validation, particularly with methamphetamine which has a well established dual effect on response and decision impulsivity, and the correlations between the impulsive behavior in the DD and VDS paradigms, suggests that the later is able to provide, in a single session, a multi-dimensional assessment of impulsive behavior.

Sleep disorders are associated with impulsivity in school children aged 8 to 10 years

Medeiros,Marilaine; Carvalho,Luciane B.C.; Silva,Tatiana A.; Prado,Lucila B.F.; Prado,Gilmar F.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.33%
CONTEXT: Sleep has an important function in the physical and emotional development of children. Some studies suggest an association between impulsivity and sleep disorders. However, little is known about this association in schoolchildren aged 8 to 10 years. METHOD: We studied 1180 children, 547 with sleep disorders (SD) and 633 without SD (control group), classified with SD questionnaires. Within the SD group, 53 children with sleep-related respiratory disorders (SRRD) and 521 children with non-respiratory sleep disorders (NRSD) were analyzed. We acessed emotional indicators of impulsivity with Bender test. RESULTS: More SD children presented impulsivity than control group (p<0.05). More NRSD and 10 years old children presented impulsivity than control group of the same age (p=0.001). Impulsivity and SRRD were associated with 8 years old children (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Children with SD, 8 years old children with SRRD, and 10 years old children with NRSD presented higher proportion of impulsivity than control children.

Models of Impulsivity with a Focus on Waiting Impulsivity: Translational Potential for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Voon, Valerie
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
Waiting impulsivity, also known as premature or anticipatory responding, is well established in preclinical studies through the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time (5-CSRT) task. Waiting impulsivity is important in disorders of addiction. Preclinical studies suggest a role both as a predictor, and as a consequence, in disorders of addiction. Here we discuss the relationship between the preclinical 5-CSRT and translational fidelity in newly developed translational tasks. Preclinical and clinical literature relevant to premature responding and disorders of addiction are reviewed. Understanding which processes are critical to premature responding is important in understanding the nature of premature responding. Premature responding may also have overlaps with motivational processes, proactive response inhibition, tonic inhibitory processes, and delay discounting.

Lower Left Thalamic Myo-Inositol Levels Associated with Greater Cognitive Impulsivity in Marijuana-Dependent Young Men: Preliminary Spectroscopic Evidence at 4T

Mashhoon, Yasmin; Jensen, J Eric; Sneider, Jennifer T; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Silveri, Marisa M
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
The effects of chronic marijuana (MRJ) use on neurochemistry are not well characterized. Previously, altered global myo-Inositol (mI) concentrations and distribution in white matter were associated with impulsivity and mood symptoms in young MRJ-dependent men. The objective of this study was to retrospectively examine previously collected data, to investigate the potential regional specificity of metabolite levels in brain regions densely packed with cannabinoid receptors. Spectra were acquired at 4.0 Tesla using 2D J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to quantify the entire J-coupled spectral surface of metabolites from voxels in regions of interest. For the current regional spectral analyses, a 2D-JMRSI grid was positioned over the central axial slice and shifted in the x and y dimensions to optimally position voxels over regions containing thalamus, temporal lobe, and parieto-occipital cortex. MRJ users exhibited significantly reduced mI levels in the left thalamus (lThal), relative to non-using participants, which were associated with elevated cognitive impulsivity. Other regional analyses did not reveal any significant group differences. The current findings indicate that reduced mI levels are regionally specific to the lThal in MRJ users. Furthermore...

Worth the wait: effects of age of onset of marijuana use on white matter and impulsivity

Gruber, Staci A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Sagar, Kelly A.; Gönenç, Atilla; Lukas, Scott E.
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
Rationale: Marijuana (MJ) use continues to rise, and as the perceived risk of using MJ approaches an all-time historic low, initiation of MJ use is occurring at even younger ages. As adolescence is a critical period of neuromaturation, teens and emerging adults are at greater risk for experiencing the negative effects of MJ on the brain. In particular, MJ use has been shown to be associated with alterations in frontal white matter microstructure, which may be related to reports of increased levels of impulsivity in this population. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between age of onset of MJ use, white matter microstructure, and reported impulsivity in chronic, heavy MJ smokers. Methods: Twenty-five MJ smokers and 18 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging and completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. MJ smokers were also divided into early onset (regular use prior to age 16) and late onset (age 16 or later) groups in order to clarify the impact of age of onset of MJ use on these variables. Results: MJ smokers exhibited significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) relative to controls, as well as higher levels of impulsivity. Earlier MJ onset was also associated with lower levels of FA. Interestingly...

The role of motor impulsivity in socioemotional adjustment in high-risk seven year old children and healthy controls: A follow-up study

Perales Guti??rrez, Jos?? C??sar; Nogueira-Cruz, Judith; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; L??ynez-Rubio, Carolina; Verdejo-Garc??a, Antonio; P??rez Garc??a, Miguel
Fonte: Universidad de Murcia Publicador: Universidad de Murcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
The main aim of the present study was twowise: first, to assess the presence of behavioral and intellectual disturbances in highrisk 7-year-old children, compared to healthy controls; and, second, and most importantly, to evaluate the discriminative validity of a motor impulsivity neuropsychological task (Go/No-go) as an indicator of dailylife socioemotional adjustment. We administered the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC), the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCIV), and the Go/No-go task to 14 highrisk 7 year-olds and 20 matched healthy controls. Highrisk children had been classified as so shortly after birth, due to the presence of perinatal risk factors, and later released from the early care unit. They are currently schooled according to their age. We expected performance in the Go/No-go task to be a good indicator of behavioral disturbances in highrisk children, and more specifically of those related to socioemotional adjustment. Accordingly to such a hypothesis, highrisk children showed significantly worse scores in most BASC and WISC subscales, and committed more commission and omission errors on the Go/No-go task. Most importantly, regression analyses showed that performance on the Go/No-go task (but not WISC scores) was an independent indicator of socioemotional adjustment problems. This result is in accordance with proposals that motor impulsivity is an important mediator between altered executive function development and socioemotional adjustment.; El presente estudio persigue dos objetivos: primero evaluar la presencia de alteraciones conductuales e intelectuales en ni??os de 7 a??os caracterizados como de alto riego al nacer - comparados con un grupo de controles sanos - y...

Temperament and Impulsivity Predictors of Smoking Cessation Outcomes

L??pez Torrecillas, Francisca; Perales Guti??rrez, Jos?? C??sar; Nieto-Ruiz, Ana; Verdejo-Garc??a, Antonio
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.41%
Aims: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes.; Methods: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140) were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory), trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale), and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task). The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as ???dropout??? versus ???relapse??? versus ???abstinence??? at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either ???relapse??? or ???abstinence???...

Impulsivity and Reward Sensitivity: Attentional and Emotional Factors Underlying Stimulus-Reward Learning

Petropoulos, Apostolia
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1491224 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.36%
Increased impulsivity and alterations in reward sensitivity co-occur in many psychiatric disorders. Moreover, individuals reporting more impulsive traits are less efficient in learning stimulus-reward associations. This suggests that impulsivity and reward sensitivity may be linked, consistent with evidence that the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) is implicated in both processes. This study examined the relationship between impulsive traits, assessed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Eysenck (EIQ), and performance on three behavioral tasks that measure impulsivity and reward sensitivity. The tasks included a Conditioned Pattern Preference (CPP) task, which measures the preference for abstract visual cues as an index of implicit emotional learning, a Probabilistic Reversal Learning (PRL) task that assessed the ability to alter behaviour when reward contingencies change and an Emotional Stroop task which assessed attentional control in response to emotionally salient stimuli. This study provided novel information on the relationship between processes that mediate impulsivity and reward sensitivity. In brief, subjects that were considered to have some explicit knowledge of experimental conditions showed a higher preference formation for the pattern paired with the reward on 90% of the conditioning trials. Although there was no overall effect of impulsivity...

Effects of Acute Stress on Motor and Cognitive Impulsivity

MAHONEY, MEGAN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1388363 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.36%
Impulsivity and stress are two of the most important determinants of drug addiction in that both factors predict the initiation and maintenance of drug use, as well as relapse to drug taking following abstinence. Despite this combined influence, the interaction between stress and impulsivity has never been examined systematically in animal models of addiction. The objective of the current study is to examine the role of acute stress on two different measures of impulsivity in rats: the Go/No-go test measures motor impulsivity, and the Delayed Reinforcement Paradigm measures cognitive impulsivity. To determine whether a 1 hr restraint stress is physiologically stressful, blood samples from rats in Experiment 1 were taken at 5 different sampling points: baseline (0 min), reactivity (15 and 60 min) and recovery (100 and 180 min). In Experiments 2 and 3, rats were tested in either the Go/No-go test or the Delayed Reinforcement test immediately following 1 hr of restraint stress. Results from Experiment 1 show that 1 hr of restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone concentrations at 15 min and 60 min; corticosterone concentrations returned to baseline levels by 100 min. Following stress, the percentage of Go interval responding was not altered during Go/No-go testing (Experiment 2)...

Impulsivity: A view from the behavioral neuroscience and developmental psychology; Impulsividad: una visión desde la neurociencia del comportamiento y la psicología del desarrollo; Impulsividade: uma visão a partir de neurociência comportamental e psicologia do desenvolvimento

Sánchez-Sarmiento, Paola; Giraldo, Juan José; Quiroz-Padilla, María Fernanda
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/02/2013 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
Impulsivity has been linked to three main factors: performing without direct involvement of the frontal lobe functions, an increase in the speed of response, and the acquisition of immediate gratification. This behavioral inhibition deficit involves a variety of behaviors including aspects of hyperexcitability, behavioral disinhibition and higher order decision making. Although by tradition, the definition of this executive function has been conceptualized from a psychopathological view, currently, the wide variety of neuropsychological, developmental and animal models assessment techniques encourage us to establish dialogues that integrate the knowledge of these theoretical perspectives for the interpretation and understanding of impulsivity.; La impulsividad se ha asociado a tres factores principales: el actuar sin una implicación directa de las funciones del lóbulo frontal, un aumento en la velocidad de la respuesta emitida y una obtención inmediata de gratificación. Este déficit de inhibición conductual abarca una variedad de comportamientos que incluyen los aspectos de la hiperexcitabilidad, la desinhibición del comportamiento y el orden superior de toma de decisiones. Aunque por tradición, la definición de esta función ejecutiva ha sido conceptualizada desde una visión psicopatológica...

Study of impulsivity dimension in Borderline Personality Disorder: The influence of impulsiveness, impulsivity-related traits and childhood sexual abuse to suicidal behaviour

Ramos Ferraz, Liliana
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.48%
Este trabajo de tesis doctoral incluye dos estudios transversales que examinan una serie de variables relacionadas con la gravedad del Trastorno Límite de la Personalidad (TLP). El objetivo del primer estudio consistió en estudiar la naturaleza multidimensional de la impulsividad en pacientes con TLP, mediante el uso de diferentes medidas psicométricas de la impulsividad y rasgos relacionados, conjuntamente con una medida de laboratorio de la conducta impulsiva. El segundo estudio tuvo como principal objetivo aclarar la implicación de estos rasgos de la personalidad y los antecedentes de abuso sexual en la infancia en la conducta suicida en pacientes con TLP. En el primer estudio, 39 mujeres diagnosticadas de TLP fueron comparadas con 102 controles sanos en cuanto a las puntuaciones obtenidas en diferentes instrumentos psicométricos y al rendimiento en una medida de laboratorio de impulsividad. Como medidas psicométricas de impulsividad y rasgos relacionados se emplearon la Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt-11 (BIS-11), el Inventario de Hostilidad de Buss-Durkee (BDHI) y el Inventario del Temperamento y el Carácter (TCI-R). El Continuous Performance Test (CPT-IP) fue utilizado como medida de laboratorio de la capacidad de inhibición de respuesta...

A direct comparison of girls adopted from China and Eastern Europe : anxiety, hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattention and defiant behaviours

Abrines Jaume, Neus; Barcons i Castel, Natàlia; Görzig, Anke; Marre, Diana; Brun i Gasca, Carme; Fumadó, Victoria
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
Estudios previos sobre menores adoptados han mostrado que los menores adoptados en Europa del Este (EE) tienen más probabilidades de mostrar inatención e hiperactividad/ impulsividad mientras que las niñas adoptadas en China (CH) suelen obtener puntuaciones normales en adaptación, aunque a medida que crecen, puede que aumenten las conductas internalizantes. Comparamos directamente las puntuaciones obtenidas en el SNAP-IV (Hiperactividad/Inatención) y el SCARED (Ansiedad) por niñas adoptadas en CH (n = 42), EE (n = 34) y en otros países (n = 32). EE muestran más inatención, hiperactividad/ impulsividad y conductas desafiantes que CH, independientemente de la edad de adopción y del número de hermanos. La edad de adopción solo tiene un efecto significativo sobre las conductas desafiantes. No se observan diferencias significativas en ansiedad entre los grupos. En general, los niveles de ansiedad están relacionados con la hiperactividad/impulsividad. Factores específicos relacionados con la adopción en cada una de estas regiones podrían explicar parte de las diferencias en inatención, hiperactividad/inatención y conductas desafiantes y se deberían tener en cuenta para potenciar la adaptación de los adoptados.; Previous research looking at adopted children has shown that children adopted from Eastern Europe (EE) are more likely to show inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity whereas girls adopted from China (CH) tend to have normative adjustment scores...

Reflection impulsivity in binge drinking: behavioural and volumetric correlates

Banca, Paula; Lange, Iris; Worbe, Yulia; Howell, Nicholas A.; Irvine, Michael; Harrison, Neil A.; Moutoussis, Michael; Voon, Valerie
Fonte: Wiley on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction Publicador: Wiley on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.39%
This is the final published version. It first appeared from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12227; The degree to which an individual accumulates evidence prior to making a decision, also known as reflection impulsivity, can be affected in psychiatric disorders. Here, we study decisional impulsivity in binge drinkers, a group at elevated risk for developing alcohol use disorders, comparing two tasks assessing reflection impulsivity and a delay discounting task, hypothesizing impairments in both subtypes of impulsivity. We also assess volumetric correlates of reflection impulsivity focusing on regions previously implicated in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Sixty binge drinkers and healthy volunteers were tested using two different information-gathering paradigms: the beads task and the Information Sampling Task (IST). The beads task was analysed using a behavioural approach and a Bayesian model of decision making. Delay discounting was assessed using the Monetary Choice Questionnaire. Regression analyses of primary outcomes were conducted with voxel-based morphometry analyses. Binge drinkers sought less evidence prior to decision in the beads task compared with healthy volunteers in both the behavioural and computational modelling analysis. There were no group differences in the IST or delay discounting task. Greater impulsivity as indexed by lower evidence accumulation in the beads task was associated with smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal volumes. In contrast...

Waiting impulsivity : the influence of acute methylphenidate and feedback

Voon, Valerie; Chang-Webb, Yee Chien; Morris, Laurel S.; Cooper, Ella; Sethi, Arjun; Baek, Kwangyeol; Grant, Jon; Robbins, Trevor W.; Harrison, Neil A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.36%
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Oxford University Press via http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyv074; Background: The ability to wait and to weigh evidence is critical to behavioural regulation. These behaviors are known as waiting and reflection impulsivity. In Study 1, we examined the effects of methylphenidate (MPH), a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on waiting and reflection impulsivity in healthy young individuals. In Study 2, we assessed the role of learning from feedback in disorders of addiction. Methods: We used the recently developed 4-Choice Serial Reaction Time task and the Beads task. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were tested twice in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled cross-over trial with 20mg MPH. In the second study we analyzed premature responses as a function of prior feedback in disorders of addiction. Results: Study 1: MPH was associated with greater waiting impulsivity to a cue predicting reward along with faster responding to target onset without a generalized effect on reaction time or attention. MPH influenced reflection impulsivity based on baseline impulsivity. Study 2: more premature responses occurred after premature responses in stimulant dependent subjects. Conclusions: We show that MPH has dissociable effects on waiting and reflection impulsivity. Chronic stimulant exposure impairs learning from prior premature responses suggesting a failure to learn that premature responding is suboptimal. These findings provide a greater mechanistic understanding of waiting impulsivity.; VV and NAH are Wellcome Trust (WT) intermediate Clinical Fellows. LSM is an MRC student. The BCNI is supported by a WT and MRC grant. The authors report no conflicts of interest. TWR consults for Cambridge Cognition...

Obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults.

Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Derbyshire, Katherine L.; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E.
Fonte: CUP Publicador: CUP
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from CUP at http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1092852914000625; Objective. Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. Methods. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. Results. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision- making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables...

A direct comparison of girls adopted from China and Eastern Europe: anxiety, hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattention and defiant behaviours

Abrines,Neus; Barcons,Natalia; Görzig,Anke; Marre,Diana; Brun,Carme; Fumadó,Victoria
Fonte: Clínica y Salud Publicador: Clínica y Salud
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/11/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
Previous research looking at adopted children has shown that children adopted from Eastern Europe (EE) are more likely to show inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity whereas girls adopted from China (CH) tend to have normative adjustment scores, although as they grow up, internalising behaviours might increase. We directly compare parental ratings of the SNAP-IV (Hyperactivity/Inattention) and SCARED (Anxiety) of girls adopted from CH (n = 42), EE (n = 34) and other countries (n = 32). EE were more likely to show inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and defiant behaviours than CH, independent of age at adoption and number of siblings. The age of the child only had a significant effect on defiant behaviours. No significant differences in anxiety were observed between groups. Overall anxiety levels were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Specific factors related to adoption in each region might account for differential levels in inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and defiant behaviours and should be taken into account to aid the adjustment of adoptees.

Disordered eating behaviors and binge drinking in female high-school students: the role of impulsivity

Ocampo Ortega,René; Bojorquez Chapela,letza; Unikel Santoncini,Claudia
Fonte: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Publicador: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
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Introduction It is widely accepted that psychiatric comorbidity can increase the severity, chronicity, and treatment resistance of psychiatric disorders. In various studies worldwide, it has been estimated that the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in women with disordered eating behaviors (DEB) is situated at between 2.9 and 48.6%. It is worth noting that previous studies have not considered the analysis of the variables that could explain the comorbidity between DEB and alcohol use in adolescents, such as impulsivity, which is the key variable for explaining this comorbidity. On the other hand, most studies have addressed the adult population in psychiatric hospitals or people with eating disorders (ED) or alcohol use disorders. It is considered that those subjects have already developed psychiatric comorbid disorders. Impulsivity could be an unspecific trait that aggravates the psychiatric condition of a determined person and it is therefore more likely for that person to seek specialized care. According to the above, the role of impulsivity in the comorbidity of ED and alcohol use might not be similar to that of the general population, mostly among those who have not yet developed a whole clinical syndrome. Therefore, we consider that it is important to clarify the involvement of impulsivity in the comorbidity between disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and binge drinking (BD) in high school students. It is also crucial to analyze the association between impulsivity and the coexistence of DEB and binge drinking (BD) in female students aged between 15 and 19 years at public high schools in the State of Mexico. Methods Data for this study were drawn from the Project entitled "Prevalence and Factors Associated with Disordered Eating Behaviors in Adolescent Women with Different Levels of Urbanization and Migration Intensity" (CONACyT-SEP-2004-46560). The design for this study is cross-sectional and analytical. A sample of 2357 female students at 11 public high schools in the State of Mexico was randomly selected during the 2006-2007 school year. For data collection for this project...