Página 1 dos resultados de 12 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

A study on elasto-plastic impact friction

Nobre, J. P.; Dias, A. M.; Gras, R.
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
A purpose-built pendulum machine was used to study the oblique impact and the behaviour of the surface layers of a normalized low alloy steel subjected to the impact of hard [alpha]-alumina balls. The effect of relative tangential velocity on impulses, restitution coefficient and impact energy loss, was analysed. The morphology of the impact indentations was characterized and related to the impulses obtained. There was lip formation in the target material with ejection of a small fragile oxidized chip, at a certain critical sliding speed. The impact duration and the impulse ratio have maximum values. These values seem to be related to the critical angle of attack, common in abrasive and erosive ductile processes. The experimental results were compared with some impact models and theories.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V5B-3WRC3G0-4/1/41e4c5269f22928dae6bfa3fb640fd03

In vitro effects of substance P on neonatal rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones.

Dun, N J; Mo, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1988 EN
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16.03%
1. Intracellular recordings were made from antidromically identified sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs) in thin transverse neonatal rat thoracolumbar spinal cord slices. 2. Applied either by pressure ejection or superfusion, substance P (SP) caused a slow, monophasic depolarization in 60% of sympathetic preganglionic neurones; a biphasic response consisting of an initial hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization was observed in a few neurones. In addition, SP induced the occurrence of repetitive inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in about 20% SPNs. 3. Low-Ca2+ or tetrodotoxin (TTX)-containing Krebs solution abolished the hyperpolarizing phase of the biphasic response and the small IPSPs, thereby augmenting the depolarizing response of SP. 4. SP-induced depolarizations were often associated with a moderate increase in membrane resistance. Generally, the response was made smaller on hyperpolarization and reversed at the membrane potential between -90 and -100 mV. These findings suggest that a reduction of membrane K+ conductance may underlie the depolarizing action of SP. 5. Subthreshold fast, excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by stimulation of dorsal rootlets were consistently augmented during SP-induced depolarization...

Congenital Aortic Stenosis: Some Observations on the Natural History and Clinical Assessment

Peckham, Gerald B.; Keith, John D.; Evans, John R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/09/1964 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
Three hundred patients, 30 years of age or under, with the clinical diagnosis of aortic stenosis were reviewed to provide information on the accuracy of clinical assessment and the natural history of the condition when left untreated. Sudden death was uncommon and occurred only in patients with clinical evidence of severe obstruction. In infants, the early presentation and lethal nature of aortic stenosis appeared to result from the presence of additional cardiac lesions. Correlation of clinical assessment with hemodynamic data in 83 patients indicated that important stenosis was present if the systolic murmur was accompanied by a thrill and associated with an increased left ventricular impulse, decreased brachial artery pulse pressure, or left ventricular hypertrophy on the electrocardiogram. The site of obstruction could not be established with certainty by clinical examination, but an early systolic ejection click was strong evidence against subvalvular stenosis.

Electromechanics of paced left ventricle simulated by straightforward mathematical model: comparison with experiments

Kerckhoffs, R. C. P.; Faris, O. P.; Bovendeerd, P. H. M.; Prinzen, F. W.; Smits, K.; McVeigh, E. R.; Arts, T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.22%
Intraventricular synchrony of cardiac activation is important for efficient pump function. Ventricular pacing restores the beating frequency but induces more asynchronous depolarization and more inhomogeneous contraction than in the normal heart. We investigated whether the increased inhomogeneity in the left ventricle can be described by a relatively simple mathematical model of cardiac electromechanics, containing normal mechanical and impulse conduction properties. Simulations of a normal heartbeat and of pacing at the right ventricular apex (RVA) were performed. All properties in the two simulations were equal, except for the depolarization sequence. Simulation results of RVA pacing on local depolarization time and systolic midwall circumferential strain were compared with those measured in dogs, using an epicardial sock electrode and MRI tagging, respectively. We used the same methods for data processing for simulation and experiment. Model and experiment agreed in the following aspects. 1) Ventricular pacing decreased systolic pressure and ejection fraction relative to natural sinus rhythm. 2) Shortening during ejection and stroke work declined in early depolarized regions and increased in late depolarized regions. 3) The relation between epicardial depolarization time and systolic midwall circumferential strain was linear and similar for the simulation (slope = −3.80 ± 0.28 s−1...

Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling of Parachutes with Disreefing and Modified Geometric Porosity and Separation Aerodynamics of a Cover Jettisoned to the Spacecraft Wake

Fritze, Matt
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
Fluid--structure interaction (FSI) modeling of spacecraft parachutes involves a number of computational challenges. The canopy complexity created by the hundreds of gaps and slits and design-related modification of that geometric porosity by removal of some of the sails and panels are among the formidable challenges. Disreefing from one stage to another when the parachute is used in multiple stages is another formidable challenge. This thesis addresses the computational challenges involved in disreefing of spacecraft parachutes and fully-open and reefed stages of the parachutes with modified geometric porosity. The special techniques developed to address these challenges are described and the FSI computations are be reported. The thesis also addresses the modeling and computation challenges involved in very early stages, where the sudden separation of a cover jettisoned to the spacecraft wake needs to be modeled. Higher-order temporal representations used in modeling the separation motion are described, and the computed separation and wake-induced forces acting on the cover are reported.

Cross sectional echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Comparison with biplane angiographic measurements.

Oberhänsli, I; Friedli, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1984 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
To evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of calculating left ventricular volume and ejection fraction from cross sectional echocardiograms in patients with tetralogy of Fallot, 28 patients were studied within 24 hours of cineangiography. Indexed end diastolic and end systolic volumes were calculated from three different paired echocardiographic projections: (a) the two and four chamber views from the apical impulse window, (b) the parasternal long axis view and the subxiphoid long axis view, and (c) the four chamber view and short axis precordial views at mitral and papillary muscle level. Volumes were calculated in five different ways using three different algorithms (area length, Simpson's rule, the Parisi formula). The results were compared with data obtained from biplane angiograms using Graham's formula. The correlation varied with the algorithm used: the best results were obtained with the area length method using the parasternal long axis view and the sub-xiphoid view. The correlation was less accurate for the ejection fraction. The second best correlation was obtained with the area length method using the two and four chamber apical views; the other correlations were less satisfactory. Thus these results show that left ventricular volumes can be accurately assessed by cross sectional echocardiography in children with tetralogy of Fallot and that the ejection fraction can be satisfactorily estimated. The results depend on careful gain setting and precise demonstration of the left ventricular endocardium...

A dynamical mechanism for establishing apsidal resonance

Malhotra, Renu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/07/2002
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.23%
We show that in a system of two planets initially in nearly circular orbits, an impulse perturbation that imparts a finite eccentricity to one planet's orbit causes the other planet's orbit to become eccentric as well, and also naturally results in a libration of their relative apsidal longitudes for a wide range of initial conditions. We suggest that such a mechanism may explain orbital eccentricities and apsidal resonance in some exo-planetary systems. The eccentricity impulse could be caused by the ejection of a planet from these systems, or by torques from a primordial gas disk. The amplitude of secular variations provides an observational constraint on the dynamical history of such systems.; Comment: to appear in ApJ-Letters

Chemical Abundances of the Secondary Star in the Black Hole X-ray Binary XTE J1118+480

Hernández, Jonay I. González; Rebolo, Rafael; Israelian, Garik; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Chornock, Ryan; Tominaga, Nozomu; Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/01/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
Following the recent abundance measurements of Mg, Al, Ca, Fe, and Ni in the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1118+480 using medium-resolution Keck II/ESI spectra of the secondary star (Gonz\'alez Hern\'andez et al. 2006), we perform a detailed abundance analysis including the abundances of Si and Ti. These element abundances, higher than solar, indicate that the black hole in this system formed in a supernova event, whose nucleosynthetic products could pollute the atmosphere of the secondary star, providing clues on the possible formation region of the system, either Galactic halo, thick disk, or thin disk. We explore a grid of explosion models with different He core masses, metallicities, and geometries. Metal-poor models associated with a formation scenario in the Galactic halo provide unacceptable fits to the observed abundances, allowing us to reject a halo origin for this X-ray binary. The thick-disk scenario produces better fits, although they require substantial fallback and very efficient mixing processes between the inner layers of the explosion and the ejecta, making quite unlikely an origin in the thick disk. The best agreement between the model predictions and the observed abundances is obtained for metal-rich progenitor models. In particular...

Features of the Acoustic Mechanism of Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions

Burrows, A.; Livne, E.; Dessart, L.; Ott, C. D.; Murphy, J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/10/2006
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.03%
In the context of 2D, axisymmetric, multi-group, radiation/hydrodynamic simulations of core-collapse supernovae over the full 180$^{\circ}$ domain, we present an exploration of the progenitor dependence of the acoustic mechanism of explosion. All progenitor models we have tested with our Newtonian code explode. We investigate the roles of the Standing-Accretion-Shock-Instability (SASI), the excitation of core g-modes, the generation of core acoustic power, the ejection of matter with r-process potential, the wind-like character of the explosion, and the fundamental anisotropy of the blasts. We find that the breaking of spherical symmetry is central to the supernova phenomenon and the blasts, when top-bottom asymmetric, are self-collimating. We see indications that the initial explosion energies are larger for the more massive progenitors, and smaller for the less massive progenitors, and that the neutrino contribution to the explosion energy may be an increasing function of progenitor mass. The degree of explosion asymmetry we obtain is completely consistent with that inferred from the polarization measurements of Type Ic supernovae. Furthermore, we calculate for the first time the magnitude and sign of the net impulse on the core due to anisotropic neutrino emission and suggest that hydrodynamic and neutrino recoils in the context of our asymmetric explosions afford a natural mechanism for observed pulsar proper motions. [abridged]; Comment: Accepted to the Astrophysical Journal...

Stress relaxation in a perfect nanocrystal by coherent ejection of lattice layers

Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Sengupta, Surajit; Rao, Madan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.03%
We show that a small crystal trapped within a potential well and in contact with its own fluid, responds to large compressive stresses by a novel mechanism -- the transfer of complete lattice layers across the solid-fluid interface. Further, when the solid is impacted by a momentum impulse set up in the fluid, a coherently ejected lattice layer carries away a definite quantity of energy and momentum, resulting in a sharp peak in the calculated phonon absorption spectrum. Apart from its relevance to studies of stability and failure of small sized solids, such coherent nanospallation may be used to make atomic wires or monolayer films.; Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, published version, changed content

Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging of Myocardial Performance

Hsu, Stephen John
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 5671168 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for developed countries, including the United States. In order to diagnose and detect certain cardiac diseases, it is necessary to assess myocardial performance and function. One mechanical property that has been shown to reflect myocardial performance is myocardial stiffness. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has been demonstrated to be capable of visualizing variations in local stiffness within soft tissue.

In this thesis, the initial investigations into the visualization of myocardial performance with ARFI imaging are presented. In vivo ARFI images were acquired with a linear array placed on exposed canine hearts. When co-registered with the electrocardiogram (ECG), ARFI images of the heart reflected the expected changes in myocardial stiffness through the cardiac cycle. With the implementation of a quadratic motion filter, motion artifacts within the ARFI images were reduced to below 1.5 &mu m at all points of the cardiac cycle. The inclusion of pre-excitation displacement estimates in the quadratic motion filter further reduced physiological motion artifacts at all points of the cardiac cycle to below 0.5 &mu m.

In order for cardiac ARFI imaging to more quantitatively assess myocardial performance...

Transthoracic Cardiac Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

Bradway, David Pierson
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%

This dissertation investigates the feasibility of a real-time transthoracic Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging system to measure myocardial function non-invasively in clinical setting. Heart failure is an important cardiovascular disease and contributes to the leading cause of death for developed countries. Patients exhibiting heart failure with a low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can often be identified by clinicians, but patients with preserved LVEF might be undetected if they do not exhibit other signs and symptoms of heart failure. These cases motivate development of transthoracic ARFI imaging to aid the early diagnosis of the structural and functional heart abnormalities leading to heart failure.

M-Mode ARFI imaging utilizes ultrasonic radiation force to displace tissue several micrometers in the direction of wave propagation. Conventional ultrasound tracks the response of the tissue to the force. This measurement is repeated rapidly at a location through the cardiac cycle, measuring timing and relative changes in myocardial stiffness. ARFI imaging was previously shown capable of measuring myocardial properties and function via invasive open-chest and intracardiac approaches.

The prototype imaging system described in this dissertation is capable of rapid acquisition...