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Determinantes da demanda por importação de arroz do Mercosul pelo Brasil; Determinants of brazilian rice imports demand from Mercosur

Capitani, Daniel Henrique Dario
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2009 PT
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37.17%
Um dos principais cereais produzido e consumido no Brasil, o arroz se apresentou, principalmente a partir da década de 1990, como um dos produtos agrícolas mais importados pelo Brasil. A abertura econômica brasileira em 1990, o plano de estabilização monetária (Plano Real) em 1994, e a criação do Mercosul em 1995 possibilitaram uma maior importação de bens e mercadorias pelo Brasil. Não diferente, as importações de arroz do país saltaram a um patamar significativo ao longo da década de 1990, com o Uruguai e Argentina sendo os maiores ofertantes do produto no mercado brasileiro. Mesmo após sua desvalorização cambial em 1999, o Brasil manteve níveis consideráveis de importação do produto oriundo do Mercosul. De forma a compreender os fatores que contribuíram para um aumento da demanda do produto importado, o presente trabalho descreveu o cenário da orizicultura no Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai, desde 1989 a 2008, analisando suas cadeias produtivas, preços nos mercados domésticos, e participação no mercado internacional de arroz. Concomitante a isso, propôs-se um modelo econômico para analisar esta relação comercial no Mercosul, assumindo que as importações brasileiras de arroz são resultantes de um excesso de demanda doméstica pelo cereal. Utilizou-se um ferramental econométrico baseado em um Modelo Auto-regressivo Vetorial VAR estrutural...

Price regulation and parallel imports of pharmaceuticals

Brekke, Kurt R; Holmas, Tor Helge; Straume, Odd Rune
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
This paper studies the effects of price regulation and parallel imports in the onpatent pharmaceutical market. First, we develop a theory model in which a pharmacy negotiates producer prices with a brand-name firm and then sets retail prices. We show that the effects of price regulation crucially depend on whether the producer faces competition from parallel imports. While parallel imports improve the bargaining position of the pharmacy, price regulation counteracts this effect and may even be profitable for the producer. Second, we use a unique dataset with information on sales and prices at both producer and retail level for 165 substances over four years (2004-7). Exploiting exogenous variation in the regulated price caps, we show that stricter price regulation reduces competition from parallel imports. While the effect is clearly negative on producer profits for substances without parallel imports, the effect is not significant for substances with parallel imports. Finally, we show that stricter price regulation reduces total expenditures, but the effect is much stronger for substances with parallel import. Thus, our results suggest that price regulation may promote both static and dynamic efficiency in the presence of parallel imports.; COMPETE...

Controlos veterinários nas importações de subprodutos técnicos de origem animal, sua caracterização e seu enquadramento na legislação da União Europeia

Silva, Janice Gonçalves Duarte
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em 20/10/2009 POR
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Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária; A presente dissertação aborda a temática dos controlos veterinários de produtos de origem animal e de subprodutos técnicos de origem animal aquando da entrada de produtos provenientes de países terceiros autorizados a exportar para o mercado europeu e sistematiza os procedimentos de controlo que são realizados nas fronteiras da União Europeia enquadrando a respectiva base legal que os suportam na Comunidade Europeia, descriminando a sequência e a organização e os meios em suporte informático ou em papel utilizados antes, durante e após os mesmos. Descreve, de uma forma mais elaborada, os controlos veterinários nas importações dos subprodutos técnicos de origem animal, ou seja, produtos não destinados ao consumo humano e animal, relacionando a classificação e o destino destes subprodutos às suas disposições aplicáveis às importações. Posteriormente, analisam-se e discutem-se os requisitos relativos às importações dos troféus de caça, descriminando as entidades que são responsáveis pelo controlo no país de origem, pelas importações e pela manutenção da rastreabilidade dos troféus de caça após a entrada no mercado europeu e por fim a apresentação...

OECD Imports : Diversification of Suppliers and Quality Search

Cadot, Olivier; Carrere, Celine; Strauss-Kahn, Vanessa
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper explores the evolution of OECD imports over time, measuring their concentration across origin countries at the product level. The authors find evidence of diversification followed, in the very last years of the sample period (post-2000), by a slight re-concentration. This re-concentration is entirely explained by the growing importance of Chinese products in OECD imports. They also find evidence of relatively more volatile concentration levels for goods with high quality heterogeneity, with temporary phases of re-concentration on goods with higher unit values. Both findings are consistent with a simple model of adverse selection and quality screening by OECD buyers predicting that diversification happens by "bouts" rather than continuously, with temporary re-concentration on higher-quality suppliers.

Assessing the Direct Economic Effects of Reallocating Irrigation Water to Alternative Uses Concepts and an Application

Andriamananjara, Soamiely; Brenton, Paul; von Uexkull, Jan Erik; Walkenhorst, Peter
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study discusses potential economic implications for Nigeria of an Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union. It uses the World Bank s Tariff Reform Impact Simulation Tool to assess the effects of preferential tariff liberalization with respect to the European Union. The results suggest that the impact of an Economic Partnership Agreement on total imports into Nigeria will be slight. This is in part because the Agreement will likely allow the most protected sectors to be excluded from liberalization, and also because where substantial tariffs are involved much of the increase in imports from the European Union will occur at the expense of other suppliers of imports. It is this trade diversion, arising from the discriminatory nature of the EPA, which generates a negative welfare impact of the tariff reforms. One way for Nigeria to limit these losses is to pursue non-preferential trade liberalization before implementing an EPA. The paper looks at the large number of import bans in Nigeria and argues that the positive impact on welfare of removing these import bans is likely to be substantial. Their removal would undermine a major reason for cross border smuggling and pave the way for a return to normal regional trade flows. The paper shows how an Economic Partnership Agreement presents an opportunity for accelerating the reforms that are needed to support a strategy to increase regional and global trade integration. Such an agreement is more likely to have positive and significant impacts when integrated into a comprehensive strategy toward competitiveness and alleviation of the supply constraints that have stifled the impact of previous trade agreements. Key issues that should be addressed include liberalization and regulatory strengthening of services sectors to ensure that all firms in Nigeria have access to efficiently produced backbone services and initiatives to address the country s poor trade logistics performance.

Reconciling Climate Change and Trade Policy

Mattoo, Aaditya; Subramanian, Arvind; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; He, Jianwu
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.98%
There is growing clamor in industrial countries for additional border taxes on imports from countries with lower carbon prices. The authors confirm the findings of other research that unilateral emissions cuts by industrial countries will have minimal carbon leakage effects. However, output and exports of energy-intensive manufactures are projected to decline potentially creating pressure for trade action. A key factor affecting the impact of any border taxes is whether they are based on the carbon content of imports or the carbon content in domestic production. Their quantitative estimates suggest that the former action when applied to all merchandise imports would address competitiveness and environmental concerns in high income countries but with serious consequences for trading partners. For example, China s manufacturing exports would decline by one-fifth and those of all low and middle income countries by 8 per cent; the corresponding declines in real income would be 3.7 per cent and 2.4 per cent. Border tax adjustment based on the carbon content in domestic production...

Import Protection, Business Cycles, and Exchange Rates : Evidence from the Great Recession

Bown, Chad P.; Crowley, Meredith A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This research estimates the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on import protection policies over 1988:Q1-2010:Q4 for the United States, European Union, and three other industrialized economies. First, estimates on a pre-Great Recession sample provide evidence of three key relationships for the US and EU. Increases in domestic unemployment rates and real appreciations in bilateral exchange rates led to substantial increases in antidumping and related forms of import protection. Furthermore, economies historically imposed these bilateral import restrictions on trading partners going through their own periods of weak economic growth. Second, estimates from the pre-Great Recession model predict a major trade policy response during 2008:Q4-2010:Q4, given the realized macroeconomic shocks. New US and EU trade barriers were projected to cover up to an additional 15 percentage points of nonoil imports, well above the baseline level of 2-3 percent of import coverage immediately preceding the crisis. Third, re-estimating the model on data from the Great Recession period illustrates why the realized trade policy response differed from model predictions based on historical data. While exchange rate movements played an important role in limiting new import protection...

Are Lives a Substitute for Livelihoods? Terrorism, Security, and U.S. Bilateral Imports

Mirza, Daniel; Verdier, Thierry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
What is the impact of terrorism on trade through higher security at the borders? The authors set up a theory which shows that the impact goes not only from terrorism to trade. Higher trade with a partner might, in turn, increase the probability of terrorism acts and make security measures more costly for total welfare. To identify the true impact of terrorism, their theory allows for a strategy to condition out the latter mechanism. The authors show in particular how past incidents perpetrated in third countries (anywhere in the world except the origin or targeted country) constitute good exogenous factors for current security measures at the borders. Their tests suggest that terrorist incidents have a small effect on U.S. imports on average, but a much higher effect for those origin countries at the top of the distribution of incidents. In addition, the level of the impact is up to three times higher when the acts result in a relatively high number of victims, the products are sensitive to shipping time, and the size of the partner is small. The authors further show how terrorism affects the number of business visas given by the United States, thereby affecting significantly U.S. imports in differentiated products. These results suggest that security to prevent terrorism does matter for trade.

Demand for Imports in Venezuela : A Structural Time Series Approach

Cuevas, Mario A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Using structural time series models, Cuevas estimates common stochastic trends of real GDP and imports in Venezuela from 1974-2000. The real imports trend drifts upward at almost twice the rate of growth of GDP. This highlights the powerful structural tendency toward increasing imports in Venezuela. The author also explicitly estimates common stochastic cycles, which he finds to have 5 and 17 year periods. In addition, he finds that a 1 percent real exchange rate appreciation leads to a 0.4 percent increase in imports. And in the long-run, 1 percent real GDP growth is associated with 1.7 percent real imports growth. The author also shows that the GDP elasticity of imports uniformly falls with cycle period, with the elasticity reaching 4.55 at the frequency associated with the 5-year cycle. A powerful imports responsiveness at the higher cycle frequency is associated with the recurrence of external imbalances in Venezuela.

Parallel Imports of Pharmaceutical Products in the European Union

Ganslandt, Mattias; Maskus, Keith E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
The point of parallel imports of pharmaceuticals is arbitrage between countries with different prices. For several years, an important issue in the European Union (EU) has been the evident conflict between differing price regulations in the member states, on the one hand, and the consequences of parallel trade, on the other. In the EU, so long as the manufacturer has placed the good on the market voluntarily, the principle of free movement of goods allows individuals, or firms within the EU to trade goods across borders, without the consent of the producer. In this context, the authors study the effects of parallel trade in the pharmaceutical industry. They develop a model in which an original manufacturer competes in its home market with parallel-importing firms. The two key hypotheses in their theoretical analysis are these: First, if the potential for parallel imports is unlimited, the manufacturer chooses deterrence, and international prices converge. Second, with endogenously limited arbitrage, the manufacturing firm accommodates...

Developed country imports from developing countries: are they importing enough?

Katheklakis, Kosta
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
The development of an efficient and competitive agricultural industry is of increasing importance to developing countries in their pursuit of industrialisation. The economically sustainable allocation of resources which is characteristic of an efficient industry allows sustainable growth both in the economy and in incomes. Growth in income is particularly vital in the alleviation of poverty. Increased trade flows, whether it be in agricultural or non- agricultural products facilitates the growth of local producers in developing countries. Agriculture is important for developing countries because a majority of their population lives in rural areas where agriculture is the primary source of income. Thus the increase in agricultural trade for these countries, as brought on by the establishment of a competitive and efficient industry helps to raise rural incomes and promote industrialisation. However, there exist many o bstacles to the free flow of trade in agricultural products. Many of these obstacles orig1nate in the trade and domestic support policies of the developed world. For this reason, previous and current trade negotiations in the World Trade Organisation have had the facilitation of development in developing and Least Developed Countries as a primary concern. The Uruguay Round of negotiations was aimed at reducing tariffs and domestic support with an aim to improving market access for developing countries. While there were some decreases in tariff levels...

The Grain Chain : Food Security and Managing Wheat Imports in Arab Countries

Lampietti, Julian; Larson, Donald F.; Battat, Michelle; Erekat, Dana; De Hartog, Arnold; Michaels, Sean
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Arab countries depend heavily on imported food, particularly wheat. Population growth, rising incomes, and climate change will only increase their dependency on wheat imports, thereby making Arab countries even more exposed to international market volatility. A recent World Bank study, 'the grain chain: food security and managing wheat imports in Arab countries,' identifies key bottlenecks in the wheat-import supply chain (WISC) and some possible remedies. Efficiency improvements to the supply chain can improve food security. This smart lesson provides a summary of the relevant issues.

Should Zambia Produce Biodiesel from Soybeans? Some Insights from an Empirical Analysis

de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of entire petroleum despite the availability of a surplus of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia, a country in Sub-Saharan Africa, has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. But, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been fully investigated yet. Using an empirical model this study analyzes the economics of meeting the biodiesel mandate through soybean feedstock. The study finds that meeting the biodiesel mandate with biodiesel from soybeans would reduce social welfare because the country's soybean imports would cost more than the expected reduction in petroleum imports. However, if Zambia increases its domestic soybean supply along with its capacity to convert soybean to biodiesel, as well as oil yield, soybean based biodiesel is likely to be welfare-beneficial, even if biodiesel prices are above diesel prices. The study also finds that under current market prices and transportation costs and constraints...

Vertical Price Control and Parallel Imports : Theory and Evidence

Maskus, Keith E.; Chen, Yongmin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
A policy of national exhaustion says that the rights to control distribution, end upon first sale only within a country, thereby permitting rights holders to exclude parallel imports. A policy of international exhaustion states that such rights end upon first sale anywhere, and therefore permits parallel imports. The European Union has a policy of regional exhaustion within its territory. Language in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) suggests that this policy choice remains the prerogative of individual countries. The authors review the international policy debate about parallel imports, which are controversial because they erode the ability of intellectual property owners to segment markets. Against considerable opposition, for example, Australia recently deregulated its import controls in major copyrighted goods, because domestic prices were evidently sustained at high levels by those controls. Both the European Union, and the United States are considering permitting parallel imports of prescription pharmaceuticals from abroad. Developing countries must consider their exhaustion regimes in the context of competition policies, and intellectual property rights. Economic theory demonstrates that the welfare tradeoffs in regulating parallel imports...

What Drives Short-Run Labor Market Volatility in Offshoring Industries? Evidence from Northern Mexico during 2007–2009

Kaplan, David S.; Lederman, Daniel; Robertson, Raymond
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
Recent research shows that employment in Mexico's offshoring maquiladora industries is twice as volatile as employment in their U.S. industry counterparts. The analyses in this paper use data from Mexico's social security records and U.S. customs between the first quarter of 2007 and the last quarter of 2009 to identify four channels through which economic shocks emanating from the United States were amplified when transmitted into Mexico's offshoring labor market of Northern Mexico. First, employment and imports within industries are complements, which is consistent with imports being used as inputs for the assembly of exportable goods within industries. That is, when imports fell during the crisis, employment in Mexico was reduced rather than protected by the fall of imports. Second, contrary to other studies, employment is more responsive than wages to trade shocks. Third, fluctuations in Mexico-U.S. trade were associated with changes in the composition of employment, with the skill level of workers rising during downturns and falling during upswings. This implies that the correlation between average wages and trade shocks is partly driven by labor-force compositional effects, which may obscure individual-worker wage flexibility. Fourth...

Trade Policy Flexibilities and Turkey : Tariffs, Antidumping, Safeguards, and WTO Dispute Settlement

Bown, Chad P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.17%
Trade policy commitments to lower import tariffs and to maintain tariffs at low levels entail short and long-run political-economic costs and benefits. Empirical work examining the relationship between such commitments and the exercise of trade policy flexibilities is still relatively nascent, especially for emerging economies. This paper provides a rich, empirically-based assessment of ways that Turkey exercised trade policy flexibilities during the global economic crisis of 2008-11. First, and despite multilateral and customs union commitments that might limit changes to applied tariffs, Turkey made changes to both its applied Most Favored Nation and preferential tariffs that cumulatively affect nearly 9 percent of manufacturing imports and 10 percent of import product lines. Second, Turkey's cumulative application of temporary trade barrier (TTB) policies -- antidumping, safeguards and countervailing duties -- are estimated to impact by 2011 an additional 4 percent of imports and 6 percent of product lines. Other surprising results on Turkey's use of flexibilities include: extending the duration of previously imposed antidumping and safeguards beyond expected removal dates...

U.S. Contingent Protection against Honey Imports : Development Aspects and the Doha Round

Nogues, Julio J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
On December 10, 2001 the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) imposed steep antidumping duties against honey imports from Argentina and China ranging from 32.6 percent to 183.8 percent, and a countervailing duty against Argentina of 5.9 percent. A previous antidumping investigation in 1995 ended with a suspension "agreement" that curtailed U.S. imports from China by around 30 percent. Millions of beekeepers around the world, most of them poor, make a living from honey production, and a free and competitive world market would help raise their standards of living. Nevertheless, the sequential pattern of increasing and widening protectionism followed by the United States, the world's top importer, to include successful exporters under the effects of its contingent protection measures sends a clear message that other countries should think twice before investing in expanding honey exports to the United States. In addition to looking into the trade effects of these contingent protection measures, the author concludes that under the regulatory arrangements of the DOC...

An Elementary Proposition Concerning Parallel Imports

Richardson, Martin
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
This paper demonstrates that, when countries individually choose whether or not to prohibit parallel imports, a global Nash equilibrium involves the permitting of parallel importing into all relevant foreign markets i.e. global uniform pricing. This resul

China's Natural Gas Imports and Prospects

Tang, Tingting
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 18/04/2014 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
The project provides an overview of China’s current natural gas imports and key factors impacting its future imports. As part of its strategy to pursue cleaner energy sources, the Chinese government has pledged to consume more natural gas, which has historically been underrepresented in the country’s energy mix. To achieve its natural gas consumption goal, China’s demand for imported natural gas is expected to reach 124 billion cubic meters in 2020, more than tripling its imports in 2012 of 38 billion cubic meters. Cheap and abundant gas in the U.S., as a result of the shale gas revolution, has generated enormous interest in China about the possibility of importing LNG from the U.S. However, uncertainties surrounding U.S. natural gas export policies reinforced China’s impression that importing gas from the U.S. may be a difficult and prolonged process. Several studies predict that the future influx of gas from the U.S. into the international market will lead to a decline in natural gas prices worldwide. As a result, even if China does not import LNG from the U.S., it is likely to benefit from the decrease in LNG prices in the global market. The mere possibility of importing gas from the U.S. has given China more leverage in its negotiations with Russia over the China-Russia gas pipeline. Given the recent progress the two countries have made in their negotiations...

The Role of Imports for Exporter Performance in Peru

Pierola, Martha Denisse; Fernandes, Ana Margarida; Farole, Thomas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Using highly disaggregated firm-level customs transaction data for imports and exports in Peru over the 2000–2012 period, this paper explores the relationship between imports of intermediate inputs and firm export performance. The paper shows that greater use, variety, and quality of imported intermediate inputs is significantly correlated with higher exports, faster export growth, greater diversification of export markets, and higher quality exports (as measured by relative unit prices) at the firm level. This relationship is robust and persistent to controls for unobserved firm heterogeneity and year fixed effects. The use of imported inputs is also associated with higher productivity at the firm level. Considering the relationship between specific trade policy measures and the import performance of those exporters that are direct importers, the analysis shows that those exposed to higher tariffs and nontariff measures import less in total and exhibit lower import variety. The use of the advanced clearance procedure as the modality to clear customs for imports is favorable to the import performance of exporter-importers...