Neste trabalho, os anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais anti-fluoxetina foram produzidos em coelhos e camundongos, respectivamente, por imunização com o conjugado fluoxetina-soroalbumina bovina. Os anticorpos obtidos foram caracterizados em função da especificidade contra o fármaco por ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) e posteriormente, purificados por afinidade em coluna fluoxetina-agarose labmade. Os anticorpos purificados foram imobilizados covalentemente na superfície vítrea das barras SBSE (extração sortiva em barra de agitação) labmade. Após a derivatização das barras com 3-aminopropiltrietoxisilano, dois métodos distintos de acoplamento dos anticorpos às barras SBSE foram avaliados: ativação com glutaraldeído e succinilação seguida de ativação via éster N-hidroxisuccinimida (NHS). A funcionalização das barras SBSE foi comprovada através da imobilização de enzima peroxidase (HRP) em lugar do anticorpo e posterior ensaio enzimático com as barras. Várias barras SBSE com diferentes áreas (1,2; 2,4; e 4,0 cm2) foram preparadas, dentre as quais, as com maior área imunosorvente apresentaram maiores taxas de recuperação do fármaco. A avaliação da morfologia da superfície da barra SBSE imunosorvente foi realizada através de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). As variáveis do processo SBSE de imunoafinidade foram otimizadas para estabelecer o equilíbrio de sorção antígeno-anticorpo em um menor tempo de análise e obtenção de limite de quantificação compatível com o intervalo terapêutico do fármaco. As capacidades adsortivas das barras imunosorventes foram de 1...
Detection of complement-fixing antibody to coccidioidin by using the complement fixation test or an immunodiffusion assay for complement-fixing antibody (IDCF) is widely viewed as the most useful immunodiagnostic test for coccidioidomycosis. In this investigation, we report the production of an immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody (MAb) to the IDCF antigen for use as a biospecific ligand for purifying the IDCF antigen on solid-phase immunosorbents and for use as a reagent for screening genomic or cDNA expression libraries from Coccidioides immitis. BALB/c mice were immunized by intramuscular injections of coccidioidin in adjuvant, followed by an intrasplenic booster injection of coccidioidin in saline. The spleen cells were fused with SP2/0 Ag14 myeloma cells, and the fusion products were screened for IgG antibody to coccidiodin by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Positive hybridomas were cloned and evaluated for reactivity to the IDCF antigen by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis and by immunoblotting. An IgG1 Mab was produced that was specific for the IDCF antigen when evaluated by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting. The epitope recognized by the MAb was heat labile (60 degrees C...
Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) precipitin antibody to coccidioidin, the autolysate of mycelial-phase cells of Coccidioides immitis, is an important serologic aid in establishing a diagnosis of primary coccidioidomycosis. In the present study, the component of coccidioidin that reacts with IgM precipitin antibody was isolated by a combination of immunoaffinity and anion-exchange chromatography. Antigenic analysis of the purified antigen in two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis against goat anti-coccidioidin revealed a precipitinogen characterized by a complete cathodal leg and a partial anodal leg. The reactivity of this incomplete precipitating antigen with anti-C. immitis IgM was established by serologic assays and by the adsorption of reference IgM precipitin antibody on solid-phase immunosorbents containing the purified precipitinogen. The isolation of the coccidioidin component that reacts with IgM precipitin antibody and the production of monospecific antibody will provide the necessary reagents for the development of a sensitive immunoassay for detecting this serodiagnostic response.
A panel of monoclonal antibodies were derived from BALB.B10 mice immunized with a culture filtrate from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Of these antibodies, 10 were examined more closely for antigen specificity and interspecies reactivity. Six antibodies were used as immunosorbents for affinity purification of their corresponding antigens. Two monoclonal antibodies (HBT 2 and HBT 11) reacted with a 17-kilodalton antigen, and a competition assay showed that these antibodies are directed against the same epitope or against epitopes that are sterically very close to each other. Monoclonal antibody HBT 12 reacted with the same molecule with which a previously described 38-kilodalton reactive antibody reacted but was directed against a different epitope. Antibody HBT 10 reacted with a culture filtrate of M. tuberculosis but not of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. This latter finding was further studied by testing different preparations of M. tuberculosis H37Rv antigens and, additionally, culture filtrates of four M. tuberculosis and two BCG strains. Interspecies reactivity was assayed by immunoblotting and revealed that the majority of the monoclonal antibodies were specific to M. tuberculosis complex.
The method of preparing solid-phase immunosorbents by covalently attaching proteins from whole human serum to cyanogen bromide-activated agarose has been investigated to determine optimum concentrations of cyanogen bromide and protein, and the optimum pH for the maximum attachment of proteins from serum. Two systems in which the above immunosorbents have proved useful are described: the removal of antibodies to normal serum proteins from anti-hepatitis B serum and the removal of light chain antibodies from anti-human immunoglobulin M serum.
We immunized four different sheep with antigen-binding material found in the serum of BALB/c mice 4 days after primary immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The resultant antibodies made by the sheep contained a specificity(ies) that appeared to react with a dominant idiotype present on SRBC-specific Lyt-2+ T cells. The antiserum made by the sheep markedly inhibited the formation of antigen-specific rosettes by SRBC educated T cells but did not inhibit T cells educated to other heterologous erythrocytes from forming crossreacting rosettes with SRBC or specific rosettes with the homologous erythrocytes. The "anti-Id serum" was depleted of all activity against known immunoglobulin isotypes and light chains and then was used to isolate antigen-binding molecules from mice that were hyperimmunized with SRBC. The ShId+ material so isolated could be divided into two main groups--one that expressed immunoglobulin determinants, and one that did not. The former represented 15-25% of the ShId+ protein isolated and comprised a minority of the anti-SRBC antibody in the anti-SRBC serum; the latter group of proteins bound sheep glycophorin specifically and expressed constant region determinants found on a number of other antigen-specific T cell factors. These experiments suggest that antigen-binding molecules made by T cells display much less heterogeneity than do antibodies and also show that the serum of hyperimmune mice contains significant amounts of T cell-derived antigen-specific immunoregulatory molecules.
The use of immunoaffinity columns containing anti-gibberellin (GA) antibodies for the selective purification of GAs in plant extracts is described. GA1, GA3, GA4, GA5, GA7, and GA9 conjugates to bovine serum albumin were synthesized and used to elicit anti-GA polyclonal antibodies (Abs) in rabbits. Protein A purified rabbit serum, containing a mixture of anti-GA Abs, was immobilized on matrices of Affi-gel 10 or Fast-Flow Sepharose 4B. Columns of these immunosorbents retained a wide range of C-19 GA methyl esters, but no C-20 GA methyl esters. Quantitative recovery of C-19 GA methyl esters was achieved from the columns, which, after reequilibration in buffer, could be reused up to 500 times. The immunosorbents were tested by examination of extracts from immature soybean and pea seeds. GAs were initially purified by passing the extracts through DEAE-cellulose and concentrating them on octadecylsilica. The extracts were methylated and further purified on the mixed anti-GA immunoaffinity columns. GAs were detected and quantified as methyl esters or methyl ester trimethylsilyl ethers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring. GA7 was found in soybean seeds, 17 days after anthesis, at low levels (8.8 nanograms per gram fresh weight). C-19 GAs were examined in cotyledons...
1. Glycine–hydrochloric acid buffer, pH2.2, desorbed 131I-labelled human serum albumin (100%), lysozyme (100%), ovalbumin (90%), fluorescent ovalbumin (50–60%) and fluorescent human γ-globulin (20%) from their respective homologous disulphide-linked antibody immunosorbents; reasons are suggested for the low recoveries of the fluorescently labelled proteins. 2. Approx. 40% of the recovered 131I-labelled human serum albumin and fluorescent ovalbumin was desorbed above pH6.0, but lysozyme was not eluted until the pH was 3.0 or below. 3. In all cases where high recoveries of antigen were obtained, the immunosorbents could be regenerated and recycled at least four times with full retention of specificity and minimal diminution of capacity. 4. The desorbed antigens were unchanged when compared with the original antigens by quantitative precipitin, specificradioactivity, fluorescent and enzymic analyses and by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. 5. Desorption of antigen with a variety of reagents was investigated. These reagents were less satisfactory than glycine–hydrochloric acid.
1. Immunosorbents were prepared by coupling activated aminocellulose with the γ-globulin concentrates of antisera prepared against ovalbumin and human serum albumin. 2. The immunosorbents were low in solubility, but high in capacity for homologous antigens. 3. The high specificity of these immunosorbents was demonstrated by their use in fractionating various mixtures of fluorescent ovalbumin, 131I-labelled human serum albumin, lysozyme and ribonuclease.
1. γ-Globulin concentrates of antisera prepared against ovalbumin and human serum albumin were thiolated and cross-linked to form insoluble polymers. 2. These immunosorbents were of low solubility and of high capacity for homologous antigen. 3. The high specificity of these immunosorbents was demonstrated by fractionation of various binary mixtures of fluorescent ovalbumin, 131I-labelled human serum albumin, lysozyme and ribonuclease.
Sheep were immunized by multiple injections of acid-extracted rat tail tendon tropocollagen. Antibody activity could be demonstrated by quantitative precipitation and passive haemagglutination against denatured tropocollagen. Immunodiffusion experiments showed strong precipitin lines with denatured tendon tropocollagen, and with peptides obtained by CNBr digestion of whole rat tail tendon. Immunoelectrophoresis showed one line with denatured tropocollagen but four lines with the CNBr digest of whole tendon indicating at least four antigenic determinants. Immunosorbents prepared from antisera raised against tropocollagen readily absorbed labelled peptides from CNBr digests of rat tail tendons reduced with tritiated borohydride. These peptides were recoverable by desorption with 1 M ammonia and had a hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine content typical of collagen but increased tyrosine levels. Presence of the normal reducible components of collagen known to be involved in cross-linking was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography, and there was an increase in the proportion of fraction C. The majority of the tritium label was found in a cross-linked peptide, or group of peptides, with molecular weight around 60,000. The technique therefore has the potential for further development in the isolation of specific collagen peptides.
To explore the relative species specificities of the IgE and IgG antibody responses to helminth infections in man, we studied four pools of sera from patients infected with Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus or Ascaris lumbricoides and ten individual sera from patients with onchocerciasis. IgE antibodies were detected by radioallergosorbent test (RAST) analysis and IgG antibodies by a Staphylococcus protein A radioimmunoassay (Staph A-RIA). Analysis of the binding curves with four different immunosorbents (prepared from antigens of B. malayi, O. volvulus, Dipetalonema viteae and A. lumbricoides) in the RAST and the binding curves with these same four antigens in the Staph A-RIA confirmed the relative species specificities for both the IgE and IgG antibody responses. Then determination of these antibody levels after specific absorption of the sera with both homologous and heterologous antigens showed that in all instances there was significantly less cross-reactivity with heterologous parasite antigens (i.e. higher species specificity) in the IgE antibody response to filarial infection than in the corresponding IgG antibody response. Such findings imply that efforts toward developing techniques for specific immunodiagnosis of filarial infections are likely to be particularly successful if focused on the IgE antibody response of exposed individuals.
In this study, we tried to get information about the fine antigen- binding ability of purified, soluble, idiotype-positive T-cell receptor molecules. Lewis anti-DA T-cell receptors were purified from normal Lewis serum by the use of anti-idiotypic immunosorbent and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, and were coupled to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B. In parallel, Lewis anti-DA, Lewis anti- BN, and DA anti-Lewis alloantibody immunosorbents were prepared. The major Ag-B chain (44,000 daltons) and the two polypeptide chains (34,000 and 27,000 daltons) of Ia were purified from Lewis, DA, and BN lymphocytes and absorbent on the above-mentioned immunosorbents. We found that the major Ag-B chain as well as the two Ia chains were bound to the alloantibody columns if they were derived from the corresponding allogeneic strain. No retaining ability for self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or third-party MHC chains was noted with the alloantibody immunosorbents. When using immunosorbents made up of idiotypic T-cell receptors, only two MHC polypeptides of the relevant allo-MHC type were retained, namely, the Ag-B and the heavy Ia chains. No detectable activity was observed when testing the same column for reactivity against third-party MHC polypeptide chains. However...
The use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been restricted to applications having high sample concentrations because of its low sensitivity caused by small injection volumes and, when ultraviolet (UV) detection is used, the short optical path length. Sensitivity in CE can be improved by using more sensitive detection systems, or by preconcentration techniques which are based on chromatographic and/or electrophoretic principles. One of the promising strategies to improve sensitivity is solid phase extraction (SPE). Solid Phase Extraction utilizes high sample volumes and a variety of complex matrixes to facilitate trace detection. To increase the specificity of the SPE a selective solid phase must be chosen. Immunosorbents, which are a combination of an antibody and a solid support, have proven to be an excellent option because of high selectivity of the antibody. This thesis is an exploratory study of the application of immunosorbent-SPE combined with CE for trace concentration of benzodiazepines.
This research describes the immobilization and performance evaluation of an immunosorbent prepared by immobilizing a benzodiazepine-specific antibody on aminopropyl silica. The binding capacity of the immunosorbent, measured as µg of benzodiazepine/ gram of immunosorbent...
Rabbit antiidiotypic IgG directed against IgG F(ab')2 anti-tetanus toxoid (TT) antibodies ("idiotype") elicited a Prausnitz-Kustner reaction in normal skin sites sensitized 48 h earlier with the serum of the idiotype donor that contained IgE anti-TT antibodies. The serum moiety that caused the sensitization was heat sensitive (56 degrees C, 1 h), and was specifically removed by passage over immunosorbents containing rabbit antihuman IgE or TT antigen. The data obtained indicate that human IgG and IgE antibodies share idiotypic determinants and raise the possibility that idiotypic interactions may play a role in the regulation of the IgE antibody response in man.
IgG antiglobulins in human sera were measured by single radial diffusion in agar after elution from ethyl chloroformate insolubilized immunosorbents of rabbit or human IgG. With both immunosorbents seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid sera contained significantly higher levels of IgG antiglobulins than did sera from healthy adults. Attempts to measure antiglobulins interacting specifically with the pFc' half of the Fc region were not successful due to an unacceptably high degree of non-antibody binding.
A 48-yr-old Caucasian female of central European origin (subject IM) with low plasma cholesterol and normal plasma triglyceride (TG) had extremely low apo A-I (6 mg/dl), A-II (5 mg/dl), and HDL cholesterol (2 mg/dl) levels. She had most of the clinical symptoms typically associated with Tangier disease, including early corneal opacities, yellow-streaked tonsils, hepatomegaly, and variable degrees of peripheral neuropathy, but had no splenomegaly. She had a myocardial infarction at age 46. Since HDL are postulated to be involved in the transport of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for degradation, and the ability of an HDL particle to promote cellular cholesterol efflux appears to be related to its density, size, and apo A-I and A-II contents, we isolated and characterized the HDL particles of this patient and all her first degree relatives (mother, a brother, and two children). The plasma A-I, A-II, and HDL cholesterol levels of all five relatives were either normal or high. Using anti-A-I and anti-A-II immunosorbents, we found three populations of particles in IM: one contained both apo A-I and A-II, Lp(AI w AII); one contained apo A-I but no A-II, Lp(AI w/o AII); and the third (an unusual one) contained apo A-II but no A-I...
13 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables.; This review article covers recent developments in the analysis of microcystins
(MCs), the natural toxins produced in cyanobacterial blooms that
occur in many eutrophic waters. We report applications of new extraction
methodologies, such as immunosorbents for sample preparation, and current
advances in liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for
detection and identification of new transformation products.
Due to the complex nature of MCs, there is a growing interest in analyzing
MCs and characterizing their transformation products. The widespread
occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in aquatic resources that are used
for drinking water supply has raised public health concern. In addition, the
presence of MCs in surface waters has resulted in poisoning animals and
killing fish worldwide.
For this reason, we review the fate of MCs in surface waters, and include
current knowledge about how various environmental conditions, such as pH,
temperature and sunlight, influence the biodegradation of these toxins under
Lastly, we also discuss studies that investigate the potential removal
mechanisms of MCs from drinking water supplies, such as advance oxidation
processes.; This material is based upon work supported by the National
Science Foundation under Grant No. 0233700.
13 pages, 4 schemes, 2 tables.-- PMID: 14564440 [PubMed].-- Available online Oct 16, 2003.; This paper is a review with more than 100 references discussing the immunochemical methods reported in the literature for the most important man-made chemicals with suspected endocrine disrupting activity. Details regarding immunizing hapten design, antibody production, and the features (limit of detection, dynamic range, specificity) of the most important immunochemical methods developed (ELISA, FIIA, immunosorbents, immunosensors, etc.) are presented for important environmental pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, alkylphenol polyethoxylates, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and dioxins. Availability of commercial reagents and methods is reported.; This work was supported by INIA (VIN00–053-C3–2), the EC Quality of Life Program (Contract QLRT-2000–01670), and by CICYT (BIO2000–0351-P4–05, AGL2001–5005-E and AGL2002–04635-C04–03).; Peer reviewed
24 pages, 6 figures, 6 tables.-- PMID: 12877186 [PubMed].-- Available online Jun 13, 2003.-- Issue title: 'A Century of Chromatography 1903-2003'.; Among the various compounds considered as emerging pollutants, alkylphenolic surfactants, steroid sex hormones, and pharmaceuticals are of particular concern, both because of the volume of these substances used and because of their activity as endocrine disruptors or as causative agents of bacterial resistance, as is the case of antibiotics. Today, the technique of choice for analysis of these groups of substances is liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS). In the last decades, this technique has experienced an impressive progress that has made possible the analysis of many environmental pollutants in a faster, more convenient, and more sensitive way, and, in some cases, the analysis of compounds that could not be determined before. This article reviews the LC–MS and LC–MS–MS methods published so far for the determination of alkylphenolic surfactants, steroid sex hormones and drugs in the aquatic environment. Practical considerations with regards to the analysis of these groups of substances by using different mass spectrometers (single quadrupole...