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Reappraisal of the immunopathogenesis of disseminated leishmaniasis: in situ and systemic immune response

MACHADO, Paulo R.; ROSA, Maria Elisa A.; COSTA, Diego; MIGNAC, Moema; SILVA, Joao S.; SCHRIEFER, Albert; TEIXEIRA, Mauro M.; BACELLAR, Olivia; CARVALHO, Edgar M.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) is an emerging form of Leishmania braziliensis infection characterised by multiple cutaneous lesions on different parts of the body and a high rate of mucosal involvement. Systemic production of TNF alpha and IFN-gamma in DL patients is lower than in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by L braziliensis, which may account for parasite dissemination due to the decreased ability to control parasite growth. In this study, the systemic and in situ immune response of DL and CL patients was characterised through evaluation of chemokine and cytokine production. In situ evaluation showed similar production of IFN gamma, TNF alpha, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL3, CCL11 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) in papular and ulcerative lesions from DL as well as in ulcerated lesions from CL. Serum levels of CXCL9, a chemokine that attracts 1-cells, was higher in serum from DL than from CL These data indicate that a decrease in the type 1 immune response in peripheral blood of DL patients is due to attraction of Leishmania antigen-activated T-cells to the multiple cutaneous lesions. This may account for the absence of or few parasites in the lesions and for the development of ulcers similar to those observed in CL (C) 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq); Fundacao de Amparo A Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB); NIH[AI-30639]

Papel dos receptores do tipo Toll (TLRs) na imunopatogênese da malária associada à gravidez.; The role of Toll like receptors (TLRs) in the immunopathogenesis of pregnancy associated malaria.

Silva, Leandro Gustavo da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/12/2011 PT
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A malária asociada à gavidez pode gerar complicações para a mãe e para o feto. Receptores do tipo Toll (TLR) TLR2, TLR4 e TLR9, podem reconhecer componentes do Plasmódio. Estes receptores sinalizam via proteína MyD88. Contudo existem poucos dados sobre os TLR na malária placentária. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar o papel dos TLR2, 4, 9 e da MyD88 na malária placentária. Dentre fêmeas C57BL/6, TLR2-/-, TLR9-/- e MyD88-/-, a linhagem MyD88-/- apresentou maiores níveis de parasitemia, sobrevivência e cuidado parental, e ainda placentas de fêmeas MyD88-/- infectadas, ao contrario das TLR2-/- e TLR9-/-, não tiveram diminuição do espaço vascular em relação aos controles. Animais C57BL/6 infectados apresentaram aumento do mRNA de IL1-b e IL-6 na placenta, o que não ocorreu nos MyD88-/-. Gestantes C57BL/6 e MyD88-/- infectadas tiveram mais esplenócitos, com expansão preferencial de linfócitos B (CD19+). Também foi evidenciado nos animais C57BL/6 infectados um aumento da expressão do marcador de ativação CD69 nos linfócitos TCD8+. Em conjunto, estes resultados sugerem que a sinalização via MyD88 é importante para o desenvolvimento da malária placentaria e esta pode estar relacionada com a resposta inflamatória exacerbada induzida pelo parasita.; Pregnancy associated malaria can lead to complications both for the mother and the fetus. Toll like receptors (TLR) TLR2...

Preserved monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation and maturation in the presence of HIV-2 envelope

Cavaleiro, R.; Baptista, A. P.; Foxall, R. B.; Victorino, R. M.; Sousa, A. E.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert
Tipo: Pré-impressão
Publicado em //2009 ENG
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© 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers. All rights reserved, USA and worldwide.; Dendritic cells (DCs) are fundamental for the initiation of immune responses and are important players in AIDS immunopathogenesis. Impairment of DC function may result from bystander effects of HIV-1 envelope proteins independently of direct HIV-1 infection. HIV-2 envelope proteins are thought to interact with a broader range of receptors than those of HIV-1, and have been shown to have T cell immunosuppressive properties mediated by monocytes. The effects of HIV-2 envelope on DC differentiation and maturation were investigated. The modulatory properties of the HIV-2 envelope on DC generated from monocytes were assessed using both recombinant proteins (HIV-2(ROD) and HIV-2(ALI)) and whole chemically inactivated virus (aldrithiol-2-treated HIV-2(ROD)). DC phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry and DC function by their ability to stimulate allogeneic T cells and to produce cytokines. We demonstrate that HIV-2 Env had no effects upon DC differentiation and maturation despite its broad receptor usage and ability to modulate monocyte function. It is plausible to speculate that a reduced ability of the HIV-2 Env to impair myeloid DC function could represent a contributory factor to the relatively benign course of HIV-2 disease.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Immune Response, Immunopathogenesis, and Treatment

Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 EN
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of lower respiratory tract infection during infancy and early childhood. Once RSV infection is established, the host immune response includes the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies and T-cell-specific immunity. The humoral immune response normally results in the development of anti-RSV neutralizing-antibody titers, but these are often suboptimal during an infant’s initial infection. Even when the production of RSV neutralizing antibody following RSV infection is robust, humoral immunity wanes over time. Reinfection during subsequent seasons is common. The cellular immune response to RSV infection is also important for the clearance of virus. This immune response, vital for host defense against RSV, is also implicated in the immunopathogenesis of severe lower respiratory tract RSV bronchiolitis. Many details of the immunology and immunopathologic mechanisms of RSV disease known at present have been learned from rodent models of RSV disease and are discussed in some detail. In addition, the roles of immunoglobulin E, histamine, and eosinophils in the immunopathogenesis of RSV disease are considered. Although the treatment of RSV bronchiolitis is primarily supportive...

Immunopathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Fidel, P L; Sobel, J D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1996 EN
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Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a prevalent opportunistic mucosal infection, caused predominantly by Candida albicans, which affects a significant number of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. Since there are no known exogenous predisposing factors to explain the incidence of symptomatic vaginitis in most women with idiopathic RVVC, it has been postulated that these particular women suffer from an immunological abnormality that prediposes them to RVVC. Because of the increased incidence of mucosal candidiasis in individuals with depressed cell-mediated immunity (CMI), defects in CMI are viewed as a possible explanation for RVVC. In this review, we attempt to place into perspective the accumulated information regarding the immunopathogenesis of RVVC, as well as to provide new immunological perspectives and hypotheses regarding potential immunological deficiencies that may predispose to RVVC and potentially other mucosal infections by the same organism. The results of both clinical studies and studies in an animal model of experimental vaginitis suggest that systemic CMI may not be the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans vaginal infections. Rather, locally acquired mucosal immunity, distinct from that in the peripheral circulation...

Recent Advances in the Immunopathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Bardana, Emil J.; Pirofsky, Bernard
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1975 EN
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease having definite etiologic associations with ethnic, genetic, viral and immunologic factors. Its pathologic hallmark, vasculitis, is currently felt to be the end result of an immune-complex mechanism. Several clinical and serologic variants of SLE are recognized including discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and drug-induced equivalents—such as procainamide-induced lupus (PIL). The distinguishing features of these variants as well as their prognosis and therapy are discussed in relation to recent developments in the immunopathogenesis of SLE.

Immunopathogenesis of environmentally induced lupus in mice.

Shaheen, V M; Satoh, M; Richards, H B; Yoshida, H; Shaw, M; Jennette, J C; Reeves, W H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1999 EN
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune syndrome defined by clinical and serologic features, including arthritis, glomerulonephritis, and certain autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein (nRNP)/Smith antigen (Sm), DNA, and ribosomal P. Although lupus is considered primarily a genetic disorder, we recently demonstrated the induction of a syndrome strikingly similar to spontaneous lupus in many nonautoimmune strains of mice exposed to the isoprenoid alkane pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane), a component of mineral oil. Intraperitoneal injection of pristane leads to the formation of lipogranulomas consisting of phagocytic cells that have engulfed the oil and collections of lymphocytes. Subsequently, pristane-treated BALB/c and SJL mice develop autoantibodies characteristic of SLE, including anti-nRNP/Sm, antiribosomal P, anti-Su, antichromatin, anti-single-stranded DNA, and anti-double-stranded DNA. This is accompanied by a severe glomerulonephritis with immune complex deposition, mesangial or mesangiocapillary proliferation, and proteinuria. All inbred mice examined appear to be susceptible to this novel form of chemically induced lupus. Pristane-induced lupus is the only inducible model of autoimmunity associated with the clinical syndrome as well as with the characteristic serologic abnormalities of SLE. Defining the immunopathogenesis of pristane-induced lupus in mice may provide insight into the causes of spontaneous (idiopathic) lupus and also may lead to information concerning possible risks associated with the ingestion or inhalation of mineral oil and exposure to hydrocarbons in the environment.

Immunopathogenesis of IBD: insufficient suppressor function in the gut?

Huibregtse, I L; van Lent, A U; van Deventer, S J H
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%

Treponemal antigen in immunopathogenesis of syphilitic glomerulonephritis.

Tourville, D. R.; Byrd, L. H.; Kim, D. U.; Zajd, D.; Lee, I.; Reichman, L. B.; Baskin, S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1976 EN
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A patient with syphilitic glomerulonephritis had a renal biopsy and was treated for secondary syphilis. Light, electron, and immunofluorescence microscopic studies revealed an acute proliferative glomerulonephritis with subepithelial, intramembranous, and subendothelial immune complex deposits containing IgG, IgA, IgM, C4, and C3. Similar local deposits containing predominantly IgM were noted in areas of mesangial proliferation. Indirect fluorescent antibody studies employing rabbit treponemal antibody and sheep antirabbit globulin conjugate revealed the presence of treponemal antigen in the glomerular deposits. This finding provides strong evidence for the immunopathogenesis of the glomerular lesion as well as a causal link with Treponema pallidum.

Immunopathogenesis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy

Dupouy-Camet, Jean
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 EN
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The immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is not completely understood. This paper will try to discuss the most frequently asked questions about the immunopathogeny of congenital toxoplasmosis: differential virulence of Toxoplasma isolates, genetic susceptibility to infection, facilitation of placental transfer, models of congenital toxoplasmosis, and transmission in seropositive hosts. Most published data suggest a role of the genetic background of the host and of the parasite. Models of congenital toxoplasmosis have been evaluated, but it appears that the conclusion drawn would be barely appropriate to understand the pathogenesis in pregnant women.

Drosophila melanogaster as a model host to dissect the immunopathogenesis of zygomycosis

Chamilos, Georgios; Lewis, Russell E.; Hu, Jianhua; Xiao, Lianchun; Zal, Tomasz; Gilliet, Michel; Halder, Georg; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.79%
Zygomycosis is an emerging frequently fatal opportunistic mycosis whose immunopathogenesis is poorly understood. We developed a zygomycosis model by injecting Drosophila melanogaster flies with a standardized amount of fungal spores from clinical Zygomycetes isolates to study virulence and host defense mechanisms. We found that, as opposed to most other fungi, which are nonpathogenic in D. melanogaster (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus), Zygomycetes rapidly infect and kill wild-type flies. Toll-deficient flies exhibited increased susceptibility to Zygomycetes, whereas constitutive overexpression of the antifungal peptide Drosomycin in transgenic flies partially restored resistance to zygomycosis. D. melanogaster Schneider 2 phagocytic cells displayed decreased phagocytosis and caused less hyphal damage to Zygomycetes compared with that to A. fumigatus. Furthermore, phagocytosis-defective eater mutant flies displayed increased susceptibility to Zygomycetes infection. Classic enhancers of Zygomycetes virulence in humans, such as corticosteroids, increased iron supply, and iron availability through treatment with deferoxamine dramatically increased Zygomycetes pathogenicity in our model. In contrast, iron starvation induced by treatment with the iron chelator deferasirox significantly protected flies infected with Zygomycetes. Whole-genome expression profiling in wild-type flies after infection with Zygomycetes vs. A. fumigatus identified genes selectively down-regulated by Zygomycetes...

Potential Role of Interleukin-18 in the Immunopathogenesis of AIDS: Involvement in Fratricidal Killing of NK Cells▿

Iannello, Alexandre; Samarani, Suzanne; Debbeche, Olfa; Ahmad, Rasheed; Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Tremblay, Cécile; Toma, Emil; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ahmad, Ali
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.05%
We had shown earlier that the concentrations of circulating interleukin-18 (IL-18) are increased significantly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons compared to HIV-seronegative healthy subjects. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of these elevated levels of IL-18 on natural killer (NK) cells and the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. We show here an inverse correlation between IL-18 concentrations and absolute numbers of various subsets of NK cells in infected persons. Recombinant human IL-18 caused increased death of a human NK cell line, as well as of primary human NK cells in vitro. The IL-18-mediated cell death was dependent upon Fas-FasL interactions and tumor necrosis factor alpha. IL-18 induced the expression of FasL on NK cells, increased the transcription from the human FasL promoter, reduced the expression of Bcl-XL in NK cells, and increased their sensitivity to FasL-mediated cell death. These results suggest that increased IL-18 concentrations present in the circulation of HIV-infected persons contribute to the immunopathogenesis of AIDS by altering NK cell homeostasis.

Immune Modulation with Sulfasalazine Attenuates Immunopathogenesis but Enhances Macrophage-Mediated Fungal Clearance during Pneumocystis Pneumonia

Wang, Jing; Gigliotti, Francis; Bhagwat, Samir P.; George, Thaddeus C.; Wright, Terry W.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Although T cells are critical for host defense against respiratory fungal infections, they also contribute to the immunopathogenesis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). However, the precise downstream effector mechanisms by which T cells mediate these diverse processes are undefined. In the current study the effects of immune modulation with sulfasalazine were evaluated in a mouse model of PcP-related Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (PcP-IRIS). Recovery of T cell-mediated immunity in Pneumocystis-infected immunodeficient mice restored host defense, but also initiated the marked pulmonary inflammation and severe pulmonary function deficits characteristic of IRIS. Sulfasalazine produced a profound attenuation of IRIS, with the unexpected consequence of accelerated fungal clearance. To determine whether macrophage phagocytosis is an effector mechanism of T cell-mediated Pneumocystis clearance and whether sulfasalazine enhances clearance by altering alveolar macrophage phagocytic activity, a novel multispectral imaging flow cytometer-based method was developed to quantify the phagocytosis of Pneumocystis in vivo. Following immune reconstitution, alveolar macrophages from PcP-IRIS mice exhibited a dramatic increase in their ability to actively phagocytose Pneumocystis. Increased phagocytosis correlated temporally with fungal clearance...

A Systematic Review of the Epidemiology, Immunopathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pleural TB in HIV- Infected Patients

Aljohaney, A.; Amjadi, K.; Alvarez, G. G.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.2%
Background. High HIV burden countries have experienced a high burden of pleural TB in HIV-infected patients. Objective. To review the epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of pleural TB in HIV-infected patients. Methods. A literature search from 1950 to June 2011 in MEDLINE was conducted. Results. Two-hundred and ninety-nine studies were identified, of which 30 met the inclusion criteria. The immunopathogenesis as denoted by cells and cytokine profiles is distinctly different between HIV and HIV-uninfected pleural TB disease. Adenosine deaminase and interferon gamma are good markers of pleural TB disease even in HIV-infected patients. HIV-uninfected TB suspects with pleural effusions commonly have a low yield of TB organisms however the evidence suggests that in dually infected patients smear and cultures have a higher yield. The Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay has significant potential to improve the diagnosis of pleural TB in HIV-positive patients. Conclusions. Pleural TB in HIV-infected patients has a different immunopathogenesis than HIV-uninfected pleural TB and these findings in part support the differences noted in this systematic review. Research should focus on developing an interferon gamma-based point of care diagnostic test and expansion of the role of Gene Xpert in the diagnosis of pleural TB.

The Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Immunopathogenesis and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Mirshafiey, Abbas; Asghari, Babak; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Azizi, Gholamreza
Fonte: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine & Health Sciences Publicador: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine & Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The major pathological outcomes of the disease are the loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and the development of reactive astrogliosis and MS plaque. For the disease to occur, the non-resident cells must enter into the immune-privileged CNS through a breach in the relatively impermeable BBB. It has been demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of MS, in part through the disruption of the BBB and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the CNS. Moreover, MMPs can also enhance the cleavage of myelin basic protein (MBP) and the demyelination process. Regarding the growing data on the roles of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in the pathogenesis of MS, this review discusses the role of different types of MMPs, including MMP-2, -3, -7, -9, -12 and -25, in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of MS.

Immunopathogenesis of non-healing American cutaneous leishmaniasis and progressive visceral leishmaniasis

Soong, Lynn; Henard, Calvin A.; Melby, Peter C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The outcomes of Leishmania infection are determined by host immune and nutrition status, parasite species, and co-infection with other pathogens. While subclinical infection and self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are common, uncontrolled parasite replication can lead to non-healing local lesions or visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It is known that infection control requires Th1-differentiation cytokines (IL-12, IL-18, and IL-27) and Th1 cell and macrophage activation. However, there is no generalized consensus for the mechanisms of host susceptibility. The recent studies on regulatory T cells and IL-17-producing cells help explain the effector T cell responses that occur independently of the known Th1/Th2 cell signaling pathways. This review focuses on the immunopathogenesis of non-healing American CL and progressive VL. We summarize recent evidence from human and animal studies that reveals the mechanisms of dysregulated, hyper-responses to Leishmania braziliensis, as well as the presence of disease-promoting or the absence of protective responses to Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania donovani. We highlight immune-mediated parasite growth and immunopathogenesis, with an emphasis on the putative roles of IL-17 and its related cytokines as well as arginase. A better understanding of the quality and regulation of innate immunity and T cell responses triggered by Leishmania will aid in the rational control of pathology and the infection.

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Suppress HIV-1 Replication but Contribute to HIV-1 Induced Immunopathogenesis in Humanized Mice

Li, Guangming; Cheng, Menglan; Nunoya, Jun-ichi; Cheng, Liang; Guo, Haitao; Yu, Haisheng; Liu, Yong-jun; Su, Lishan; Zhang, Liguo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/07/2014 EN
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The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and pathogenesis remains unclear. HIV-1 infection in the humanized mouse model leads to persistent HIV-1 infection and immunopathogenesis, including type I interferons (IFN-I) induction, immune-activation and depletion of human leukocytes, including CD4 T cells. We developed a monoclonal antibody that specifically depletes human pDC in all lymphoid organs in humanized mice. When pDC were depleted prior to HIV-1 infection, the induction of IFN-I and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were abolished during acute HIV-1 infection with either a highly pathogenic CCR5/CXCR4-dual tropic HIV-1 or a standard CCR5-tropic HIV-1 isolate. Consistent with the anti-viral role of IFN-I, HIV-1 replication was significantly up-regulated in pDC-depleted mice. Interestingly, the cell death induced by the highly pathogenic HIV-1 isolate was severely reduced in pDC-depleted mice. During chronic HIV-1 infection, depletion of pDC also severely reduced the induction of IFN-I and ISGs, associated with elevated HIV-1 replication. Surprisingly, HIV-1 induced depletion of human immune cells including T cells in lymphoid organs, but not the blood, was reduced in spite of the increased viral replication. The increased cell number in lymphoid organs was associated with a reduced level of HIV-induced cell death in human leukocytes including CD4 T cells. We conclude that pDC play opposing roles in suppressing HIV-1 replication and in promoting HIV-1 induced immunopathogenesis. These findings suggest that pDC-depletion and IFN-I blockade will provide novel strategies for treating those HIV-1 immune non-responsive patients with persistent immune activation despite effective anti-retrovirus treatment.

MyD88 Signaling Regulates Both Host Defense and Immunopathogenesis during Pneumocystis Infection

Bello-Irizarry, Sheila N.; Wang, Jing; Johnston, Carl J.; Gigliotti, Francis; Wright, Terry W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The immune response protects against Pneumocystis infection, but is also a key component of PcP-related immunopathogenesis. Signaling through MyD88 is critical for activation of immune pathways downstream of TLRs and IL-1 receptor. To determine whether MyD88 regulates normal host defense against Pneumocystis, non-immunosuppressed wild-type (WT) and MyD88 deficient mice were infected. MyD88−/− mice had higher early Pneumocystis burdens than WT mice, but mounted an effective adaptive immune response and cleared Pneumocystis similar to WT. However, MyD88−/− mice displayed a more intense and prolonged pulmonary immune response than WT mice. To determine the role of MyD88 in the development of PcP-related immunopathogenesis, WT and MyD88−/− mice were rendered susceptible to PcP by depletion of CD4+ T cells. At 4 weeks post-infection, CD4-depleted WT and MyD88−/− mice harbored similar organism burdens, but MyD88−/− mice were protected from the PcP-related respiratory impairment observed in WT mice. Improved pulmonary physiology in MyD88−/− mice correlated with lower lung CCL2 levels, and reduced cell recruitment. However, by 5 weeks post-infection the overall health of MyD88−/− mice began to deteriorate rapidly relative to WT...

Immunopathogenesis of Ocular Behçet's Disease

Park, Un Chul; Kim, Tae Wan; Yu, Hyeong Gon
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic recurrent systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by oral and genital ulcerations, skin lesions, and uveitis. The ocular involvement of BD, or Behçet's uveitis (BU), is characterized by panuveitis or posterior uveitis with occlusive retinal vasculitis and tends to be more recurrent and sight threatening than other endogenous autoimmune uveitides, despite aggressive immunosuppression. Although pathogenesis of BD is unclear, researches have revealed that immunological aberrations may be the cornerstone of BD development. General hypothesis of BD pathogenesis is that inflammatory response is initiated by infectious agents or autoantigens in patients with predisposing genetic factors and perpetuated by both innate and acquired immunity. In addition, a network of immune mediators plays a substantial role in the inflammatory cascade. Recently, we found that the immunopathogenesis of BU is distinct from other autoimmune uveitides regarding intraocular effector cell profiles, maturation markers of dendritic cells, and the cytokine/chemokine environment. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of Th17 cells in BD and BU. Recent studies on genetics and biologics therapies in refractory BU also support the immunological association with the pathogenesis of BU. In this review...

Development of Immunopathogenesis Strategies to Treat Behçet's Disease

Köse, Osman
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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27.05%
Behçet disease is a chronic relapsing vasculitis with unclear etiology and immunopathogenesis. Antigenic stimuli, antigen presenting cells, T cells, monocyte, and neutrophil and endothelial cells are major parts of the pathology of the disease. Understanding of the new pathogenic mechanisms based on molecular structure of the disease helps us in improving the novel therapeutic modalities. These drugs target specific and nonspecific inhibition of the immun system. These therapies include biologic agents, new topical and systemic immunosuppressants, tolerizing agents, and immunoablation. Novel treatment will be promising to treat the especially recalcitrant cases to conventional therapy. In this paper, new aspect of the immunopathogenesis of Behçet's diseases and novel treatment modalities will be discussed.