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A novel human CD4(+) T-cell inducer subset with potent immunostimulatory properties

NDHLOVU, Lishomwa C.; LEAL, Fabio E.; ECCLES-JAMES, Ijeoma G.; JHA, Aashish R.; LANTERI, Marion; NORRIS, Philip J.; BARBOUR, Jason D.; WACHTER, Douglas J.; ANDERSSON, Jan; TASKEN, Kjetil; TORHEIM, Eirik A.; AANDAHL, Einar M.; KALLAS, Esper G.; NIXON, Doug
Fonte: WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH Publicador: WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The complexity of immunoregulation has focused attention on the CD4(+) T ""suppressor"" regulatory cell (T(reg)), which helps maintain balance between immunity and tolerance. An immunoregulatory T-cell population that upon activation amplifies cellular immune responses was described in murine models more than 30 years ago; however, no study has yet identified a naturally occurring T ""inducer"" cell type. Here, we report that the ectoenzyme CD39/NTPDase1 (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1) helps to delineate a novel population of human ""inducer"" CD4(+) T cells (T(ind)) that significantly increases the proliferation and cytokine production of responder T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this unique T(ind) subset produces a distinct repertoire of cytokines in comparison to the other CD4(+) T-cell subsets. We propose that this novel CD4(+) T-cell population counterbalances the suppressive activity of suppressor T(reg) in peripheral blood and serves as a calibrator of immunoregulation.; National Institutes of Health (NIH), University of California, San Francisco-Gladstone Institute of Virology & Immunology Center[P30 AI027763]; National Institutes of Health (NIH), University of California, San Francisco-Gladstone Institute of Virology & Immunology Center[AI060379]; National Institutes of Health (NIH)...

Microsurgical techniques for experimental kidney transplantation and general guidelines to establish studies about transplantation immunology

Martins,Paulo Ney Aguiar; Filatenkov,Alexander
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2003 EN
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Experimental models of organ transplantation played a crucial role to establish the principles of transplantation immunology. The renal transplantation in rodents became the most used model to study the mechanisms of allograft rejection. To perform it, it is necessary to master the microsurgery techniques and the research group should cooperate with other specialists in the field. In this article we review the surgical techniques employed in rats, and we draw guidelines to establish studies about transplantation immunology.

Comparative Immunology: Sipunculid Bactericidal Responses

Evans, E. Edward; Cushing, John E.; Evans, Marjorie L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1973 EN
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This report continues comparative studies of inducible bactericidins of invertebrates. The bactericidin of the sipunculid worm Dendrostomum zostericolum Chamberlain was induced by intracoelomic injections of killed bacteria. With the assay system used, optimal results were obtained with 90 min of incubation at 20 to 35 C. Bactericidal titers in coelomic fluids from noninjected worms were either low or nonexistent. After injections of gram-negative bacteria, bactericidal titers of up to 1:1280 were reached within 7 days. Considerable individual variations were noted. Optimal stimulation was achieved with 4 × 108 bacteria per injection. The response was relatively nonspecific as measured by cross-immunization and absorption experiments. Injections of sterile sea water produced no response. Coelomic fluids could be inactivated by heating at 50 or 56 C for 20 min. Activity was not restored by a pool of unheated coelomic fluid from nonimmunized worms. The significance of these observations was discussed with reference to immunity of sipunculids and to comparative immunology.

Evaluation of Various Methods of Maternal Placental Blood Collection for Immunology Studies

Othoro, Caroline; Moore, Julie M.; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Otieno, Juliana; Slutsker, Laurence; Lal, Altaf A.; Shi, Ya Ping
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2006 EN
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The collection of maternal placental intervillous blood (IVB), without contamination of fetal blood and with an accurate mononuclear cell profile, is essential for immunological studies of placental malaria and other infectious diseases of the placenta. We have compared five documented methods of IVB collection: perfusion, incision, biopsy, tissue grinding, and puncture (prick) for fetal blood contamination and mononuclear cell profiles using flow cytometry. Twenty-five placentas were obtained from Plasmodium falciparum and human immunodeficiency virus-negative primigravid and secundigravid women delivering at Nyanza Provincial Hospital in Kisumu, western Kenya. Each of the five methods was performed on the same placenta. Fetal red blood cell contamination was significantly lower for the prick and perfusion methods (4.1% and 8.3%, respectively) than for incision (59.5%), biopsy (42.6%), and tissue grinding (19.9%). Significant variation was noted among the five methods in the percentages of monocytes, total T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. Further, a pairwise comparison of prick and perfusion, the two methods with low fetal blood contamination, showed that they were not different for fetal red blood cell contamination levels; however...

Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach too the patient with anaphylaxi

El-Shanawany, T; Williams, P E; Jolles, S
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2008 EN
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ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIESallergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD

Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the use of the immunology laboratory in the diagnosis of clinical allergy

Williams, P; Sewell, W A C; Bunn, C; Pumphrey, R; Read, G; Jolles, S
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIESallergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD

Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with recurrent superficial abscesses

Johnston, S L
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIESallergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD

Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with recurrent infections in childhood

Slatter, M A; Gennery, A R
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THIS CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY REVIEW SERIESallergy in childhood, allergy diagnosis by use of the clinical immunology laboratory, anaphylaxis, angioedema, management of pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency, recurrent infections in childhood, recurrent infections in adulthood, recurrent oro-genital ulceration, recurrent superficial abscesses, urticaria, vasculitis/CTD

Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with angio-oedema

Grigoriadou, S; Longhurst, H J
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 EN
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36.4%
Angio-oedema is a common reason for attendance at the accident and emergency department and for referral to immunology/allergy clinics. Causative factors should always be sought, but a large proportion of patients have the idiopathic form of the disease. A minority of patients represent a diagnostic and treatment challenge. Failure to identify the more unusual causes of angio-oedema may result in life-threatening situations. Common and rare causes of angio-oedema will be discussed in this article, as well as the diagnostic and treatment pathways for the management of these patients. A comprehensive history and close monitoring of response to treatment are the most cost-effective diagnostic and treatment tools.

Macroevolutionary Immunology: A Role for Immunity in the Diversification of Animal life

Loker, Eric S.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/03/2012 EN
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An emerging picture of the nature of immune systems across animal phyla reveals both conservatism of some features and the appearance among and within phyla of novel, lineage-specific defense solutions. The latter collectively represent a major and underappreciated form of animal diversity. Factors influencing this macroevolutionary (above the species level) pattern of novelty are considered and include adoption of different life styles, life histories, and body plans; a general advantage of being distinctive with respect to immune defenses; and the responses required to cope with parasites, many of which afflict hosts in a lineage-specific manner. This large-scale pattern of novelty implies that immunological phenomena can affect microevolutionary processes (at the population level within species) that can eventually lead to macroevolutionary events such as speciation, radiations, or extinctions. Immunologically based phenomena play a role in favoring intraspecific diversification, specialization and host specificity of parasites, and mechanisms are discussed whereby this could lead to parasite speciation. Host switching – the acquisition of new host species by parasites – is a major mechanism that drives parasite diversity and is frequently involved in disease emergence. It is also one that can be favored by reductions in immune competence of new hosts. Mechanisms involving immune phenomena favoring intraspecific diversification and speciation of host species are also discussed. A macroevolutionary perspective on immunology is invaluable in today’s world...

Louis Pasteur, the Father of Immunology?

Smith, Kendall A.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/04/2012 EN
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Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria, or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur’s presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so...

CC Chemokine Ligand 20 and Its Cognate Receptor CCR6 in Mucosal T Cell Immunology and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Odd Couple or Axis of Evil?

Lee, Adrian Y. S.; Eri, Rajaraman; Lyons, Alan B.; Grimm, Michael C.; Korner, Heinrich
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2013 EN
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Chemokines and their cognate receptors have been identified as major factors initiating and governing cell movement and interaction. These ligands and their receptors are expressed on a wide variety of cells and act during steady-state migration as well as inflammatory recruitment. CCR6 is a non-promiscuous chemokine receptor that has only one known chemokine ligand, CCL20, and is present on B and T cells as well as dendritic cells (DCs). Two CD4+ T cell populations with opposing functions present in the intestines and the mesenteric lymph nodes express CCR6: the pro-inflammatory TH17 and regulatory Treg cells. CCL20 is also present in the intestine and is strongly up-regulated after an inflammatory stimulus. Interestingly, this ligand is also expressed by TH17 cells, which opens up the possibility of autocrine/paracrine signaling and, consequently, a self-perpetuating cycle of recruitment, thereby promoting inflammation. Recently, CCR6 has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by genome wide association studies which showed an association between SNPs in the genomic region of the CCR6 gene and the inflammation. Furthermore, recent research targeting the biological function of CCR6 indicates a significant role for this chemokine receptor in the development of chronic IBD. It is therefore possible that IBD is facilitated by a disordered regulation of TH17 and Treg cells due to a disruption in the CCL20-CCR6 axis and consequently disturbed mucosal homeostasis. This review will summarize the literature on CCL20-CCR6 in mucosal immunology and will analyze the role this receptor-ligand axis has in chronic IBD.

What Taiwan contributes to the world of allergy and clinical immunology?

Wang, Jiu-Yao
Fonte: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology Publicador: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In commemorate the 9th Asia Pacific Congress of Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology (APCAACI) in Taipei, Taiwan in November this year, some of the seminar works and contributions by the researchers from Taiwan to the advance in the field of allergy and clinical immunology, such as DNA vaccine, traditional Chinese medicine, anti-IgE antibody, and personalized medicine for severe drug allergic reaction, are summarized in this special review.

B Cells: The Old New Players in Reproductive Immunology

Fettke, Franziska; Schumacher, Anne; Costa, Serban-Dan; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/06/2014 EN
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Reproductive immunology research has long focused on T cell responses to paternal antigens and tolerance mechanisms supporting fetal well-being. The participation of B cells herein was not widely studied. Because of the fascinating immunological uniqueness of pregnancy, it is however to be expected that such pleiotropic cells play a considerable role. In fact, on the one hand B cells contribute toward pregnancy tolerance by secreting the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 but on the other hand can seriously harm pregnancy because of their capacity of producing autoantibodies. As for protective B cells, new evidences in mouse models arise suggesting that IL-10 producing B cells, the so-called B10 cells, help in maintaining tolerance toward semi-allogenic fetal antigens. They may be also important to fight danger signals at the fetal-maternal interface as, e.g., in the case of infections with the aim to restore the disrupted fetal tolerance. In human pregnancies, IL-10 producing B cells increase with pregnancy onset but not in the case of spontaneous abortions. In vitro, they are able to suppress TNF-α production by T cells from pregnant individuals. Their generation and functionality will be discussed throughout this review article. B cells can be deleterious to pregnancy as well. Aberrant B cell compartment is associated with obstetric pathologies. In particular...

Cancer Stem Cell Immunology: Key to Understanding Tumorigenesis and Tumor Immune Escape?

Bruttel, Valentin S.; Wischhusen, Jörg
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/07/2014 EN
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Cancer stem cell (CSC) biology and tumor immunology have shaped our understanding of tumorigenesis. However, we still do not fully understand why tumors can be contained but not eliminated by the immune system and whether rare CSCs are required for tumor propagation.

Cellular and molecular functions of hepatic stellate cells in inflammatory responses and liver immunology

Weiskirchen, Ralf; Tacke, Frank
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 EN
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The liver is a central immunological organ. Liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KC), but also sinusoidal endothelial cells, dendritic cells (DC) and other immune cells are involved in balancing immunity and tolerance against pathogens, commensals or food antigens. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been primarily characterized as the main effector cells in liver fibrosis, due to their capacity to transdifferentiate into collagen-producing myofibroblasts (MFB). More recent studies elucidated the fundamental role of HSC in liver immunology. HSC are not only the major storage site for dietary vitamin A (Vit A) (retinol, retinoic acid), which is essential for proper function of the immune system. This pericyte further represents a versatile source of many soluble immunological active factors including cytokines [e.g., interleukin 17 (IL-17)] and chemokines [C-C motif chemokine (ligand) 2 (CCL2)], may act as an antigen presenting cell (APC), and has autophagy activity. Additionally, it responds to many immunological triggers via toll-like receptors (TLR) (e.g., TLR4, TLR9) and transduces signals through pathways and mediators traditionally found in immune cells, including the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway or inflammasome activation. Overall...

A Systems Immunology Approach to the Host-Tumor Interaction: Large-Scale Patterns of Natural Autoantibodies Distinguish Healthy and Tumor-Bearing Mice

Itzchak, Royi; Vider-Shalit, Tal; Louzoun, Yoram; Vadai, Ezra; Eisenbach, Lea; Cohen, Irun R.; Merbl, Yifat Haya; Quintana, Francisco Javier
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Traditionally, immunology has considered a meaningful antibody response to be marked by large amounts of high-affinity antibodies reactive with the specific inciting antigen; the detection of small amounts of low-affinity antibodies binding to seemingly unrelated antigens has been considered to be beneath the threshold of immunological meaning. A systems-biology approach to immunology, however, suggests that large-scale patterns in the antibody repertoire might also reflect the functional state of the immune system. To investigate such global patterns of antibodies, we have used an antigen-microarray device combined with informatic analysis. Here we asked whether antibody-repertoire patterns might reflect the state of an implanted tumor. We studied the serum antibodies of inbred C57BL/6 mice before and after implantation of syngeneic 3LL tumor cells of either metastatic or non-metastatic clones. We analyzed patterns of IgG and IgM autoantibodies binding to over 300 self-antigens arrayed on slides using support vector machines and genetic algorithm techniques. We now report that antibody patterns, but not single antibodies, were informative: 1) mice, even before tumor implantation, manifest both individual and common patterns of low-titer natural autoantibodies; 2) the patterns of these autoantibodies respond to the growth of the tumor cells...

Mucosal immunology down under: Special interest group in mucosal immunology workshop, Australasian Society for Immunology, Sydney, Australia, 2 December 2007

Cripps, A.; Sutton, P.; Beagley, K.; Robertson, S.; Dunkely, M.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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The Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group (SIG-MI) of the Australasian Society of Immunology was formed 14 years ago and has run regular symposia and workshops in conjunction with the Australasian Society of Immunology since that time. In December 2007 the Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group held a 1-day satellite workshop in conjunction with the annual Australasian Society of Immunology scientific meeting in Sydney to celebrate the decade since hosting the 9th International Congress of Mucosal Immunology (9-ICMI) in 1997, which was also held in Sydney. The meeting that was attended by 65 delegates focussed on 4 session themes: reproductive immunology, respiratory immunology, mucosal immunology of the gastrointestinal tract and mucosal vaccines.; Allan W Cripps, Philip Sutton, Ken Beagley, Sarah Robertson and Margaret Dunkley

Débats actuels sur l’immunologie de la prééclampsie. Comptes rendus du sixième colloque international de La Réunion (décembre 2008); Current debates on immunology of preeclampsia. Report of the sixth international workshop of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean, December 2008)

Robillard, P.Y.; Chaouat, G.; Le Bouteiller, P.; Fournier, T.; Barau, G.; Roman, H.; Heisert, M.; Dekker, G.; Hulsey, T.; Vaiman, D.; Foidart, J.M.; Boukerrou, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Masson Publicador: Elsevier Masson
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 FR
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Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) represent globally 10% of human births and their major complication, preeclampsia, 3 to 5%. The etiology of these HDP remains still uncertain, however major advances have been made these last 25 years. The Sixth International Workshop on Reproductive Immunology, Immunological Tolerance and Immunology of Preeclampsia 2008 celebrated its 10th Anniversary in Reunion-island (French overseas Department in the Indian Ocean). Over this decade, these six workshops have contributed extensively to immunological, epidemiological, anthropological and even vascular debates. The defect of trophoblastic invasion encountered in preeclampsia, intra-uterine growth retardation and to some extend also preterm labour has been understood only at the end of the 1970's. On the other hand, clinical and epidemiological findings at the end of the 20th century permitted to apprehend that “preeclampsia disease of primiparae” may in fact well be the disease of first pregnancies at the level of human couples. Among the important advances, immunology of reproduction is certainly the topic where knowledge has literally exploded in the last decade. This paper relates some major steps in comprehension of this disease and focuses on the interest to follow these immunological works and their new concepts. It seems...

A genomic view of immunology

Fahrer, Aude; Bazan, J; Papathanasiou, Panagiotis; Nelms, Keats; Goodnow, Christopher
Fonte: Macmillan Publishers Ltd Publicador: Macmillan Publishers Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The outstanding problems facing immunology are whole system issues: curing allergic and autoimmune disease and developing vaccines to stimulate stronger immune responses against pathogenic organisms and cancer. We hope that the human genome sequence will