Página 2 dos resultados de 4856 itens digitais encontrados em 0.009 segundos

Immigration and Trade in Portugal: A Static and Dynamic Panel Data Analysis

Faustino, Horácio C.; Leitão, Nuno Carlos
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This article tests the relation between immigration and Portuguese bilateral trade, considering the fifteen European partners (EU15). Using a static and dynamic panel data analysis, the results show that the stock of immigrants has a positive effect on Portuguese exports, imports and bilateral intra-industry trade. These results suggest that immigration affects all types of trade in a positive way. The underlying assumption is that immigration contributes to decrease the costs of transactions, which in turn promotes all trade flows. The static and dynamic results do not confirm the hypothesis of a negative effect of immigration on Portuguese exports. In the static model, a 10% increase in immigration induces a 5.98 % increase in exports and a 5.55% increase in imports. The effect on the Portuguese trade balance is positive. However, the dynamic results for the export and import equations are more reliable, showing a smaller positive effect on exports. A 10% increase in bilateral immigration induces a 0.47% and 2.34% increase in exports and imports, respectively. Our findings also suggest that when immigrants to Portugal originate from a Latin partner-country, the effects on trade are stronger than in the case of immigrants from non-Latin countries. The study is based on an extended gravitational model...

Statutory, judicial, and administrative stays in immigration matters

Tavadian, Alexandre
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
La grande majorité des causes tranchées par la Cour fédérale relève du droit de l’immigration. Environ 80% des causes plaidées devant la Cour fédérale sont en matière d’immigration. La plupart des causes qui se rendent à la Cour fédérale aboutissent au renvoi de la personne concernée. La requête en sursis est généralement le dernier recours que la personne peut exercer afin d’éviter ou à tout le moins retarder son renvoi du Canada. Près de 800 de ces requêtes en sursis ont été décidées par la Cour fédérale en 2008. Malgré un si grand nombre de causes et malgré le rôle important que ces requêtes peuvent jouer dans la vie d’une personne, aucun auteur n’a organisé et présenté les règles législatives et jurisprudentielles qui s’appliquent à ces procédures. Aucun livre, article ou commentaire n’a été rédigé sur ce sujet. De même, il n’existe aucun cours d’université ni de formations professionnelles sur les requêtes en sursis. Le droit des sursis consiste exclusivement de la jurisprudence des cours fédérales. Ainsi, on s’attend à ce qu’un avocat prépare une requête en sursis intuitivement. Toutefois, à cause de la nature urgente de cette procédure, il est pratiquement impossible pour un avocat inexpérimenté de se préparer adéquatement et de bien représenter les intérêts de son client. Beaucoup de causes ayant un fort potentiel sont perdues par manque d’expérience de l’avocat ou à cause d’une préparation inadéquate. La jurisprudence émanant de la Cour fédérale relativement aux sursis semble être incohérente et parfois même contradictoire. Ce livre organise...

Immigration Policy and Foreign Population in Switzerland

Gross, Dominique M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
With more than 20 percent, Switzerland is one of the countries with the largest foreign population. Since 1970 the government has tried to manage the flows of migrants in the hope of reconciling a chronic excess demand for labor with mounting pressures from nationalistic groups to control the level of foreign population. A policy of quotas on work permits has been effective in controlling the entry of new workers. Nevertheless, the overall dynamic of the system has led to an ever-increasing share of newcomers not covered by quotas. Because of institutional and economic changes, the outflow did not react to economic incentives as the government expected. Hence, at the beginning of the 21st century, the link between the instruments of immigration policy and its goal has become very weak and the level of foreign population is at an all time high. However, a new era has begun with an agreement on free mobility with European Union and European Free Trade Area (EFTA) countries.

Explaining US immigration 1971-1998

Clark, Ximena; Hatton, Timothy J; Williamson, Jeffrey G
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 394292 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
In this paper we develop and estimate a model to explain the level and source country composition of immigration to the United States since the early 1970s. The model incorporates ratios to the US of source country income and education, and demographic structure, as well as relative inequality as suggested by the Roy model applied to migrant selection. In addition we incorporate the ‘friends and relatives effect’ as reflected in the stock of previous immigrants and a variety of variables representing different dimensions of the immigration quotas set by policy. We estimate our immigration model on a panel of 81 source countries for the years 1971 to 1998. The results strongly support the influence of economic and demographic variables and geographic characteristics as well as policy variables. We use the results to shed light on the factors that influenced the composition of US immigration by source region. And we provide a further check on its plausibility by simulating the effects of the key changes in immigration policy since the late 1970s.; no

Why has UK net immigration increased?

Hatton, Timothy J
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 309861 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Since the 1970s Britain has gone from being a country of net emigration to one of net immigration, with a trend increase in the net balance of about 100,000 per year. This paper represents the first attempt comprehensively to model the variations in net migration for British and for foreign citizens, across countries and over time. A simple economic model, which includes the selection effects of differing income distributions at home and abroad, largely accounts for the variations in the data. The results suggest that improved economic performance in the UK relative to overseas has tended to increase immigration. But a more important influence, especially on the reduced out-migration of British citizens, has been growing UK inequality. By contrast, shifts in immigration policies at home and abroad seem to have been relatively unimportant.; no

"Australian identity", racism and recent responses to Asian immigration to Australia

Jones, Gavin W
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 200802 bytes; 347 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Recent responses to Asian immigration in Australia can be assessed in relation to Australia’s search for a national identity. Australian nationalism has always had its racist elements, reflected in the maintenance of the White Australia Policy until it was abolished by the Whitlam government in 1973. Asian immigration has built up considerably since them, though no one source country has been dominant. Since the late 1970s, generally one third or more of settler arrivals have been from Asian countries. Migrants to Australia from Asian countries have been, on average, more highly educated and have achieved higher income levels than the rest of the population. However, some groups have had below average education levels, notably refugees from the Indo-chines region. The polls indicate majority opposition to Asian immigration, as to immigration in general, though multiple issue opinion polling does not show immigration to be an issue of major concern. Since the maiden speech in parliament by the independent member for Oxley, Pauline Hanson, in September 1996, a “race controversy” has erupted which has reflected not only the persistence of racist attitudes among a section of the Australian population, but also that there is a class and education element: anti-Asian sentiment is more prevalent among the Anglo-Australian working class than among the better educated and those of immigrant background. Avoidance of further widening of these fault lines in Australian society will require statesmanship of a high order from Australia’s political leaders.; no

Shaping labour immigration : the role of labour market institutions in advanced democracies

DEVITT, Camilla
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
The aim of this thesis is to investigate the understudied nexus between immigration and labour market institutions. Bridging migration theory and comparative political economy, it is argued that variation in labour market institutions shapes variation in levels of labour immigration and the type of employment undertaken by migrant workers across advanced democracies. This theory is supported by empirical evidence from Western Europe and in particular Italy and Ireland. Furthermore, it is explored whether, given the relationship between labour market institutions and labour immigration, policymakers are stimulated by concerns regarding immigration - the ‘Migrant Worker Factor’ - to reform labour market institutions. More specifically, it is investigated whether the Migrant Worker Factor stimulated employment standards compliance (ESC) system reforms and the development of active labour market policy (ALMP) in Ireland, Italy and shadow cases Britain and France during the period 1997 - mid 2008. It is also explored whether the Migrant Worker Factor was part of the rationale behind vocational education and training (VET) system reforms of the same period in Ireland and Britain. These case studies found empirical evidence that concerns regarding labour immigration can be a causal factor in the reform of labour market institutions. Certain ESC system reforms were partly motivated by the aim of safeguarding domestic worker jobs and employment standards...

Contagious Parties: Anti-Immigration Parties and Their Impact on Other Parties’ Immigration Stances in Contemporary Western Europe

VAN SPANJE, Joost
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Anti-immigration parties have experienced electoral lift-off in most Western democracies, although the consequences of their victories for real-life policy outcomes have remained largely unexplored. A key question is: do electoral pressures from anti-immigration parties have a ‘contagion’ impact on other parties’ immigration policy positions? In this article, I argue and empirically demonstrate that this is the case. On the basis of a comparative-empirical study of 75 parties in 11 Western European countries, I conclude that this contagion effect involves entire party systems rather than the mainstream right only. In addition, I find that opposition parties are more vulnerable to this contagion effect than parties in government. The findings of this article imply that anti-immigration parties are able to influence policy output in their political systems without entering government.

The impact of immigration-related challenges and deportation worries on the well-being of latinos in the U.S.

Majumdar, Debarun; Martínez-Ramos, Gloria P.
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Increased public awareness of immigration issues creates challenges for Latinos and the deportation of undocumented immigrants in record numbers is a source of worry in the Latino community in the U.S. Very few studies have examined how the preceding factors impact the lives and outlook of Latinos-specifically their quality of life, their confidence in the future, and their situation in the U.S. Using large nationally representative data, it was found that the challenges posed by increased public awareness of immigration issues and the worries associated with immigration indeed negatively affected the lives and outlook of Latinos. It was found that challenges and worries had independent and additive effects on the dependent variables. Further, deportation worries affected quality of life and/or situation in the U.S. for Latinos who were citizens and non-citizens.; La deportación de inmigrantes indocumentados en cantidades récord es una fuente de preocupación en la comunidad Latina en los Estados Unidos. Además, el aumento de la concienciación de los ciudadanos sobre las cuestiones de inmigración crea retos para los latinos. Muy pocos estudios han examinado cómo estos factores afectan las vidas y perspectivas de los latinos...

Pessimism of the mind and optimism of the spirit: Latino youth activism, democracy and the politics of immigration reform after 2012

Gonzales, Alfonso
Fonte: Instituto Franklin de Estudios Norteamericanos. Universidad de Alcalá de Henares Publicador: Instituto Franklin de Estudios Norteamericanos. Universidad de Alcalá de Henares
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This article interrogates the normative assumption, underlining most political science research that greater Latino electoral participation alone will bring about empowerment and social justice for Latino communities under the conditions of neoliberalism and authoritarian state practices. In contrast to this assumption, the article illustrates how after the 2012 presidential election the political energies of Latino communities were further channeled away from grassroots militant mobilizations and organizations into support for liberal Democrats and their proposed Senate immigration reform bill, the “Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act” (S.744). Although there are some positive aspects of this bill that immigration reformers have fought to be included especially for Dreamers and agricultural workers, the author argues that this bill, and most bills dubbed as “comprehensive immigration reform” (CIR) would result in only temporary relief from deportation for a large sector of the 11 million undocumented that would qualify. Moreover, most CIR bills would come at the expense of those that do not qualify and much to the detriment of future flows of undocumented migrants all while ignoring the structural causes of migration that are rooted in asymmetric geopolitical relations of domination and the country’s deep rooted racial hierarchies. Though critical of so-called Latino political power...

The effect of immigration on the employment opportunities of native-born workers : some evidence for Spain

Carrasco, Raquel; Jimeno, Juan F.; Ortega, Ana Carolina
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Spain is one of the European countries where immigration flows during the last decade have increased noticeably. The Spanish labor market institutions and the Spanish immigration policy exhibit some peculiarities which may be relevant when analyzing the impact of immigration. This paper provides a first approximation to the labor market effects of immigrants in Spain during the second half of the 1990s, the period in which immigration flows to Spain have accelerated. By using alternative datasets, we estimate both the impact of legal and total immigration flows on the employment rates of native workers, with and without the implications of the occupational and geographical mobility of immigrants and native-born workers. Using different samples and estimation procedures, we have not found a significant negative effect of immigration on the employment rates of native workers. The corresponding estimated elasticity is around -0.17, when considering only legal immigrants, and is not significant when considering both legal and illegal immigrants.

Making sense of immigration policy : Argentina, 1870-1930

Sánchez-Alonso, Blanca
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2010 ENG; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
The aim of this paper is to disentangle the different forces shaping Argentine immigration policy from 1870 to 1930. Although immigration restrictions increased over time Argentina remained relatively open to mass migration until the 1930s in contrast with the United States. The quantitative evidence presented here suggests that there were economic reasons to restrict immigration prior to the 1930s, namely rising inequality and a declining demand for workers. Labour in Argentina would have been better off with a more restrictive immigration policy since 1900. However, labour interests could not be translated into Parliament in a direct way as in countries with a wide electoral franchise and high political participation like the United States. In Argentina a large share of workers did not have the right to vote simply because they were foreigners. Those negatively affected by massive immigration developed alternative actions: general strikes, labour unrest and violence. Political and social fear finally pushed those who had more to gain from an abundant supply of labour to introduce immigration restrictions.

Does immigration cause crime? : evidence from Spain

Alonso-Borrego, César; Garoupa, Nuno; Vázquez, Pablo
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
The relationship between crime and immigration has been a matter of controversy in the US and around the world. This paper investigates empirically the case of Spain. From 1999 to 2009, Spain has had a large wave of immigration from different areas of the globe. At the same time, crime rates have increased. However, by comparison with other European countries that have received similar massive immigration waves during the same period, crime rates in Spain have increased less considerably. We show that there is a significant relationship between crime and immigration. Nevertheless, the explanation is found in the specific characteristics of the different immigration groups, particularly in the amount and type of human capital, which is a result largely in tune with previous studies on US immigration and crime.; This paper is based on a larger project developed by FEDEA on the economics and sociology of immigration in Spain (2008). Garoupa acknowledges the financial support of the European Commission, MMECC (EC Project 044422) and Alonso-Borrego acknowledges the financial support of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Grant ECO2009- 11165).

Immigration, refugee, asylum, and settlement policies as political issues in Germany and Australia

Hoadley, Stephen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 77656 bytes; 358 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This paper calls attention to the influence of politics on German and Australian immigration policies, which by extension include refugee, asylum, and settlement policies. It traces the evolution of German immigration policies, recounts the debates surrounding the SPD-Green government 1998-2002, and with reference also to Australia, draws some conclusions about politics and immigration policies. Germany's refugee policies, traditionally among the most liberal in Europe, were gradually tightened in the 1990s in response to a rising foreigner population, social tensions and political pressures. A vigorous debate in 1999-2000 led to a major study by the Süssmuth Commission and then to policy changes introduced by in the SPD-Green government’s Immigration Act. But questionable passage in the Bundesrat led President Rau to delay his signature and the opposition parties to challenge the law in the Constitutional Court. CDU opposition leader Edmund Stoiber attempted to make immigration an election issue by threatening to annul the Act if his party won the 2002 election. He did not win, but the Act was annulled in December by an adverse Constitutional Court ruling, and the government and opposition are manoeuvring to adjust and resubmit it. Australia too has been riven by controversy...

Moral panic over merit-based immigration policy : talent for citizenship and the American dream

Pottie-Sherman, Yolande
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 275346 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
This thesis examines a moment in recent U.S. immigration history where an opportunity was created to move towards merit-based immigration, but that proposal was rejected. In addition to the highly publicized proposal for the legalization of undocumented immigrants residing in the United States, the 2007 Immigration Reform Bill proposed a merit-based immigrant selection policy, or “Point System.” The new system would have evaluated potential immigrants according to characteristics deemed to be in the U.S. “national interest.” Critical discourse analysis of policy documents, media coverage in The New York Times and San Diego Union Tribune, and political rhetoric on the floor of the U.S. Senate reveals a distinct moral geography to selection policy. Whereas in Canada, economic immigration is the popularly endorsed mode of immigrant selection, the U.S. “Point System” proposal launched a diatribe by politicians and pundits, who called merit-based immigration “an experiment in social engineering” (Barack Obama 2007), against a “natural” human and “moral imperative” to reunite families (Robert Menendez 2007). This thesis demonstrates the complexity of the relationship between race and class, and how its complexity...

Mexican immigration to the United States

Schwalbe, Kaleigh
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Mark Miller; Mexican immigration to the United States is a controversial issue in today???s political realm. Though it is the longest running labor movement in history, many Americans are under the impression that this is a current issue. In fact, there are many interesting assumptions about this movement, that many times prove to false. It is only by analyzing this issue through the context of historical and current trends, as well as through both the United States and Mexican perspectives that the issue can be fully understood. This paper will examine the immigration movement and US policy responses to it. It will critique these policy decisions based on the success of their intended purposes, and will find that many times these policies were misdirected. Many of the shortfalls of these policies come from a lack of understanding the depth of the Mexican immigrants??? incentives to immigrate to the United States. This paper addresses these motivational gaps by reexamining the push and pull theory, and how the United States has misused this in their policy decisions. The United States is currently focusing too much on the pull motivations of immigration and not enough on the push motivations of immigration. In addition, the pull motivation side policies are being mishandled...

Testing the Boundaries of White Australia: Domestic Servants and Immigration Policy, 1901-45

Higman, Barry
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
In the period 1901-45 Australian governments sought to increase the nation's domestic service workforce through immigration while confining that immigration to British sources. Implementation of the White Australia policy resulted in an active deportation of household workers, particularly in the tropical north. In spite of broad acceptance of race-based immigration restrictions as a national ideal, calls came from the tropical and pastoral margins for a relaxation specific to domestic service in order to encourage white women to settle in remote areas. Proponents of non-British immigration argued that such servants would enable the long-term achievement of White Australia but they met firm resistance.

Immigration, ethnography and ethics; A imigração, a etnografia e a ética

Radhay, Rachel Anneliese; Universidade de Brasília
Fonte: Thesaurus Editora Publicador: Thesaurus Editora
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/11/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
The relation between discourse and power in Brazilian immigration is complex. There is the public sphere with the State's immigration officials. There are also migrants in the intricacies of their worlds. Discourse and power refer to hierarchies of contexts and relations in which multiple truths are constructed vis à vis immigration. There is marked discrimination in the representation and evaluation of immigrants. Those with high investments or specialist knowledge are welcome whilst those who are socially underprivileged are valueless. All these issues can be considered through ethnography. However, delving ethnographically into the complexities of immigration stirs up ethical issues.; The relation between discourse and power in Brazilian immigration is complex. There is the public sphere with the State’s immigration officials. There are also migrants in the intricacies of their worlds. Discourse and power refer to hierarchies of contexts and relations in which multiple truths are constructed vis à vis immigration. There is marked discrimination in the representation and evaluation of immigrants. Those with high investments or specialist knowledge are welcome whilst those who are socially underprivileged are valueless. All these issues can be considered through ethnography. However...

Crime and immigration: new evidence from England and Wales

Jaitman, Laura; Machin, Stephen
Fonte: Springer Open Journals Publicador: Springer Open Journals
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
We study a high profile public policy question on immigration, namely the link between crime and immigration, presenting new evidence from England and Wales in the 2000s. For studying immigration impacts, this period is of considerable interest as the composition of migration to the UK altered dramatically with the accession of Eastern European countries (the A8) to the European Union in 2004. As we show, this has important implications for ensuring a causal impact of immigration can be identified. When we are able to implement a credible research design with statistical power, we find no evidence of an average causal impact of immigration on crime, nor do we when we consider A8 and Non-A8 immigration separately. We also study London by itself as the immigration changes over time in the capital city were large. Again, we find no causal impact of immigration on crime from our spatial econometric analysis and also present evidence from unique data on arrests of natives and immigrants in London which shows no immigrant differences in the likelihood of being arrested.

Reporting on Immigration: A Content Analysis of Major U.S. Newspapers' Coverage of Mexican Immigration

Chavez,Manuel; Whiteford,Scott; Hoewe,Jennifer
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Immigration in the U.S. is an issue that has polarizing political implications at the national and local levels. Reports by the press shape how the public perceives immigration and influence public policy regarding immigrants and immigration. This study examines the stories about Mexican immigration published by four major U.S. newspapers by analyzing their patterns, frequency, length, topics, and framing. This research seeks to shed light on the national print news media's coverage of Mexican immigration to the United States as well as any of its perceived attempts to influence public opinion and public policy.