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As políticas de imigração dos Estados Unidos: Entre o ativismo restricionista e o paradigma de enforcement imigratório contemporâneo; Immigration politics from United States: between restrictionist activism the migratory enforcement paradigm contemporary

Amaral Junior, Wellington Gontijo do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2011 PT
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37.08%
O principal objetivo deste trabalho é compreender a dinâmica que promoveu uma possível securitização da imigração nos Estados Unidos após 2001. Para tanto, procuramos identificar e analisar as mudanças na formulação, orientação e condução da política de imigração nos Estados Unidos a partir da ótica do enforcement imigratório e das legislações de imigração, enfatizando a atuação dos grupos restricionistas para a evolução dessa política. Defendemos que a colocação da imigração como uma questão de segurança no pós-11 de setembro está inserida dentro de um processo mais amplo e resgata o papel importante do ativismo restricionista em especial, do nativismo - na promoção de conteúdos hostis ao imigrante. Além de ser fruto de uma trajetória de demonização do imigrante identificada desde o século XIX, o cenário pós-11 de setembro marca a consolidação da escalada do controle imigratório em curso desde finais dos anos 1980. Na conclusão, utilizamos parte do arcabouço teórico sobre segurança desenvolvido pela Escola de Copenhague para testar a hipótese proposta inicialmente, procurando também apontar os perigos concernentes ao alargamento do conceito de segurança e à produção de modelos de política imigratória como o norteamericano que...

Citizenship and Immigration Statistics

Citizenship and Immigration Canada (1992-1996); Employment and Immigration Canada (1977-1991); Manpower and Immigration (1966-1976)
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
EN
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46.94%
Annual statistical publications describing Canada’s immigration and citizenship programs. Production ceased with the publication of the report for 1996.

Facts and Figures: Immigration Overview - Permanent and Temporary Residents

Citizenship and Immigration Canada
Fonte: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Research and Evaluation Branch Publicador: Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Research and Evaluation Branch
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.88%
Annual immigration statistics for permanent and temporary residents.

Governing belonging and identity : a Foucauldian analysis of Danish immigration and subjectification

Erdinc, Mujde
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
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37.13%
peer-reviewed; The issue of immigration is one of the most debated fields in European politics, especially in terms of the interaction between a representational framework of identities and policy making instruments within legal structures. Within this context, Denmark poses a controversial example with its social democratic welfare model based on equal rights and universality, but also as a country which has been moving from a comparatively liberal stance on immigration towards a more conservative direction. The Danish parliamentary elections of 2001 and the following legal changes are one of the most important examples for this transformation. The central aim of this thesis is to critically examine immigration governance in Denmark by focusing on family reunion. By examining the discursive transformation in immigration governance in Denmark, this research draws attention to the controversial dynamics in terms of the empirical gap between the ideational structure of policy making strategies and the definition of identities as a problem of the population. In order to reveal this gap, it proposes a methodological analysis which connects the top-down (political discourse on immigration) and bottom-up (subjection) analysis and generates a theoretical approach on the basis of a Foucauldian ‘governmentality’ framework. This framework focuses on problematisation of Danish immigration as a gendered and racialised discursive process by which borders between ‘included’ and ‘excluded’ are drawn. By referring to ‘belonging’ as the main analytical concept...

The Wage Effects of Immigration and Emigration

Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar; Peri, Giovanni
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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37.12%
Immigrants in Rome or Paris are more visible to the public eye than the Italian or French engineers in Silicon Valley, especially when it comes to the debate on the effects of immigration on the employment and wages of natives in high-income countries. This paper argues that such public fears, especially in European countries are misplaced; instead, more concern should be directed towards emigration. Using a new dataset on migration flows by education levels for the period 1990-2000, the results show the following: First, immigration had zero to small positive long-run effect on the average wages of natives, ranging from zero in Italy to +1.7 percent in Australia. Second, emigration had a mild to significant negative long-run effect ranging from zero for the US to -0.8 percent in the UK. Third, over the period 1990-2000, immigration generally improved the income distribution of European countries while emigration worsened it by increasing the wage gap between the high and low skilled natives. These patterns hold true using a range of parameters for the simulations...

Employing Skilled Expatriates : Benchmarking Skilled Immigration Regimes across Economies

De Smet, Dieter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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37.08%
The Employing Skilled Expatriates indicators analyze the skilled immigration regime relevant for foreign direct investment across 93 economies to provide comparable information about this regulatory space. The indicators focus on restrictions that control the inflow of skilled immigrants (quotas); the ease of hiring skilled expatriates (time and procedural steps to obtain a temporary work permit, existence of online application systems, availability of a one-stop shop and fast-tracking option); and the existence of a path to permanent residency and citizenship as well as the existence of spousal work permits. As governments increasingly seek to attract foreign direct investment as a driver of long-term development, reforming the investment climate -- including the skilled immigration regime -- is one policy option to consider. This analysis shows a positive correlation between the Employing Skilled Expatriates index and foreign direct investment inflows. As measured by the Employing Skilled Expatriates index...

Immigration to the European Union : the EU, Estonia and Malta providing access for third country nationals to the EU

ROOTS, Lehte
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
For some time now, the EU has been regulating the field of immigration. Several years ago, immigration control was considered a pure sovereign right and it was the obligation of the state to protect its borders from unwanted immigrants. Therefore, it is interesting to show how the step by step development of European immigration control has led to common EU immigration and asylum legislation. This thesis looks at the different access possibilities for third country nationals entering the EU. It considers the different ways people immigrate to Europe, both legally and illegally. The access possibilities for family reunification, students, researchers and workers are examined. Applying for asylum is one way third country nationals can access EU member states, and will be discussed throughout the thesis. This study examines how EU immigration law is applied in two small EU Member States that joined the EU in 2004, Estonia and Malta. The aim is to evaluate whether the access of third country nationals to Europe through these member states has been simplified since joining the EU. Are the rules of access to the EU clear? What kind of problems has the implementation of EU law created for small new member states? In the course of this research...

Enhancing national security by strengthening the legal immigration system

Lee, Danielle.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 93 p. ;
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37.14%
CHDS State/Local; One of the biggest challenges the U.S. contends with is how foreign nationals are using the legal immigration system to embed themselves in the country. While not every person who commits immigration fraud is a terrorist, those who intend to do this country harm will likely engage in some form of immigration fraud or seek to evade immigration laws in order to gain admission into or remain in this country in an immigration status. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, the reality that foreign terrorists seek to exploit loopholes in the international travel system to facilitate the planning and implementation of attacks has become clearer. This thesis explores the interconnected relationship between immigration and terrorism. It will illustrate how border security can be strengthened if terrorists' access to immigration benefits is denied. In order to ascertain how terrorist have been able to successfully manipulate the immigration system and avoid detection, this study analyzes the immigration histories of terrorists involved in four case studies. This analysis shows that rather than focus on one benefit category or manner of entry, terrorists will utilize all means available in order to gain admission into or remain in the country. The recommendations provided based on this analysis focus on all facets of the immigration system and apply a holistic approach to immigration reform.; US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)...

287 (g) cross-delegating state and local law enforcement officers with federal immigration authority -- homeland security remedy or rue?

Lines, Jonathan L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 115 p. ;
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37.1%
CHDS State/Local; As a result of the federal government's shortcomings in thwarting illegal immigration, state and local law enforcement agencies are now largely shouldering the problem of criminal activity associated with illegal immigration. Section 287(g) of the INA allows state and local police to actively participate in immigration enforcement, but has raised concerns about how to balance public safety with concerns of a "chilling effect" on the immigrant community. This thesis surveyed current and prospective 287(g) participants in order to develop a model for voluntary local, state and federal immigration enforcement collaboration. The proposed model confines immigration enforcement to a small group of select officers representing agencies that volunteer based on the needs of their communities; ICE agents would be active participants. The enforcement would target serious crimes that support illegal immigration such as alien smuggling, fraudulent documents, transnational gang activity and drug trafficking. Enforcement efforts would be supplemented by community outreach and efforts to mitigate the chilling effect that deters many state and local police from engaging in immigration enforcement.; Resident Agent In Charge - Ogden...

Beyond Radical Right: Attitudes towards immigration and voting behaviour in Europe

PARDOS-PRADO, Sergi
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
EN
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37.08%
Defense date: 27/09/2010; Examining Board: Mark Franklin (EUI) (Supervisor), Peter Mair (EUI), José Ramón Montero (University of Madrid), Stephen Fisher (Trinity College, Oxford); Received the Special Mention of the Juan J. Linz prize for 2009-2010 by the Political and Constitutional Studies Centre in Spain.; The issue of immigration has thus far been conceptualised almost exclusively as a catalyst for radical forms of behaviour. Scholars of political behaviour have focused on the exceptional character of the radical voter, the pivotal role played by radical right parties in explaining the strategies of mainstream parties, and the prevalence of negative attitudes. The aim of this study is to transcend the analysis of a minority of the political spectrum, present only in a limited number of political systems, and instead to comparatively observe the impact of attitudes towards immigration on mainstream electoral competition in Europe on the basis of individual, party and system levels of variation. The thesis has three main findings. First, the issue of immigration has strong potential to affect mainstream voting in contemporary European political systems. Contrary to what is usually implied by the literature on the radical right...

Redefining Nations: Nationhood and immigration in Italy and Spain

FREITAS CORREIA, Any
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%
Defense date: 08/07/2010; Examining Board: Maurizio Ambrosini (Univ. Milan), Margarita Gomez-Reino Cachafeiro, UNED, Madrid), Virginie Guiraudon (CERAPS-CNRS, Lille Centre for Politics) (External Co-Sipervisor), Peter Mair (EUI) (Supervisor); In the early 1990s, Italy and Spain, traditional labor exporters, started to acknowledge their new position as ‘immigration countries’. This dissertation examines how both states have coped with the consequences of this rapid and unexpected shift. Combining discourse and policy analysis, we look mainly at political elites’ (parties and their members) discourses and practices, during the first decade of the immigration turn (from early 1990s until the early 2000s). The literature has often treated Italy and Spain as examples of the same ‘Mediterranean’ group, also usually assuming that they have followed a very similar route towards immigrants’ criminalization and a populist mobilization of the immigration theme. Adopting an innovative analytical perspective, this thesis arrives at an original understanding of both immigrants’ representation and immigration politics in Italy and Spain. The predominant categories mobilized by Spanish and Italian political elites in the construction of the immigration ‘problem'...

The Europeanisation of national immigration policies? : liberalising effects of EU membership in a new immigration country

MAVRODI, Georgia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
Defense date: 28/05/2010; Examining Board: Andrew Geddes (University of Sheffield), Donatella Della Porta (EUI) (Supervisor), Virginie Guiraudon (CNRS) (Co-supervisor), Anna Triandafyllidou (Democritus University of Thrace); This study examines the impact of European integration in immigration issues on Greek immigration policy. Contrary to widely held claims that immigration policies in Europe become more and more restrictive - the well-known debate on 'Fortress Europe' - Greek legislation on entry, residence and rights of third-country nationals has undergone gradual liberalising developments. This paradox drove my inquiry into the factors, institutions and processes that may explain liberalising immigration policy change for a period of fifteen years (1990 - 2005). Greece, similarly to the rest of southern European 'new' immigration countries, is often charged with the implicit or explicit assumption that its recent turn into a host country for immigrants makes her receptive to the restrictive influence of EU policies on immigration. Is that so? What impact, if any, has cooperation on immigration issues at the EU level had on Greek immigration policy developments and why? What form has it taken, under what conditions, and what mechanisms have been at work? In search for answers...

From Immigration to Integration: Four Essays on Economic Aspects of the Transition Process; Von Zuwanderung zu Integration: Vier Essays zu ökonomischen Aspekten des Transitionsprozesses

Geis, Wido
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
EN
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37.13%
Migration of people from one country to another and their integration into the society of the destination country constitute a long and complex process. This process begins with the first plan of a person to leave her home country. It does not end until the immigrant stops assimilating and intensifying social networks to natives. In the introductory part of the dissertation an overview of the economic relevance of migration and integration shall be given. In four self-contained chapters aspects that have not gained much attention by economic research up to now shall be analyzed. How do migrants choose their destination country? In the second chapter, we analyze the effects of socio-economic and institutional determinants, especially labor-market institutions, on migrants' location choices. Based on a large data set constructed from micro-data for France, Germany, the UK, and the US, we study their decisions to migrate to one of the four countries using a Multinomial Choice framework. Our estimates confirm a number of conventional results, such as positive effects of wages and immigrant networks and negative effects of unemployment rates. In addition, we find that union coverage and unemployment benefits tend to have negative effects...

The impact of immigration on the ageing of Australia's population

McDonald, Peter; Kippen, Rebecca
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 76225 bytes; 347 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
In 1998, just over 12 per cent of Australia’s population were aged 65 years and over. Population projections indicate that this percentage is likely to at least double in the next 40 years. This trend has given rise to concerns about the capacity of our economy in the future to support the older members of our society. In particular, an older population implies increased costs for aged pensions and health and aged care services. As part of the response to this future situation, it has been suggested that we should reduce the extent or speed of ageing through changes to immigration policy. The argument is that, as immigrants are younger on average than the Australian population, an increase in the level of immigration would reduce the ageing of the population. To strengthen the case, it has also been suggested that the immigration program should recruit persons who are younger than the immigrants that enter Australia now. The call is for more and younger immigrants who have skill levels at least equal to those of immigrants at present. In addition, proponents of this position sometimes claim that immigrants have higher fertility than the Australian average, so that higher immigration would increase Australia’s birth rate and...

Explaining U.S. Immigration 1971-98

Clark, Ximena; Hatton, Timothy J.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
The authors develop and estimate a model explaining the level and country-source composition of United States immigration since the early 1970s. The model incorporates ratios of source country income, education, and demographic structure, as well as relative inequality. The authors' model also incorporates both network effects, as reflected in the stock of previous immigrants, and various controls for immigration quota policy. The model is estimated on a panel of 81 source countries for 1971-98. The results strongly support the influence of economic, demographic, and geographic variables as well as policy. The regression results are used to identify those factors that most influenced the changing composition of U.S. immigration by source.

Labour, industries and the politics of immigration

Rheault, Ludovic
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Cette thèse par articles examine les causes et conséquences économiques des politiques d'immigration du point de vue des pays receveurs. Je soutiens que les politiques d'immigration affectent la composition industrielle, et que l'immigration non-qualifiée a ralenti le développement des secteurs haute-technologie dans les pays de l'OCDE au cours des dernières décennies. Néanmoins, les gouvernements élus ont des incitatifs à accroître les niveaux d'immigration et à admettre des immigrants non-qualifiés, afin de conserver l'appui du secteur privé, et de façon à éviter les réactions négatives qui résulteraient de l'affaiblissement des industries traditionnelles. Le premier article s'appuie sur un modèle de progrès technologique endogène et soutient que les activités de recherche des entreprises croissent avec l'offre relative en travail qualifié, et se contractent avec l'offre relative en travail non-qualifié. À l'aide de données panel sur les pays de l'OCDE entre 1971 et 2003, j'estime l'élasticité des dépenses en R&D par rapport à l'offre relative de facteurs au moyen d'un modèle OLS dynamique (DOLS). Les résultats sont conséquents avec les propositions théoriques, et je démontre que l'immigration non-qualifiée a ralenti l'intensité des investissements privés en R&D. Le deuxième article examine la réponse des gouvernements fédéraux canadiens au lobbying des entreprises sur l'enjeu de l'immigration...

Policy legacies and the politics of labour immigration selection and control: the processes and dynamics shaping national-level policy decisions during the recent wave of international migration

Wright, Christopher F
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Politics and International Studies; Darwin College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Politics and International Studies; Darwin College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
The two decades preceding the global financial crisis of 2008 saw an increase in international migration flows. This development was accompanied by the relaxation of immigration entry controls for select categories of foreign workers across the developed world. The scale of labour immigration, and the categories of foreign workers granted entry, varied considerably across states. To some extent, these developments transcended the traditional classifications of comparative immigration politics. This thesis examines the reform process in two states with contrasting policy legacies that adopted liberal labour immigration selection and control policies during the abovementioned period. The instrumental role that immigration has played in the process of nation-building in Australia has led it to be classified as a ?traditional destination state? with a positive immigration policy legacy. By contrast, immigration has not been significant in the formation of national identity in the United Kingdom. It has a more negative immigration policy legacy and is generally regarded as a ?reluctant state?. Examining the reasons for liberal shifts in labour immigration policy in two states with different immigration politics allows insights to be gained into the processes of policy-making and the dynamics that underpin it. In Australia...

Detained Immigrants, Excludable Rights: The Strange Devolution of U.S. Immigration Authority, 1882-2012

Nofil, Brianna
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 23/04/2012
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37.14%
“Detained Immigrants, Excludable Rights” analyzes how plenary power, as a form of discretionary authority, enabled U.S. immigration authorities to initiate, expand, and privatize a system of immigration detention over the past 130 years. While in theory plenary power privileges the executive branch, in practice, plenary power has devolved to privilege immigration bureaucrats, allowing the bureaucracy to occupy a uniquely autonomous role in U.S. government. This thesis looks specifically at how plenary power privileges bureaucratic decision-makers to become “immigration judges,” invoking sovereign authority with little recourse for immigrants and almost no judicial oversight. It also examines how plenary power faced, and continues to face, opposition from both the government and the public, and how this opposition has served as a crucial check on bureaucratic power. “Detained Immigrants, Excludable Rights” reveals that despite the many shifts in leadership, bureaucratic structure, and policy, the doctrine of plenary power both influenced and drove the history of U.S. immigration detention. The three chapters of this thesis each focus on a separate location and catalyzing event for immigration detention. Chapter One analyzes the early years of the immigration bureaucracy and the foundations of plenary power...

North Carolina and Immigration Reform: Policy Options To Address Omnibus Immigration Legislation in the North Carolina General Assembly

Miller, R. Jason
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 10/04/2012 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
Despite no significant movement toward comprehensive federal immigration reform since 2007, stakeholders from virtually all points on the political spectrum continue to call for an overhaul. In the meantime, states have increasingly come to participate in enforcing federal immigration law. One program advancing this trend is 287(g), under which state and local law-enforcement authorities—including several in North Carolina—partner with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement in order to help enforce federal immigration law. Another is E-Verify, a federally administered program that allows employers to use certain identifying documents to verify the residency status of employees; many states—including North Carolina—have made use of the E-Verify program mandatory for public employers, private employers, or both. Many state legislatures have recently gone one step further in the direction of enforcing immigration law by enacting a wave of major state immigration laws. Arizona led the charge with its 2010 Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act (popularly known as “SB 1070”); Utah, Georgia, Indiana, Alabama, and South Carolina soon followed suit. These laws have proven controversial, and challenges in the federal court system have so far met mixed results. The major common provisions require law-enforcement officers to determine the immigration status of anyone involved in a lawful stop...

The labor market effects of immigration: evidence from the Canadian experience

Cummer, Jared
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Robinson, Breck L.; In an effort to improve the economic outcomes of immigrants, starting in the mid-1990s the Canadian government introduced regulatory amendments and new legislation that altered the skill composition of new cohorts entering the country. At the same time, the government significantly increased the level of immigration through expanding the Temporary Foreign Worker (TFW) program and landed immigrant entry streams. These policy changes focused on admitting applicants with the skills needed to adjust with long-run shifts in the labor market, while addressing short-term demand. By altering the Canadian immigration system, the government significantly altered the composition of the country's labor force. Immigrant cohorts entering under the new policy regime had a different composition of skills in comparison to earlier cohorts. By focusing on improving immigrant human capital, the Canadian government altered the skill distribution of the labor force. At the same time, increasing landed and temporary immigration levels shifted the short and long-run supply of labor. As a result, changing the composition and number of immigrants entering Canada influences the general labor market equilibrium of the country. This dissertation contributes to the immigration literature by examining the impact that changes to Canadian immigration policy between the mid-1990s and early 2000s had on immigrant and native-born employment outcomes. This research concentrates on the supply-side effects immigration has on labor market outcomes in Canada. In the first empirical chapter...