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## Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) : their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

Silveira, Anelise Beneduzi da; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane Maria Pereira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action...

## Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action...

## Genome-Wide Characterization of ISR Induced in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma hamatum T382 Against Botrytis cinerea Infection

Mathys, Janick; De Cremer, Kaat; Timmermans, Pieter; Van Kerckhove, Stefan; Lievens, Bart; Vanhaecke, Mieke; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; De Coninck, Barbara
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.6%
In this study, the molecular basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma hamatum T382 against the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea B05-10 was unraveled by microarray analysis both before (ISR-prime) and after (ISR-boost) additional pathogen inoculation. The observed high numbers of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways in which they are involved. By focusing on pathways instead of genes, a holistic picture of the mechanisms underlying ISR emerged. In general, a close resemblance is observed between ISR-prime and systemic acquired resistance, the systemic defense response that is triggered in plants upon pathogen infection leading to increased resistance toward secondary infections. Treatment with T. hamatum T382 primes the plant (ISR-prime), resulting in an accelerated activation of the defense response against B. cinerea during ISR-boost and a subsequent moderation of the B. cinerea induced defense response. Microarray results were validated for representative genes by qRT-PCR. The involvement of various defense-related pathways was confirmed by phenotypic analysis of mutants affected in these pathways, thereby proving the validity of our approach. Combined with additional anthocyanin analysis data these results all point to the involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in T. hamatum T382-induced ISR.

## Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants: mechanism of action

Choudhary, Devendra K.; Prakash, Anil; Johri, B. N.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Plants possess a range of active defense apparatuses that can be actively expressed in response to biotic stresses (pathogens and parasites) of various scales (ranging from microscopic viruses to phytophagous insect). The timing of this defense response is critical and reflects on the difference between coping and succumbing to such biotic challenge of necrotizing pathogens/parasites. If defense mechanisms are triggered by a stimulus prior to infection by a plant pathogen, disease can be reduced. Induced resistance is a state of enhanced defensive capacity developed by a plant when appropriately stimulated. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR) are two forms of induced resistance wherein plant defenses are preconditioned by prior infection or treatment that results in resistance against subsequent challenge by a pathogen or parasite. Selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) suppress diseases by antagonism between the bacteria and soil-borne pathogens as well as by inducing a systemic resistance in plant against both root and foliar pathogens. Rhizobacteria mediated ISR resembles that of pathogen induced SAR in that both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant towards a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Several rhizobacteria trigger the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR pathway by producing SA at the root surface whereas other rhizobacteria trigger different signaling pathway independent of SA. The existence of SA-independent ISR pathway has been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana...

## Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) Against Pathogens in the Context of Induced Plant Defences

HEIL, MARTIN; BOSTOCK, RICHARD M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Induced systemic resistance (ISR) of plants against pathogens is a widespread phenomenon that has been intensively investigated with respect to the underlying signalling pathways as well as to its potential use in plant protection. Elicited by a local infection, plants respond with a salicylic‐dependent signalling cascade that leads to the systemic expression of a broad spectrum and long‐lasting disease resistance that is efficient against fungi, bacteria and viruses. Changes in cell wall composition, de novo production of pathogenesis‐related‐proteins such as chitinases and glucanases, and synthesis of phytoalexins are associated with resistance, although further defensive compounds are likely to exist but remain to be identified. In this Botanical Briefing we focus on interactions between ISR and induced resistance against herbivores that is mediated by jasmonic acid as a central signalling molecule. While many studies report cross‐resistance, others have found trade‐offs, i.e. inhibition of one resistance pathway by the other. Here we propose a framework that explains many of the thus far contradictory results. We regard elicitation separately from signalling and from production, i.e. the synthesis of defensive compounds. Interactions on all three levels can act independently from each other.

## Enhancing Transparency and Accountability through Citizen Feedback : Lessons from the E-ISR+ Pilot

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The External Implementation Status and Results Plus (E-ISR+) system is a feedback, transparency, and accountability tool for the World Bank. E-ISR+ is intended to disclose current project information to external stakeholders, to obtain feedback from non-state players on project progress and results, and to systematically reflect external feedback in implementation reporting. In doing so, it incorporates concepts from social accountability, third-party monitoring, and participatory monitoring and evaluation to emphasize increased transparency, accountability, and stakeholder involvement in World Bank projects. The main sections of the ISR became accessible to the public, reflecting the Bank s new access to information policies and an effort to open up more information about Bank operations to the external public. Moreover, reflecting the overall trend toward more open development, the ISR process tests a new pilot effort in several African countries. E-ISR+ is designed to contribute to an improved environment for accountability generally within the host country and particularly where civil society monitoring strengthens the ability to hold government and other institutions answerable for their expected roles in a project. An improved environment for transparency and accountability is a long-term goal; it is also dependent on variable factors.

## Adaptive architecture for command and control (A2C2) Experiment 11 determining an effective ISR management structure at the operational level of conflict

Stockton, Daniel W.
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This thesis on Experiment 11 concentrates on two conditions of the main independent variable: the position of the ISR Officer. Analysis compares different performance variables under the two ISR role structures. Condition I is comprised of an ISR Coordinator (ISR Coord), a Sea Combat Commander (SCC) and a Marine Expeditionary Unit Commander (MEU). Condition II is comprised of an ISR Commander (ISR Cdr), an SCC and a MEU. Both ISR Officer conditions are examined in a HA/DR scenario. The assessment of performance includes responsiveness of the two conditions when assets are reduced. Participants were asked to plan for the allocation of ISR assets and then re-plan when assets were reduced. Thus, this experiment also examines the simulator as input for operational-level planning. This thesis also compares the findings from Experiment 11 with the findings from Experiment 10 to determine if the ISR management structure, reduction in assets and incorporated planning process in Experiment 11 to determine how the ISR management structure in Experiment 11 affected the utilization of ISR assets.

## Testing and evaluation of low-light sensors to enhance intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) and real-time situational awareness

Efe, GoÌ khan SÌ§.
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Video cameras have increased in usefulness specific to military applications over the course of the past four decades providing remotely controlled and viewed high-definition color images both at day and night conditions making them ideal for defense applications including force protection, critical asset monitoring, and perimeter surveillance. This is a result of many advances in technology including production of high-definition sensors, developing new video compression algorithms and IP capabilities, auto tracking features, image stabilization etc. Furthermore, the evolution of wireless networking technology and capability provides new practical options to gather Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) information. As part of Cooperative Operations and Applied Science and Technology Studies (COASTS) international field experimentation program, multiple cameras are being implemented and fused to provide persistent or near-persistent ISR. Cameras, including low-light versions, utilize both wired and wireless communication networks to deliver real-time video data for the use of decision makers. The goal of this research is to test and evaluate performance and suitability of low-light cameras in a variety of operating environments as an option to more expensive infrared...

## Two Types of ISR Commands Under Two Different Mission Intensities: Examining ESG Concepts

Entin, Elliot; Weil, Shawn; Hutchins, Susan G.; Kleinman, David L.; Hocevar, Susan P.; Kemple, William G.; Pfeiffer, Karl
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13th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), June 17-19, 2008, Seattle, WA.; The U.S. Navy is developing new maritime strategies and command structures to guide transformation efforts, to ensure the security of the global maritime commons in the new network-centric era, and to fit the challenges of the 21st century. The addition of an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) commander is one such innovative structural innovation that is under consideration. To empirically investigate different conceptualizations of ISR officers, we contrasted an ISR officer who coordinated--but did not own—ISR assets with an officer that coordinated—and owned—all ISR assets under low and high intensity mission conditions. Four teams comprised of three active duty officers were assigned to coordination or command ISR conditions and participated in two 90 minute experimental sessions using the Distributed Dynamic Decision-making simulator. The findings show that when task intensity was high the percentage of tasks correctly processed was higher when the ISR officer was a commander than a coordinator. We also found attack accuracy to be higher and action latency lower when mission intensity was high and the ISR officer was a commander. Implications for command and control organizations are discussed.

## HMM and auction-based formulations of ISR coordination mechanisms for the expeditionary strike group missions

An, Woosun; Park, Chulwoo; Pattipati, Krishna; Kleinman, David L.; Kemple, William G.
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In this paper, multi-stage auction-based intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) coordination mechanisms are investigated in the context of dynamic and uncertain mission environments, such as those faced by expeditionary strike groups. Each atribute of the mission task is modeled using a hidden Markov model (HMM) with controllable emission matrices, corresponding to eash ISR asset. For each HMM-sensor pair, we evaluate a metrix of information gains (uncertainty reduction measures); the elements of this matrix depend on the coordination structure and the concomitant delays accrued. We consider three coordination structures (distributed ISR coordination, ISR officer serving as a coordinator, ISR officer serving as a commander) here. We evaluate these structures on a hypothetical mission scenario that requires the monitoring of ISR activities in multiple geographic regions. The three structures are evaluated by comparing the task state estimation error cost, as well as travel, waiting and assignment delays. The results of analysis were used as a guide in the design of a mission scenario and asset composition for team-in-the-loop experimentation at NPS. Our solution has the potential to be a mixed initiative decision support tool to an ISR coordinator/commander...

## Determining Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) system effectiveness, and integration as part of force protection and system survivability

Soh, Sze Shiang
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27.27%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Situation awareness plays a critical role in all battlefields. It monitors activities, and provides essential information about the battle. It is an operational requirement, high in demand, for the forces to fight the battle smartly and accomplishing the objectives set with minimal casualties. Situation awareness enhances survivability of the fighting forces by avoiding adversary detection and acquisition, achieved via the deployment of a variety of sensors that are part of an effective and integrated ISR system network. This thesis analyzes the impact of ISR system effectiveness and integration on unit survivability, in the context of a combined arms unit. The study was approached using the Nearly Orthogonal Latin Hypercube to generate design points for simulation study. Map Aware Non-uniform Automata (MANA) was used to simulate the behavior of the units in the combined arms unit. During simulation, the parameters are varied to create a changing situation picture, as perceived by the troops. This determines the impact on survivability, by measuring the force exchange ratio between the RED and BLUE force, once the simulation is completed. The sensor capabilities and level of integration between the ISR sensors in the combined arms unit are analyzed based on the simulation results.

## How will the Indian military's upgrade and modernization of its ISR, precision strike, and missile defense affect the stability in South Asia?

Dewan, Jay P.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 77 p.
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; India has made a concerted effort to upgrade its ISR, precision strike, and missile defense capabilities as it competes with China and Pakistan for regional power. The Phalcon Airborne Warning and Control System, Su-30MKI fighter-bomber aircraft, and S-300PMU surface-to-air missile system are some examples of the new capabilities India is acquiring. I argue that if India continues its military modernization, Pakistan will become more insecure. The increase in the conventional military capabilities gap will likely upset the existing balance of power in South Asia, leading to a regional arms race, lowering the nuclear threshold, and increasing instability in the region. The strategic stability/tactical instability paradox that exists between two nuclear countries may lead them to engage in "small" wars. India's increasing military capabilities may encourage it to conduct a preventive strike against Pakistan. In such a climate, a regional arms race eventually may lead Pakistan to establish a "hair-trigger" nuclear posture. India's effort to achieve a significantly superior conventional military force over Pakistan paradoxically may reduce Indian security by causing greater instability...

## Close ISR support re-organizing the Combined Forces Air Component Commander's Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance processes and agencies

Price, Stephen C.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xxvi, 371 p. : col. ill., col. maps;
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance support to counterinsurgency operations is significantly different from the support necessary for conventional, major theater warfare based upon the command levels of planning and execution, the developing nature of "wicked" problems within a counterinsurgency, and the competing needs for highly limited resources. The U.S. Air Force, however, maintains an organizational structure optimized for conventional warfare at the expense of the responsiveness and flexibility necessary to conduct ISR operations in coordination with supported maneuver elements. This thesis identifies the problems encountered by the ISR community in supporting counterinsurgency operations and makes several recommendations for mitigating those problems, among them the development of a dynamic organizational design, a request and tasking process that manages both ISR and operations assets with a focus on the disparate needs of responsible commanders, and the transition to a doctrine focused on real-time ISR integration with, rather than preliminary support to, operations. The doctrine proposed by this thesis is exportable to non-military operations to include disaster recovery and humanitarian relief operations.; Outstanding Thesis; US Air Force (USAF) author.

## KDEL receptor 1 regulates T-cell homeostasis via PP1 that is a key phosphatase for ISR

Kamimura, Daisuke; Katsunuma, Kokichi; Arima, Yasunobu; Atsumi, Toru; Jiang, Jing-jing; Bando, Hidenori; Meng, Jie; Sabharwal, Lavannya; Stofkova, Andrea; Nishikawa, Naoki; Suzuki, Hironao; Ogura, Hideki; Ueda, Naoko; Tsuruoka, Mineko; Harada, Masaya; Kob
Fonte: Nature Pub. Group Publicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
KDEL receptors are responsible for retrotransporting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones from the Golgi complex to the ER. Here we describe a role for KDEL receptor 1 (KDELR1) that involves the regulation of integrated stress responses (ISR) in T cells. Designing and using an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mutant mouse line, T-Red (naïve T-cell reduced), we show that a point mutation in KDELR1 is responsible for the reduction in the number of naïve T cells in this model owing to an increase in ISR. Mechanistic analysis shows that KDELR1 directly regulates protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a key phosphatase for ISR in naïve T cells. T-Red KDELR1 does not associate with PP1, resulting in reduced phosphatase activity against eIF2α and subsequent expression of stress responsive genes including the proapoptotic factor Bim. These results demonstrate that KDELR1 regulates naïve T-cell homeostasis by controlling ISR.

## On the Feasibility and Utility of ISR Tagging

Krohn, David; Randall, Lisa; Wang, Lian-Tao
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57%
The production of new particles at a hadron collider like the LHC is always accompanied by QCD radiation attributable to the initial state (i.e. ISR). This tends to complicate analyses, so ISR is normally regarded as a nuisance. Nevertheless, we show that ISR can also be valuable, yielding information that can help in the discovery and interpretation of physics beyond the Standard Model. To access this information we will introduce new techniques designed to identify ISR jets on an event-by-event basis, a process we term ISR tagging. As a demonstration of their utility, we will apply these techniques to SUSY di-squark (di-gluino) production to show that they can be used to identify ISR jets in roughly 40% (15%) of the events, with a mistag rate of around 10% (15%). We then show that, through the application of a new method which we will introduce, knowledge of an ISR jet allows us to infer the squark (gluino) mass to within roughly 20% of its true value.

## Fine structure of the diffraction cone: from ISR to the LHC

Fagundes, D. A.; Jenkovszky, L.; Miranda, E. Q.; Pancheri, G.; Silva, P. V. R. G.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
Following earlier findings, we argue that the low-$|t|$ structure in the elastic diffractive cone, recently reported by the TOTEM Collaboration at $8$ TeV, is a consequence of the threshold singularity required by $t-$channel unitarity, such as revealed earlier at the ISR. By using simple Regge-pole models, we analyze the available data on the $pp$ elastic differential cross section in a wide range of c.m. energies, namely those from ISR to LHC8, obtaining good fits of all datasets. This study hints at the fact that the non-exponential behaviour observed at LHC8 is a recurrence of the low-$|t|$ "break" phenomenon, observed in the seventies at ISR, being induced by the presence of a two-pion loop singularity in the Pomeron trajectory.; Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, 7 tables. Invited contribution to the Gribov-85 Memorial Volume "Exploring Quantum Field Theory", to be published by World Scientific

## Study of $\ep\en$ Collisions in the 1.5-3 Gev C.M. Energy Region Using Isr at \babar

Solodov, E. P.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A preliminary analysis of low-energy $\ep\en$ collision data produced via initial state radiation (ISR) has been performed using 22 $fb^{-1}$ of \babar \~data. The selection of data samples corresponding to the $\mumu$, $\pipi$, $\kk$, $p \bar p$, $\kk\pi^0$, 3$\pi$, 4$\pi$, 5$\pi$, 6$\pi$, 7$\pi$ final states accompanied by the emitted ISR hard photon has been demonstrated. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective collision c.m. energy, and so \babar ISR data can be compared to the relevant direct $\ep\en$ measurements. The resulting distributions are already competitive with DCI and ADONE data in the 1.4-3.0 GeV energy range. In particular, they do not suffer from the relative normalization uncertainties observed for certain reactions when results from different experiments are combined. Eventually, such data may be used to measure the energy dependence of R, the ratio of the $\ep\en\to hadrons$ and $\ep\en\to\mumu$ cross sections, in the low-energy regime where precise measurements will have an impact on the interpretation of the new $(g-2)_{\mu}$ measurements.; Comment: Invited talk at the workshop $\ep\en$ Physics at Intermediate Energies'', SLAC, Stanford, April 30 - May 2, 2001. 6 pages, 16 figures

## Measurement of the e+e- --> hadrons cross-section at low energy with ISR events at BABAR

Malaescu, Bogdan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.27%
The precise measurement of the cross section e+e- --> pi+ pi-(gamma) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV, using events with Initial State Radiation (ISR) collected with the BABAR detector, is presented. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e+e- --> mu+ mu- gamma(gamma), and the method is tested by the comparison with the next-to-leading order (NLO) QED prediction. The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the BABAR pi pi cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1 +- 2.2(stat) +- 3.1(syst)) * 10^{-10}. Other results on ISR multihadronic cross sections from BABAR are presented.; Comment: On behalf of the BABAR Collaboration. Proceeding of the 11th International Workshop on Tau Lepton Physics - Manchester, UK, 13-17 September 2010. 6 pages, 3 figures

## The impact of the ISR on accelerator physics and technology

Bryant, P. J.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica