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Rethinking School Feeding Social Safety Nets, Child Development, and the Education Sector

Bundy, Donald; Burbano, Carmen; Grosh, Margaret; Gelli, Aulo; Jukes, Matthew; Drake, Lesley
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.85%
This review highlights three main findings. First, school feeding programs in low-income countries exhibit large variation in cost, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. Second, as countries get richer, school feeding costs become a much smaller proportion of the investment in education. For example, in Zambia the cost of school feeding is about 50 percent of annual per capita costs for primary education; in Ireland it is only 10 percent. Further analysis is required to define these relationships, but supporting countries to maintain an investment in school feeding through this transition may emerge as a key role for development partners. Third, the main preconditions for the transition to sustainable national programs are mainstreaming school feeding in national policies and plans, especially education sector plans; identifying national sources of financing; and expanding national implementation capacity. Mainstreaming a development policy for school feeding into national education sector plans offers the added advantage of aligning support for school feeding with the processes already established to harmonize development partner support for the education for all-fast track initiative.

Why Does the Productivity of Education Vary across Individuals in Egypt? Firm Size, Gender, and Access to Technology as Sources of Heterogeneity in Returns to Education

Herrera, Santiago; Badr, Karim
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.83%
The paper estimates the rates of return to investment in education in Egypt, allowing for multiple sources of heterogeneity across individuals. The paper finds that, in the period 1998-2006, returns to education increased for workers with higher education, but fell for workers with intermediate education levels; the relative wage of illiterate workers also fell in the period. This change can be explained by supply and demand factors. On the supply side, the number workers with intermediate education, as well as illiterate ones, outpaced the growth of other categories joining the labor force during the decade. From the labor demand side, the Egyptian economy experienced a structural transformation by which sectors demanding higher-skilled labor, such as financial intermediation and communications, gained importance to the detriment of agriculture and construction, which demand lower-skilled workers. In Egypt, individuals are sorted into different educational tracks, creating the first source of heterogeneity: those that are sorted into the general secondary-university track have higher returns than those sorted into vocational training. Second...

Natural Disasters and Human Capital Accumulation

Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.79%
The author assesses empirically the relationship between natural disaster risk and investment in education. Although the results in the empirical literature tend to be inconclusive, using model averaging methods in the framework of cross-country and panel regressions, this paper finds an extremely robust negative partial correlation between secondary school enrollment and natural disaster risk. This result is exclusively driven by geological disasters. Natural disaster risk exposure is a robust determinant of differences in secondary school enrollment between countries, but not within countries, which implies that the effect can be interpreted as a long-run phenomenon.

The Road Not Traveled : Education Reform in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
This report focuses on the economic rather than the social and cultural dimensions of education. Its approach in answering the questions raised is analytical and comparative in nature. Education outcomes in the region are compared with education outcomes in other developing countries. The development impact of investment in education is considered in the context of the large body of literature on the subject. The education reform strategies in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are assessed on the basis of a new analytical framework. Labor market outcomes are evaluated on the basis of how well these markets function, given past reform efforts. The feature of the report is that it covers all levels of instruction, not just basic, secondary, or higher education. Although the primary focus of the report is education, it was important to pay special attention to domestic labor markets and migration. After all, this is where the returns to education are determined and its impact on development made.

Turkey : Higher Education Policy Study, Volume 1. Strategic Directions for Higher Education in Turkey

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
Countries that invest heavily and effectively in education and skills to produce information and knowledge will benefit economically and socially. The European Union (EU) has set the goal to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. Turkey, in its Ninth Development Plan, aims to increase educational attainment and develop a lifelong education strategy to meet the requirements of a changing and developing economy and labor market. To meet the EU goal and the Turkey goal requires education systems that are more flexible, more effective and more easily accessible to a wider range of people. Education and skill levels in Turkey lag behind international standards, including the European Union. As highlighted in figures and discussion in a later section of the paper on access and equity, results of international tests show poor performance for many students in Turkey and participation in secondary education, as well as tertiary education, is low by international standards. Significant disparities also exist in educational quality and access by gender...

Is Formal Lifelong Learning a Profitable Investment for All of Life? How Age, Education Level, and Flexibility of Provision Affect Rates of Return to Adult Education in Colombia

Sohnesen, Thomas Pave; Blom, Andreas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
Lifelong learning is increasingly being recognized as a primary factor for knowledge diffusion and productivity growth. However, little economic evidence exists on the economic value of lifelong learning for the individual, especially in developing countries. This paper contributes to remedy this shortfall. It investigates one aspect of lifelong learning: returns to formal education across ages. In the absence of long-term longitudinal data, the paper estimates rates of return for simulated re-entry into the education system. The estimations use the method of internal rate of return and are based on observed education-age-earnings profiles from the Colombian national household survey. It finds that rates of return to all levels of education are only slightly smaller for 35 year olds than for young people, thus confirming the profitability of investment in adult education. Tertiary education continues to attract a positive return until late in life, 45-50 years, whereas the economic value of re-entering primary and secondary education is positive up till the age of 40-45. So, formal lifelong learning seems to remain a profitable investment for at least half of life. But lack of part-time work, high tuition fees, and prolonged study time reduce the return. The findings suggest that adult formal education initiatives should focus on the 20 to 40 year olds and be designed flexibly to allow learners to work part time.

Heterogeneous Returns to Education in the Labor Market

Fasih, Tazeen; Kingdon, Geeta; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Sakellariou, Chris; Soderbom, Mans
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
Since the development of human capital theory, countless estimates of the economic benefits of investing in education for the individual have been published. While it is a universal fact that in all countries of the world the more education one has the higher his or her earnings, it is nevertheless important to know the empirical returns to schooling. However, simply knowing average returns is not useful in a world of heterogeneity. This paper finds increasing returns going from the lower to the higher end of the earnings distribution, but with some important differences across regions. The returns increase by quantile for Latin America. The returns decrease by quantile for most East Asian countries, producing an overall equalizing effect. India and Pakistan demonstrate opposite results. In Ghana, the returns across the distribution are flat, while for Kenya and Tanzania education is dis-equalizing.

Heterogeneity in Returns to Investment in Education in Egypt

Herrera, Santiago; Badr, Karim
Fonte: World Scientific Publicador: World Scientific
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.74%
The paper estimates the rates of return to investment in education in Egypt, allowing for multiple sources of heterogeneity across individuals. The paper finds that, in the period 1998–2006, returns to education increased for workers with higher education, but fell for workers with intermediate education levels; the relative wage of illiterate workers also fell in the period. This change can be explained by supply and demand factors. On the supply side, the number workers with intermediate education, as well as illiterate ones, outpaced the growth of other categories joining the labor force during the decade. From the labor demand side, the Egyptian economy experienced a structural transformation by which sectors demanding higher-skilled labor, such as financial intermediation and communications, gained importance to the detriment of agriculture and construction, which demand lower-skilled workers. In Egypt, individuals are sorted into different educational tracks, creating the first source of heterogeneity: those that are sorted into the general secondary-university track have higher returns than those sorted into vocational training. Second, the paper finds that large-firm workers earn higher returns than small-firm workers. Third...

Expanding Access and Enhancing the Economic Benefits of Education in the Maldives : Challenges and Prospects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.83%
Human capital is the central determinant of economic well-being and social advancement in the modern global economy. The key characteristic that distinguishes between advanced economies, middle-income economies and low-income economies is the knowledge content of their economic activities and production processes. Industry, agriculture and especially services have become increasingly knowledge and skill intensive in recent years. Further, the dominance of knowledge and skills is increasing at an accelerating rate. Among advanced economies, for instance, the education levels of their populations is the single most important factor determining their economic performance [Hanushek and Welch (2006), Hanushek and Woessmann (2008)]. Among middle-income and low-income countries, too, economies that have high education attainment enjoy considerable welfare gains [Fasih (2008), Patrinos and Psacharopoulos (2011)]. Human resource development is particularly important for the economic development of small states [Martin and Bray (2011)]. Education also produces a variety of social benefits. These include healthier and better nourished families and children; the creation of the enlightened citizenry needed for a modern liberal democracy; and the promotion of social mobility [OECD (2012)]. This paper offers an overview of the general education system and the current status of access and participation in the Maldives. This is followed by a discussion of the economic and social benefits of investment in education. The paper concludes by discussing options to expand access and participation at education levels where the Maldives lags behind other comparable small island economies.

Education Investment Guide : A Guide for Investors in Private Education in Emerging Markets

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
This guide has been prepared as a reference for International Finance Corporation (IFC) partner banks and other investors considering an investment in private education. It aims to: 1) describe some of the special features of private education entities, such as primary and secondary schools, technical and vocational colleges as well as tertiary colleges and universities; and 2) indicate the key questions to ask and what to look for when such institutions are being appraised. The document is divided into four sections: i) the education sector in emerging economies; ii) investing in education; iii) national policies and regulation; and iv) good practice, pitfalls and performance. The first section sets the education market in a global context, explaining why the private sector is emerging as a major player in many countries. The second section sets out the different approaches of private equity and banks as lenders. The next section focuses on the national context and describes some of the national policies and regulations that might influence the operations and profitability of an education institution. The final section illustrates the elements of a successful education investment from both the financial and educational points of view.

Sri Lanka : Investment in Human Capital

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.87%
Education is one of the most important determinants of economic performance in the modern world. This is true of both countries and individuals. The main characteristic which distinguishes between advanced economies, middle-income economies and low-income countries, is the knowledge content of their production activities and processes. Economic activities and products have become increasingly knowledge and skill-intensive in recent years. In addition, the importance of knowledge and skills is growing at an accelerating pace. Education is at the heart of human capital accumulation and economic growth. Education increases cognitive skills and soft skills of individuals. In addition, education improves the capacity of individuals to be trained for specific occupations and to acquire job-related skills. These effects of education enable individuals to accumulate human capital, improve labor productivity and increase life-cycle earnings. In the aggregate, this process generates economic growth. Investment in education produces a broad range of social benefits. Well-educated individuals...

Long-Term Financial Incentives and Investment in Daughters : Evidence from Conditional Cash Transfers in North India

Sinha, Nistha; Yoong, Joanne
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.79%
Since the early 1990s, several states in India have introduced financial incentive programs to discourage son preference among parents and encourage investment in daughters' education and health. This study evaluates one such program in the state of Haryana, Apni Beti Apna Dhan (Our Daughter, Our Wealth). Since 1994, eligible parents in Haryana have been offered a financial incentive if they give birth to a daughter. The incentive consists of an immediate cash grant and a long-term savings bond redeemable on the daughter's 18th birthday provided she is unmarried, with additional bonuses for education. Although no specific program participation data are available, we estimate early intent-to-treat program effects on mothers (sex ratio among live children, fertility preferences) and children (mother's use of antenatal care, survival, nutritional status, immunization, schooling) using statewide household survey data on fertility and child health, and constructing proxies for household and individual program eligibility. The results based on this limited data imply that Apni Beti Apna Dhan had a positive effect on the sex ratio of living children...

Republic of Madagascar : Primary Education in Time of Crisis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.86%
The Malagasy population has undergone a severe political and economic crisis since 2009, whose impact on children's enrollment is little documented. The stagnation of primary school enrollment in a context of sustained demographic growth points to a rapid deterioration in the access to basic education services. The objective of this study is thus to evaluate the effects of the current crisis on household education choices, to orient education policy decisions over the short and medium term. The study combines recent available qualitative and quantitative data, to propose a set of assumptions on the effects of the crisis and its impact channels on education. Short of being able to carry out a full impact analysis of the crisis, due to its national coverage, the following data and sources are analyzed in detail to better document its effects: 1) monetary and budget data; 2) education statistics from the Ministry of Education (MEN); 3) the last two household surveys (EPM), of 2005 and 2010; 4) a follow-up survey of the pupils...

The Decision to Invest in Child Quality over Quantity : Household Size and Household Investment in Education in Vietnam

Dang, Hai-Anh; Rogers, F. Halsey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.91%
During Vietnam's two decades of rapid economic growth, its fertility rate has fallen sharply at the same time that its educational attainment has risen rapidly -- macro trends that are consistent with the hypothesis of a quantity-quality tradeoff in child-rearing. This paper investigates whether the micro-level evidence supports the hypothesis that Vietnamese parents are in fact making a tradeoff between quantity and quality of children. The paper presents new measures of household investment in private tutoring, together with traditional measures of household investments in education. It analyzes data from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys and instruments for family size using the distance to the nearest family planning center. The estimation results show that families do indeed invest less in the education of school-age children who have larger numbers of siblings. This effect holds for several indicators of educational investment -- including general education expenditure and various measures of private tutoring investment -- and is robust to various definitions of family size and model specifications that control for community characteristics as well as the distance to the city center. Finally...

Lifelong Learning in the Global Knowledge Economy : Challenges for Developing Countries; Aprendizaje permanente en la economia global del conocimiento : desafios para los paises en desarrollo L apprentissage a tout age dans Ieconomie mondiale du savoir : Des defis pour les pays en developpement

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
Consideration of lifelong learning extends the World Bank's traditional approach to education, in which subsectors are looked at in isolation. Three years ago, when he articulated the Comprehensive Development Framework, World Bank President James Wolfensohn referred explicitly to lifelong learning as a component of what education means for poverty alleviation In 1995 "Priorities and Strategies for Education" (report no. 14948) emphasized the need to look at the education system in a more holistic manner. The 1999 "Education Sector Strategy"(report no. 19631) discussed the role of new technologies. The World Bank has just completed important new policy work on higher education reforms as well as a vision paper on the role of science and technology. The current report is the Bank's first attempt to lay out an analytical framework for understanding the challenges of developing a lifelong learning system. While the World Bank's involvement in lifelong education is still at the conceptual stage, two new projects-in Romania and Chile-have already been prepared to address the need for continuing education and lifelong learning. In the years to come more analytical work on lifelong learning is expected...

Madagascar - Post Primary Education : Developing the Workforce, Shaping the Future - Transformation of Madagascar's Post-Basic Education

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
The main purpose of this report is to provide analytical inputs for the development of post-basic education reforms. Specifically, the report identifies and prioritizes: (i) the need for change in the structure, content and delivery of Madagascar's post-basic education and training system, and (ii) the key reforms in financing, governance and sub-sector management required to support changes to the structure, content and delivery of the post-basic system. The Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) outlines an ambitious development strategy, focusing on promoting investment in high growth sectors and regional development. If successful, it will change the demand for skills in fundamental ways. Since 2005, foreign direct investment has increased rapidly. Madagascar's core challenges and the window of opportunity provided by the implementation of basic education reform imply that reform must improve the quality and relevance of post-basic education, while putting cost-effective mechanisms for expanding access in place. Post-basic reform should not focus exclusively on a massive expansion of the existing post-basic system. Instead...

Changing Norms about Gender Inequality in Education : Evidence from Bangladesh

Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Das, Maitreyi Bordia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.67%
Using a recent household survey for two cohorts of married women, this paper examines norms about gender equality in education for children and adults. Among the main findings are that gender education gap norms have changed: younger generations of women are more positive about female vs. male education, both as pertaining to child and adult education outcomes. Perhaps the strongest result is that Bangladeshi women are more likely to espouse attitudes of gender equality in education for their children and less so about gender equality among spouses. It is also easier to explain norms regarding children's education and more difficult to explain norms about equality in marriages. The authors believe that question on relative education of boys and girls captures the value of education per se, while the question on educational equality in marriage captures the norms regarding marriage and the relative worth of husbands and wives. The effect of education in determining norms is significant though complex...

Returns to Investment in Education : A Further Update

Psacharopoulos, George; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.88%
Returns to investment in education based on human capital theory have been estimated since the late 1950s. In the 40-plus year history of estimates of returns to investment in education, there have been several reviews of the empirical results in attempts to establish patterns. Many more estimates from a wide variety of countries, including over time evidence, and estimates based on new econometric techniques, reaffirm the importance of human capital theory. The suthors review and present the latest estimates and patterns as found in the literature at the turn of the century. However, because the availability of rate of return estimates has grown exponentially, the authors include a new section on the need for selectivity in comparing returns to investment in education and establishing related patterns.

Social Exclusion and the Gender Gap in Education

Lewis, Maureen; Lockheed, Marlaine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.66%
Despite a sharp increase in the share of girls who enroll in, attend, and complete various levels of schooling, an educational gender gap remains in some countries. This paper argues that one explanation for this gender gap is the degree of social exclusion within these countries, as indicated by ethno-linguistic heterogeneity, which triggers both economic and psycho-social mechanisms to limit girls' schooling. Ethno-linguistic heterogeneity initially was applied to explaining lagging economic growth, but has emerged in the literature more recently to explain both civil conflict and public goods. This paper is a first application of the concept to explain gender gaps in education. The paper discusses the importance of female education for economic and social development, reviews the evidence regarding gender and ethnic differences in schooling, reviews the theoretical perspectives of various social science disciplines that seek to explain such differences, and tests the relevance of ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity in explaining cross-country differences in school attainment and learning. The study indicates that within-country ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity partly explains both national female primary school completion rates and gender differences in these rates...

Can Cost-Benefit Analysis Guide Education Policy in Developing Countries?

Jimenez, Emmanuel; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
Cost-benefit analysis in education is an important tool in the economists' arsenal. However, it is essential that research, especially on the social benefits of education, make further progress to make cost-benefit more analysis. There is a need for more research on the effects of policy interventions on outcomes beyond access to a year in school and what they earn as a result, such as on what children actually learn. Such research should focus on ensuring that the interventions are attributable to outcomes. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to go through the discipline of noting the benefits and costs, even if social rates of return cannot be calculated robustly.