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The Investment Climate in Brazil, India, and South Africa : A Comparison of Approaches for Sustaining Economic Growth in Emerging Economies

Fan, Qimiao; Reis, José Guilherme; Jarvis, Michael; Beath, Andrew; Frauscher, Kathrin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.56%
This book seeks to contribute to the sharing of knowledge between Brazil, India, and South Africa, three of the largest emerging economies today. By assessing and comparing the investment climate in each, the authors seek to profile concrete steps that countries can take to improve the business environment. The authors focus particularly on identifying the commonalities and differences both within and among the three countries and attempt to highlight examples where policy makers will be able to drawn on the lessons from their own reform experiences and those of their counterparts in other core emerging markets. The book is organized as follows: (1) Provides a brief overview of the investment climate in each of the three countries, highlighting the key constraints identified by the national business communities, and explains the underlying concepts of the investment climate assessments and doing business indicators. (2) Examines the macroeconomic performance of Brazil, India, and South Africa and shows how the three countries perform with regard to taxation and foreign trade and exchange. (3) Reviews key microeconomic regulations...

Reforming the Investment Climate : Lessons for Practitioners

Kikeri, Sunita; Kenyon, Thomas; Palmade, Vincent
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and IFC Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and IFC
EN_US
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66.54%
Drawing from more than 25 case studies, this book shows that reform often requires paying as much attention to dealing with the politics and institutional dimensions as to designing policy substance. While there is no single recipe or manual for reform, the authors highlight three broad lessons. The first is to recognize and seize opportunities for reform. Crisis and new governments are important catalysts, but so is the competition generated by trade integration and new benchmarking information. The second is to invest early in the politics of reform. Public education can help gain wide acceptance for reform, while pilot programs can be valuable for demonstrating the benefits and feasibility of change. And the third is to treat implementation and monitoring as an integral part of the reform process and not merely as an afterthought. In the absence of public sector reform, reformers can draw on private sector change management techniques to revitalize institutions and put in place mechanisms to monitor and sustain reform. The book provides an emerging checklist for reformers and identifies areas for future work.

Guyana - Investment Climate Assessment : Volume 1. Main Findings and Policy Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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76.45%
This document presents the main findings of the Guyana Investment Climate Survey (ICS) conducted between November 2004 and March 2005. The ICA report provides an evaluation of different aspects of the environment of doing business in Guyana. It covers governance-related obstacles, labor and technology issues, the financial sector, and infrastructure. The ICA is based on the results of the World Bank Guyana Investment Climate Survey (ICS), as well as other sources of information, including an opinion survey of Guyanese commercial bank managers, and interviews with Guyanese entrepreneurs and government leaders. The findings of the survey, combined with relevant information from other sources, provide a practical basis for identifying the most important areas for reform aimed at improving the investment climate.

Orissa : Investment Climate Assessment 2005, Towards a High Performing State

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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86.63%
In carrying out the program for investment climate reform, Orissa State has to keep three things uppermost: It s critical to strike the right balance between private and social interests so that both are mutually reinforced and growth is equitable and inclusive. 2) Both the implementation capacity of government and the political economy of reforms will require appropriate prioritization of reforms with a clear identification of short-, medium-, and long-term actions. Building capacity in the public sector to analyze IC issues and formulate and implement policies will have to be an integral part of the reform process. 3) The credibility of policies and reform programs is key. Policymakers must put their full force behind a speedy and robust implementation of the reforms, by developing a credible action plan with time-bound outcomes and a monitoring mechanism to track reforms.

Syrian Investment Climate Assessment : Unlocking the Potential of the Private Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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76.54%
The purpose of this Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to provide the Syrian government, as well as business leaders, with a rigorous empirical analysis of the investment climate in Syria and the factors influencing firm-level productivity and competitiveness. This analysis will be used to derive recommendations and options for priority measures to improve the investment climate and productivity, as well as find ways in which the World Bank and others might further support these reforms. The ultimate objective is to provide an agenda of reforms that together will create a business enabling environment conducive to accelerated private sector-led growth, thereby increasing Syrian national income and employment.

Political Risk : The Missing Link in Understanding Investment Climate Reform?

Dreyhaupt, Stephan; Nimac, Ivan; Hornberger, Kusi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.43%
Political risk has once again become a key concern of investors after the perceived openness and liberalization of foreign direct investment (FDI) regimes in the 1990s. Governments that do not recognize this trend pay a high price in lost investments. Confronting political and regulatory risks as part of the investment climate is thus crucial for countries to make their business environments more competitive. This note suggests reforms that can have immediate impacts: addressing ex ante and ex post issues in the legal and regulatory framework to protect investors, mitigating risks at the sector level, managing reputational and integrity risks at the project level, and using financial instruments to ease short-term impediments in the investment climate.

Serbia : Investment Climate Asessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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76.48%
The objective of this Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to (1) provide Serbian experts in academia and in government, as well as Bank staff, with an empirical analysis of the investment climate in Serbia; and (2) to discuss policy options, based on this analysis, for creating an enabling environment conducive to private sector development, thereby increasing and maintaining enterprise productivity and profitability leading to sustainable growth. The study is part of a Bank-wide effort, managed and funded by the Investment Climate Unit of the Investment Climate Department, to analyze the effects of various characteristics of the investment climate on productivity in an international context. One of the main messages of this ICA is the need to increase investor confidence in Serbia; the ICA identifies a number of policies that, if implemented, could improve the perception of Serbian investment climate. In particular, it should be stressed that reversals in policy and lack of respect for property rights on investors that have already invested in Serbia could cause serious harm.

Investment Climate Reform: Going the Last Mile The Bulldozer Initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Herzberg, Benjamin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.45%
The author examines the Bulldozer Initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, an innovative reform methodology that successfully overcame the lack of political will and capacity at the government level through a bottom-up approach. Using an innovative grassroots and public awareness methodology, the initiative mobilized the local business community to bulldoze barriers by identifying concrete legislative changes and advocating for their adoption and implementation. By delivering fast results-50 reforms in 150 days-the initiative won the confidence of entrepreneurs and empowered them to institutionalize permanent grassroots reform committees. The force of this lobby group created political will by putting public pressure on the politicians to do their part to enact the reforms. Most important, it carried investment climate reform the last mile by delivering concrete, quantifiable results in all sectors of the economy. Over time, the initiative is establishing a dynamic of reform and public-private partnership that will facilitate the tackling of more complicated structural reforms. Complementing the systemic approach and framework reform efforts of governments and international agencies...

Investment Climate Reforms and Job Creation in Developing Countries : What Do We Know and What Should We Do?

Rahman, Aminur
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper reviews the literature on the role of the investment climate reforms in job creation. It finds that the current landscape of employment and private sector activity in developing countries indicates a number of potential channels through which investment climate reforms can positively affect job creation. However, rigorous empirical evidence is scarce and most of the relevant studies focus on business entry reforms with a few focusing on business taxation and investment promotion activities. Overall, there is evidence of job creation through business entry, tax reforms, and investment promotion activity in developing countries. Almost all of these evidences are from quasi-experimental studies that are significant improvements over conventional cross-country or cross-section panel data analysis. Still, various endogeneity concerns in these studies cannot be ruled out completely. In assessing job effects, future research should provide deeper insights on the gross versus net and short-run versus long-run job effects and general equilibrium effects of various investment climate reforms related to jobs...

Investment Climate Reform : An Independent Evaluation of World Bank Group Support to Reforms of Business Regulations

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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86.6%
Private firms are at the forefront of the development process providing more than 90 percent of jobs, supplying goods and services, and representing a significant source of tax revenues. Their ability to grow, create jobs, and reduce poverty depends critically on a well-functioning investment climate defined as the policy, legal and institutional arrangements underpinning the functioning of markets and the level of transaction costs and risks associated with starting, operating and closing a business. The World Bank Group has been providing extensive support to investment climate reforms—having supported over the period FY07–13, 819 projects with investment climate interventions in 119 countries for a total estimated value of $3.7 billion. This evaluation is designed to assess the relevance, effectiveness, and social value as it relates to concerns for inclusion and shared prosperity of World Bank Group support to investment climate reforms.

Zambia : An Assessment of the Investment Climate

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
This Zambia Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) forms part of World Bank Group global initiative to systematically analyze conditions for private investment and enterprise growth. Improving the investment climate is recognized as a key pillar of developing countries' path to promote economic growth and reduce poverty. The I C A compliments and amplifies a series of diagnostic work on this issue being undertaken by the World Bank Group in collaboration with the Government of Zambia. Throughout this report, empirical results showing the relative position of Zambia versus potential competitors will be presented. To understand the quality of investment climate in Zambia from the perspective of the private sector, the report draws on the results of a firm survey conducted in 2003, covering a sample of more than 200 service and manufacturing firms, large and small, located in different parts of Zambia.' This Investment Climate Assessment has three key parts: Empirical analysis of productivity; examination of investment climate constraints; and strategy for improving the investment climate and productivity. The report contains ordered recommendations in five key areas: Macroeconomics and finance...

Business Environment Reform in MENA : Setting Up the Right Implementation Framework

de Meneval, Philippe; Saadani, Youssef
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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76.54%
In many developing countries numerous ambitious reform agendas have faltered and failed to have significant impact on the ground, often creating a counterproductive 'reform fatigue'. Most governments have at their disposal detailed assessments of their investment climate and are able to identify weaknesses. However, expert diagnostics and political will alone are not enough to succeed in reforming the investment climate. Reform initiatives often get bogged down because of a lack of institutionalized inter-ministerial coordination, open public-private dialogue, and efficient project management. Best reformers worldwide have taken into account this implementation challenge. Recent studies have demonstrated that, in addition to establishing a performing high-level decision-making body, these countries have developed a full-fledged reform process that includes a dedicated reform team at the center of government and a structured dialogue mechanism with the private sector to better coordinate reform identification and implementation. As highlighted in the 2008 report of the commission on growth and development: 'making policy is only part of the battle. Policies must also be faithfully implemented and tolerably administered.'

Evaluation of the World Bank Group's Investment Climate Programs; Focus on Impact and Sustainability

Economisti Associati
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.63%
This impact evaluation reviews the investment climate (IC) reform programs implemented by the World Bank Group (WBG) in Burkina Faso, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan. It follows a study carried out in 2011 across the same countries. The purpose of the evaluation is to update, expand, and deepen the initial analysis within the framework of the earlier study, in order to gain a better understanding of the impact and sustainability of the IC reform activities implemented by the WBG. The evaluation covers a total of 25 IC-related projects implemented by the WBG in the five countries since the mid-2000s. The evaluation consists of three main elements, namely: a review of the outcomes achieved by the IC programs; an analysis of how IC reforms translate into impacts that is into tangible benefits for private firms and for the economy as a whole; and an assessment of the sustainability of IC reforms. The result is a significant improvement in the overall quality of the business environment in the five countries. This report is structured as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two provides an overview of the context in which the WBG programs were implemented...

Linking Business Tax Reform with Governance : How to Measure Success

Everest-Phillips, Max; Sandall, Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.45%
This note highlights the significance of firms' willingness to pay taxes in the context of state-building both as an end in itself and also as an essential component of sustainable investment climate reform. State legitimacy, taxpayers' willingness to pay (based on their intrinsic 'tax morale' and the translation of taxes into public goods and services), and the effectiveness of tax administration are integral to any tax system. This note suggests diagnostic steps to measure key influences on taxpayers' willingness to pay, offering a baseline for judging progress on the sustainability of all tax reforms.

Myanmar Investment Climate Assessment : Sustaining Reforms in a Time of Transition

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA)
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.54%
This is the first investment climate assessment (ICA) for Myanmar. The main objectives of this ICA are to: (i) provide an up-to-date and fact-based analysis of the business environment for the government and other stakeholders in Myanmar to help prioritize and contextualize the reform agenda, and (ii) to offer a baseline for future assessments of progress in terms of the investment climate reform agenda. As requested by the government, the Myanmar ICA will directly support the ongoing reform program. The government has requested an analytical foundation for the ongoing reform program, and a means for prioritizing the legal and institutional changes that are currently being initiated. This ICA is based on the 2014 Myanmar enterprise survey (ES). The Myanmar ICA provides a comprehensive analysis of the country's ES. The ES in Myanmar was carried out between February and April 2014, although significant work preceded and followed the survey itself. This ICA report is organized into four chapters. The first chapter provides an introduction into the context of Myanmar's challenges in terms of the overall economy and the investment climate in particular. The second chapter analyzes the main constraints faced by firms operating in Myanmar today...

India : Investment Climate and Manufacturing Industry

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.36%
Differences in the investment climate have recently gained centre stage in explaining variations in competitiveness, growth and prosperity across countries or regions. The investment climate comprises institutional and policy variables that have a crucial bearing on business performance, but over which firms have no control individually. Key determinants of the investment climate include the functioning of product and factor markets; sources of non-pecuniary intra- and inter-industry externalities (i.e., spillovers) the quality of public goods (such as law and order, government regulation) and their effects on the cost of borrowing, on price stability, or on exchange rates via fiscal and monetary policies; and some physical and social infrastructure. The report asseses India's investment climate from the perspective of industrial growth and focuses on investment climate variations within India, analyzing the implications these variations have on industrial performance, as well as, subnational disparities in productivity and growth.

Gender and Investment Climate Reform Assessment : Pacific Regional Executive Summary

Hedditch, Sonali; Manuel, Clare
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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76.36%
This report profiles 52 business women, representing countries where IFC works across the Pacific region, in 30 case studies. Women in the report share lessons in starting their businesses, and describe the obstacles and opportunities they encountered in their pursuit of growth. By revealing their future plans, the women provide inspiration for current and future business women of the Pacific to pursue greater entrepreneurial ventures. In the Pacific region, women's ability to access and control income, and exert decision making power is yet to be fully realized. The Gender and Investment Climate Reform Assessments for Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga and Vanuatu examines this issue by analyzing the constraints women in business face and provides recommendations for IFC to incorporate into its investment climate reform programs to reduce the gender specific obstacles.

Gender Dimensions of Investment Climate Reform : A Guide for Policy Makers and Practitioners

Simavi, Sevi; Manuel, Clare; Blackden, Mark
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.36%
Promoting women's economic empowerment is increasingly seen as an important driving force behind economic growth and the fight against poverty. Women's economic participation as entrepreneurs, employees, and leaders is recognized as a measure of a country's economic viability and dynamism. The guide starts with a brief section on the economic rationale for gender inclusion in investment climate reform work. It is then divided into nine modules. Recognizing the socioeconomic dimensions of gender-focused work, the core module outlines the broader, overarching framework within which gender-informed investment climate work can take place. It also focuses on the monitoring and evaluation framework, with particular emphasis on establishing appropriate baselines to facilitate the measurement of gender-informed changes in the business environment. The eight thematic modules provide specific guidance on key investment climate issues comprising: (i) public-private dialogue, (ii) business start-up and operation, (iii) business taxation...

EDBM's Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for Investment Climate Reforms in Madagascar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.52%
To assist the Economic Development Board of Madagascar (EDBM) in setting-up such a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system, this report defines the goals and impacts and objectives and outcomes of the EDBM interventions, proposes a list of key outcome and impact indicators to monitor the investment climate and its resultant impacts, presents a (draft) comprehensive logical framework (logframe) with the above-mentioned indicators and their potential sources of verifications, presents some of the tools to monitor and evaluate EDBM's success in contributing to PSD and IC reforms through policy advocacy, and discusses some of the key next steps in setting-up EDBM's M&E system. The report is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the M&E framework for EDBM. Section 3 presents a reform tracking matrix to track the reforms facilitated by EDBM and their intended results. Section 4 concludes the report by highlighting some of the key next steps. A draft logframe is presented in Annex 1. Annex 2 provides the terms of reference (ToR) for EDBM's M&E system design. Annex 3 provides the list of stakeholders consulted for this report.

Investment Climate in Africa

Bridgman, David; Adamali, Aref
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.53%
The World Bank Group has been working on investment climate reform in Sub-Saharan Africa for nearly a decade, a period characterized by dramatic economic growth on the continent. Establishing links between such reform interventions and economic growth, however, is a complex problem. Although this note finds some connection between investment climate reform and economic growth, establishing more concrete evidence of causation will require greater focus at the country level, as well as on small and medium enterprises. This is where investment climate interventions generate change.