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As quotas tarifárias e o acesso dos produtos agroindustriais brasileiros ao mercado internacional.; Tariff-rate quotas and international market access to brazilian agricultural products.

Cunha Filho, Joaquim Henrique da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/03/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
O presente estudo visa a discutir a influência do sistema de quotas tarifárias sobre as exportações agroindustriais brasileiras. Para tanto, descreve o funcionamento e as características das quotas tarifárias e aponta algumas inconsistências em relação aos princípios de não-discriminação e transparência, do sistema GATT/OMC, e perante o compromisso de acesso mínimo e corrente proposto no Acordo sobre Agricultura da Rodada Uruguai (AARU). Por meio de ilustrações gráficas, o presente trabalho demonstra os fatores condicionantes e os efeitos sobre o bem-estar, desvio de renda e possíveis impactos sobre a demanda por importação. Cabe salientar que as ilustrações gráficas desta pesquisa são caracterizadas como seu instrumental metodológico, enquanto a teoria microeconômica e a economia internacional compõem seu arcabouço teórico. Além disso, foram escolhidos como mais importantes, 32 produtos agroindustriais da pauta exportadora brasileira, o que resultou na análise de 352 dentre 1.425 quotas tarifárias, compreendendo 26 dos 43 países que impõem este sistema às suas importações. Os resultados apontaram para uma interferência do sistema de quotas tarifárias sobre a exportação agroindustrial brasileira. Não puderam demonstrar...

Análise da competitividade das exportações brasileiras de frutas selecionadas no mercado internacional; Analysis of Brazilian exports competitiveness of selected fruits in the international market

Vitti, Aline
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/04/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
A participação do Brasil no mercado externo de frutas tem aumentado nos últimos anos e, apesar de o Brasil não apresentar participação relevante no mercado internacional, sabe-se que pode crescer ainda mais, visto o potencial do País. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a competitividade das exportações brasileiras de frutas no mercado internacional, possibilitando identificar os fatores que têm sido responsáveis pelos ganhos de competitividade das exportações brasileiras de frutas entre os anos de 1989 a 2006. Para a realização deste estudo foram selecionadas as sete principais frutas frescas exportadas pelo Brasil em 2007: banana, lima/limão, maçã, mamão, manga, melão e uva. A base teórica utilizada foi o conceito de competitividade e os modelos Constant Market Share - CMS e Vantagem Comparativa Revelada - VCR. Quanto aos efeitos que mais contribuíram para o desempenho das exportações de frutas brasileiras, o efeito competitividade foi o mais importante, principalmente no segundo período analisado (1997/98/99 a 2004/05/06). O mamão foi a única fruta para qual os efeitos crescimento de mercado e destino das exportações foram mais representativos do que a competitividade. Apesar de o modelo CMS distinguir os efeitos explicativos da evolução das exportações...

How to indirectly assess transaction costs to evaluate market integration : evidence from the international ethanol market

Serigati, Felippe Cauê
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
Mercados são instituições criadas para facilitar uma atividade de comercialização. Isto é possível porque um mercado é constituído por instituições que foram desenhadas para reduzir os custos de transação associados a este processo de troca. A partir dessas duas ideias, esta tese possui três objetivos principais. (i) Analisar por que a literatura de análise de cointegração tem mensurado estes custos de forma imprecisa. A principal razão é certa confusão entre os conceitos de custos de transação, de transporte e de comercialização. (ii) Propor um procedimento para mensurar indiretamente os custos de transação de mercado variáveis combinando os modelos de cointegração com mudança de regime e a estrutura teórica oferecidas pela Nova Economia Institucional. Este procedimento é aplicado para quantificar quanto custa comercializar etanol no mercado internacional usando suas atuais instituições. (iii) Por fim, usando os mesmos modelos e a mesma estrutura teórica, esta dissertação contesta a hipótese de que já existe um mercado internacional de etanol bem desenvolvido, tal qual a literatura tem assumido. De forma semelhante, também é avaliada a hipótese de que a remoção das barreiras comerciais norte-americanas para o etanol brasileiro seria uma condição suficiente para o desenvolvimento deste mercado internacional. Os testes aplicados rejeitam ambas as hipóteses.; Markets are organizations created to facilitate an exchange. This is possible because the institutions that constitute a market are established to reduce the transaction costs. Assuming those two ideas...

Perspectivas do Brasil no mercado internacional de etanol; Perspective for Brazil in the bio-ethanol international market

Erik Augusto Piacente
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
O objetivo principal desta dissertação é avaliar as perspectivas do Brasil no emergente mercado internacional de etanol. Muitos países têm iniciativas para misturar etanol à gasolina a fim de deslocar o MTBE, reduzir emissões de GEE, reduzir a dependência de petróleo e incentivar a agroindústria local. O Brasil tem tradição e grande potencial na produção de biomassa, sendo notável sua experiência na produção de etanol. As perspectivas de aumento da produção de etanol são muito favoráveis, tanto considerando o mercado interno quanto o internacional. A expansão do mercado interno deve-se ao sucesso nas vendas dos veículos flex-fuel, enquanto o mercado internacional tende a crescer pelas razões acima apresentadas, mas principalmente por conta das preocupações quanto às mudanças climáticas. Para ampliar sua capacidade de produção, tanto para suprir a demanda interna quanto para exportar volumes significativos de etanol, serão necessárias a construção de novas unidades industriais (cerca de 150), a ampliação da lavoura de cana (4 Mha) e a expansão da logística. Entretanto, apesar da elevada competitividade da indústria brasileira, uma maior participação no mercado internacional dependerá da superação de barreiras comerciais em processos de negociação complexos e morosos. A sustentabilidade da produção de etanol...

Comércio e meio ambiente: os atuais desafios das pequenas empresas frutícolas do Vale do São Patrício GO no mercado internacional; Trade and environment: current challenges for small businesses fruit Valley St. Patrick - GO on the international market

ANJOS, Diana Marques dos
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Agronegócio; Ciências Agrárias Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Agronegócio; Ciências Agrárias
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
The world market of fruits is in great expansion, mainly due to, among others factors, the changes in the habits of the consumption and the new technologies that improved in the production and storage of fruits. However the technical barriers are the serious obstacles for producers to get access to international markets. The State of Goiás still has a little expressive production in relation to other States, as for example, Bahia. However it has favorable climatic and soil conditions to modify this situation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the challenges of the small fruit producers in the international trade and has as focus the producer of fruits of the region of the Vale do São Patrício in Goiás. For the development of the subject commerce and environment: the current challenges of the small fruit producer companies of the Vale do São Patrício in the international market , had been used exploratory research, literature review, organizational diagnosis field, research through interview and questionnaire with presidents of the cooperatives located in the cities of Uruana, Jaraguá and Itapuranga, which represent great part of the cities of the Vale do São Patrício. The conclusion of the study allows to certify that the small producers of fruits of the region work with the product as form of alternatives for income improvement and are considerably willing to adopt improvements in the productive process and the internal and external qualities of the product...

International Grain Reserves : And Other Instruments to Address Volatility in Grain Markets

Wright, Brian
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
In the long view, recent grain price volatility is not anomalous. Wheat, rice, and maize are highly substitutable in the global market for calories, and when aggregate stocks decline to minimal feasible levels, prices become highly sensitive to small shocks, consistent with storage models. In this decade, stocks have declined due to high income growth and biofuels mandates. Recently, shocks including the Australian drought and biofuels demand boosts due to the oil price spike were exacerbated by a sequence of trade restrictions by key exporters beginning in the thin global rice market in the fall of 2007, which turned market anxiety into panic. To protect vulnerable consumers, countries intervened in storage markets and, if they were exporters, to limit trade access. Recognizing these realities, vulnerable countries are building strategic reserves. The associated expense and negative incentive effects can be controlled if reserves have quantitative targets related to the consumption needs of the most vulnerable...

International Financial Integration through the Law of One Price

Levy Yeyati, Eduardo; Schmukler, Sergio L.; Van Horen, Neeltje
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
The authors argue that the cross-market premium (the ratio between the domestic and the international market price of cross-listed stocks) provides a valuable measure of international financial integration, reflecting accurately the factors that segment markets and inhibit price arbitrage. Applying to equity markets recent methodological developments in the purchasing power parity literature, they show that nonlinear Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) models properly capture the behavior of the cross market premium. The estimates reveal the presence of narrow non-arbitrage bands and indicate that price differences outside these bands are rapidly arbitraged away, much faster than what has been documented for good markets. Moreover, the authors find that financial integration increases with market liquidity. Capital controls, when binding, contribute to segment financial markets by widening the non-arbitrage bands and making price disparities more persistent. Crisis episodes are associated with higher volatility, rather than by more persistent deviations from the law of one price.

Capital Market Integration and MiFID Implementation : The Bulgarian Experience

Byskov, Steen; Boskovic, Tanja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
This note aims to assess the implementation of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) in Bulgaria, provide an initial view on the impact it had on the Bulgarian securities markets, and draw lessons from the experience. Bulgaria entered the European Union (EU) and adopted MiFID at the cusp of a global crisis that hit central Europe particularly hard. MiFID implementation in Bulgaria began along with other EU countries on November 1st 2007, less than a year after Bulgaria had entered the union. Important changes for the local market were the introduction of the passport, which allows intermediaries to operate throughout Europe under the local license, a more competitive environment for trading venues as shares listed on the regulated market (RM) shares can be traded anywhere in Europe, and greater role for home supervisor.

Investment Climate and International Integration

Dollar, David; Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Mengistae, Taye
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Drawing on recently completed firm-level surveys in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Honduras, India, Nicaragua, Pakistan, and Peru, this paper investigates the relationship between investment climate and international integration. These standardized surveys of large, random samples of firms in common sectors reveal how firms experience bottlenecks and delays in hard infrastructure such as power and telecom as well as in soft infrastructure such as customs administration. The authors focus primarily on measures of the time or monetary cost of different bottlenecks (e.g., days to clear goods through customs, days to get a telephone line, sales lost to power outages). For many of these costs, the obstacles are lower in China than in the South Asian or Latin American countries. There is also systematic variation across cities within countries. The authors estimate a probit function for the probability that a randomly chosen firm is foreign-invested and a separate probit for the probability that a randomly chosen firm is an exporter. These measures of international integration are higher where investment climate is better. For locations to take advantage of opportunities in the international market...

Institutional Arrangements for the Promotion of Regional Integration of Electricity Markets : International Experience

Oseni, Musiliu O.; Pollitt, Michael G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This paper focuses on the institutional arrangements needed for facilitating regional electricity cooperation. The paper begins by discussing the theory of international trade cooperation in electricity, with a view to discussing what preconditions might be important in facilitating wide area trading across national borders. It then discusses two sets of case studies. The first set focuses on three regional developing country power pools -- the Southern African Power Pool, the West African Power Pool, and the Central American Power Market. The second set focuses on three regional power pools in more developed countries -- one in the United States, the Single Electricity Market in Ireland, and the South East Europe market. These cases highlight the potential and difficulty of having cross-jurisdictional power pools. In the light of the theory and evidence presented, key lessons are drawn in the areas of preconditions for trading, necessary institutional arrangements, practicalities of timetabling, reasons to be hopeful about future prospects...

A Globalized Market--Opportunities and Risks for the Poor : Global Poverty Report 2001

African Development Bank; Asian Development Bank; European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Inter-American Development Bank; International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
The Global Poverty Report considers the effects of globalizing markets on poverty in developing countries. It outlines the channels through which increased trade openness can affect poverty and examines the evidence from four regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Written at the request of the G8, the report is the result of a joint effort of the regional development banks, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. Increased openness can affect an economy in various ways, creating opportunities for the poor as well as risks. First, it can affect the prices of goods and services that the poor consume and produce, benefiting those who are net consumers of goods that become cheaper and those who can obtain higher prices for their products on international markets. Second, it can affect the demand for and returns to factors of production that the poor have to offer, such as labor. Third, it can affect government revenue and the resources available for antipoverty programs. Fourth...

Enabling International Market Linkages : Lessons and Insights

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Growth-oriented entrepreneurs, especially those in small countries and those that are highly innovative, often look to international markets to grow their business. From a development perspective, entrepreneurs successful expansion into international markets can mean revenue growth and job creation at the enterprise level, along with spillover effects into innovation, industry competitiveness, and foreign exchange on a broader economic level. However, entrepreneurs do not always have the necessary know-how and networks to expand beyond their national market, nor do they have effective resources they can draw upon to gain access to the required knowledge and contacts. InfoDev focuses on enabling the growth of early-stage enterprises across the developing world. During 2010 - 2013, infoDev piloted a few approaches to enable international market access for small, relatively early-stage, growth-oriented enterprises. In total, about 200 enterprises from more than 35 countries participated in these pilots. The results and lessons from these pilot projects summarized in this document provide insights for practitioners who are considering increasing international market access for early stage entrepreneurs. Recommendations as to further research in this field are also provided.

Low-Income Countries’ Access to Private Debt Markets

Hostland, Doug
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Private debt flows to developing countries surged to record levels over the period 2003-07. A few low-income countries have gained access to the international bond market but the bulk of the flows have continued to go to just a few large middle-income countries. Most low-income countries still heavily depend on concessional loans and grants from the official sector to meet their financing needs. The paper provides an overview of low-income countries' access to cross-border bank lending and bond issuance in the international market over the past few decades. It highlights some stylized facts that characterize salient features of low-income countries' experience in external borrowing from the private sector and discusses the various factors that influence governments' and corporations' decisions to seek external financing along with creditors' decisions to provide the financing. The paper concludes by assessing the prospects for low-income countries' access to private debt markets over the medium term.

Equilibrium Parallel Import Policies and International Market Structure

Roy, Santanu; Saggi, Kamal
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
In a North-South vertically differentiated duopoly, the analysis in this paper derives equilibrium government policies towards parallel imports. By incorporating strategic interaction at the policy-setting stage and the product market, the model sheds new light on (i) the effects of parallel import policies on pricing behavior of firms and (ii) the interdependence of national parallel import policies. If demand asymmetry across countries is sufficiently large, the North forbids parallel imports to ensure its firm sells in the South thereby generating international price discrimination -- the South's most preferred market outcome -- as the equilibrium. When demand structures are relatively similar across countries, the North permits parallel imports and uniform pricing -- its most preferred market outcome -- obtains.

Integrating Central American and International Food Markets : An Analysis of Food Price Transmission in Honduras and Nicaragua

Arias, Diego; De Franco, Mario A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
In 2004 the Central American countries of Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and the Dominican Republic signed the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) with the United States and are currently negotiating another agreement with the European Union and others. This study examines the dynamics among international and domestic food markets by assessing the transmission of international prices to domestic prices of key agriculture commodities in Honduras and Nicaragua. It analyzes to what degree, if at all, a change in the international price of a given food product influences the domestic price of that same good, at the level of the consumer and producer and in different regions in each country. This analysis provides important evidence of the price dynamics that guide public policy recommendations for a complementary agenda of agriculture trade liberaliza-tion in the region. There are two methods for analyzing the relationship between international and domestic prices. The first is to conduct a price wedge analysis-to evaluate the difference between international and domestic prices. The second method is to conduct a price transmission analysis by analyzing the variation in the percent growth of international versus domestic prices. Evidence from Nicaragua suggests that for most of the agriculture supply chains studied (except for beans) there is little competition in the country's domestic market structure. A few Nicaraguan companies own the majority share of the market...

Sukuk Markets : A Proposed Approach for Development

Kusuma, Ketut Ariadi; Caputo Silva, Anderson
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
The issuance of sukuk, as an instrument in Islamic finance, has been growing in recent years. Many policy makers and businesses are looking at the sukuk markets as sources of long-term financing. The paper identifies key issues impeding further development of sukuk markets globally, namely, standardization of structures and practices, investor protection concerns relating to insolvency and governance regimes, and market liquidity. The paper also offers approaches in developing domestic sukuk markets and in accessing the international market. The authors suggest that, in developing domestic sukuk markets, policy makers use a framework similar to that of the development of conventional bond markets, that is, by establishing (1) well-functioning money markets, (2) efficient primary markets and securities-offering regimes, (3) a robust and diversified investor base, (4) a market infrastructure that facilitates trading, price transparency, and efficient clearing and settlement of transactions, (5) derivatives market and hedging tools to support risk management by issuers and investors...

Capital Market Integration and MiFID Implementation : The Bulgarian Experience

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Commodities Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Bulgaria's financial integration with Europe has been essential in financing economic transition and spurring economic growth. As the sovereign debt turmoil in Europe casts a cloud over the financial sector, the development of capital markets over the medium term may offer a beneficial diversification of the financial system. Bulgaria began aligning its regulation of securities markets to European Union (EU) standards when its EU accession process began and introduced the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) in November 2007 along with other EU countries. This report aims to assess the implementation of MiFID in Bulgaria, to provide an initial view on the impact it had on the Bulgarian securities markets, and to draw lessons about the experience. The report not only offers concrete suggestions for stimulating development of the capital market to the benefit of firms and investors, but it also aims to stimulate further debate about how to organize the securities market infrastructure for long-term development.

International market selection of Carrefour

Bourke, sandra
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
Carrefour has been internationalizing into many countries and would like to continue growing. This study focuses on the potential future international market selection of Car-refour, comparing countries from the EU and South America, in a quantitative and qual-itative analysis. The purpose of the project is to help Carrefour to find the right market and the right mode to entry. Through semi-structured interviews and a literature research we found out that Sweden has the highest potential to entry with a Venture (Marketing), followed by Austria

Capital Market Instruments to Mobilize Institutional Investors to Infrastructure and SME Financing in Emerging Market Economies; Report for the G20

World Bank Group; International Monetary Fund; OECD
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC; International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC; and OECD, Paris Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC; International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC; and OECD, Paris
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
This report seeks to identify key capital markets instruments that can help mobilize institutional investors to infrastructure and small and medium enterprises (SME) financing in emerging market economies (EMEs). EMEs face financing gaps in infrastructure and SMEs that if not addressed can stifle growth and affect shared prosperity. This report is structured as follows: this section explains the objective of this report and the scope of the work undertaken. Section two provides an overview of the size and importance of institutional investors in EMEs and their current portfolio allocation. Sections three and four analyze key capital markets instruments that might help to mobilize institutional investors in EMEs to infrastructure and SME financing, and their current use in AEs and EMEs. Section five explains the challenges affecting the development of capital markets instruments in EMEs. Section six provides an overview of the role of governments and multilateral development banks (MDBs). Section seven draws conclusions and offer recommendations about actions that EMEs will need to undertake to mobilize institutional investors to infrastructure and SME financing.

The Chilean wheat market and its price support mechanism: a spatial market integration analysis

Valdés,Rodrigo; von Cramon-Taubadel,Stephan; Díaz-Osorio,José; Engler,Alejandra
Fonte: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo Publicador: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
This research investigates the spatial market integration of the Chilean wheat market in relation with its most representative international markets by using a vector error correction model (VECM) and how a price support policy, as a price band, affect it. The international market was characterized by two relevant wheat prices: PAN from Argentina and Hard Red Winter from the United States. The spatial market integration level, expressed in the error correction term (ECT), allowed concluding that there is a high integration degree among these markets with a variable influence of the price band mechanism mainly related with its estimation methodology. Moreover, this paper showed that Chile can be seen as price taker as long as the speed of its adjustment to international shocks, being these reactions faster than in the United States and Argentina. Finally, the results validated the "Law of the One Price", which assumes price equalization across all local markets in the long run.