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Trends in Household Coverage of Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Diallo, Amadou; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Household surveys have long been used to estimate poverty and inequality trends, as well as trends in education and health indicators, but they have not been used to the same extent to assess trends in the access to or coverage of modern infrastructure services. In this paper, we use Demographic and Health Surveys from a larger sample of sub-Saharan African countries in order to collect comparable information across countries on coverage of piped water, flush toilets, electricity, and landline telephones over time. The results suggest that coverage rates for electricity, flush toilets have improved slightly over the last decade. Coverage of piped water has declined, at the same time as coverage of landline (as well as cellular) telephone has increased rapidly. The decline has been primarily in the urban areas while the infrastructure coverage has either increased or remained stable in rural Africa. For all four services, among the poorest households coverage remains virtually inexistent. If business as usual continues...

Infrastructure and Growth in Africa

Calderón, César
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.49%
The goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the impact of infrastructure development on growth in African countries. Based on econometric estimates for a sample of 136 countries from 1960-2005, the authors evaluate the impact on per capita growth of faster accumulation of infrastructure stocks and of enhancement in the quality of infrastructure services for 39 African countries in three key infrastructure sectors: telecommunications, electricity, and roads.Using an econometric technique suitable for dynamic panel data models and likely endogenous regressors, the authors find that infrastructure stocks and service quality boost economic growth. The growth payoff of reaching the infrastructure development of the African leader (Mauritius) is 1.1 percent of GDP per year in North Africa and 2.3 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa, with most of the contribution coming from more, rather than better, infrastructure. Across Africa, infrastructure contributed 99 basis points to per capita economic growth...

Procurement in Infrastructure : What Does Theory Tell Us?

Estache, Antonio; Iimi, Atsushi; Ruzzier, Christian
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
Infrastructure has particular challenges in public procurement, because it is highly complex and customized and often requires economic, political and social considerations from a long time horizon. To deliver public infrastructure services to citizens or taxpayers, there are a series of decisions that governments have to make. The paper provides a minimum package of important economic theories that could guide governments to wise decision-making at each stage. Theory suggests that in general it would be a good option to contract out infrastructure to the private sector under high-powered incentive mechanisms, such as fixed-price contracts. However, this holds under certain conditions. Theory also shows that ownership should be aligned with the ultimate responsibility for or objective of infrastructure provision. Public and private ownership have different advantages and can deal with different problems. It is also shown that it would be a better option to integrate more than one public task (for example...

Philippines : Meeting the Infrastructure Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
The Philippines enjoys tremendous endowments of natural, and human resources that provide great potential for economic development and poverty reduction. However, overall development outcomes over the last decades have fallen short of potential. The gap can be largely attributed to weak performance of public institutions in providing services to citizens, which leads to a vicious cycle of weak public services, lack of trust in the government, and unwillingness on the part of citizens to provide adequate resources to the government. The key development challenge, therefore, is to reverse the cycle to one of virtuous development where increased government revenue translates into improved service delivery and greater public trust in the government. Infrastructure plays an important role in this development process. Insufficient infrastructure has been a major constraint to economic growth and poverty reduction in the Philippines. Though the country has relatively high access levels to water, sanitation, and electricity, service levels have failed to keep up with rapid population growth and urbanization. Infrastructure development in the country is hampered by a poor business environment; weaknesses in planning, coordination, and financing; and a decrease in private sector involvement in infrastructure provision. The report presents a road map which will help spur the expansion...

Decentralizing Infrastructure Services : Lessons from the East Asia Experience

Elisa Muzzini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
Decentralization is the transfer of responsibilities from the central government to subnational agencies empowered to act as increasingly autonomous entities within their geographical and functional domains. In theory, decentralizing infrastructure services can deliver efficiency gains when service benefits accrue mainly to the local population-such as in water and sanitation, urban transit, and waste management. Subnational agencies are indeed better placed than the central government to tailor infrastructure services to the needs of local constituencies (allocative efficiency) and deliver them at lower costs (productive efficiency). In practice, the economic benefits of decentralized infrastructure services are by no means a given, as they are contingent upon effective coordination among tiers of governments (regional coordination) and accountability mechanisms for results achieved.

Identifying Traditional and Non-traditional Mechanisms for Reaching the Poor in Infrastructure Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
The improvement of infrastructure services has proven to be a powerful tool in poverty alleviation initiatives. Providing people with access to basic and reliable infrastructure services are tools for improving their standard of living and rising their productivity-thus endowing them with the opportunity for growth. This work aims to document the existing traditional and non-traditional mechanisms used by Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to reach the poor in infrastructure access and affordability, and to provide factual anecdotal case studies that represent this situation at a country, community, and utility specific/sensitive level. The specific objectives are: 1) to identify traditional and alternate mechanisms for targeting the poor or those designed by the poor in order to gain access to and maintain infrastructure services; and b) to design a framework of analysis in order to understand and analyze the various components that account for the traditional and non-traditional tools used to reach the poor (including social tariffs...

Private Participation in Infrastructure in Developing Countries : Trends, Impacts, and Policy Lessons

Harris, Clive
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
Governments have long recognized the vital role that modern infrastructure services play in economic growth and poverty alleviation. For much of the post-Second World War period, most governments entrusted delivery of these services to state-owned monopolies. But in many developing countries, the results were disappointing. Public sector monopolies were plagued by inefficiency. Many were strapped for resources because governments succumbed to populist pressures to hold prices below costs. Fiscal pressures, and the success of the pioneers of the privatization of infrastructure services, provided governments with a new paradigm. Many governments sought to involve the private sector in the provision and financing of infrastructure services. The shift to the private provision that occurred during the 1990s was much more rapid and widespread than had been anticipated at the start of the decade. By 2001, developing countries had seen over $755 billion of investment flows in nearly 2500 infrastructure projects. However...

Privatization and Regulation of Transport Infrastructure in the 1990s

Estache, Antonio
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
Although the link between improved infrastructure services and economic growth is uncertain, it is clear that reforms aimed at creating competition and regulating natural monopolies establish an environment conducive to private sector participation, incentives for companies to strive for efficiency savings that can ultimately be passed on to consumers, and greater provision of services (such as faster roll-out of infrastructure or innovative solutions to service delivery for customers not connected to an existing network). In determining the form that infrastructure restructuring might undertake or the design of a regulatory agency, policymakers can generally benefit from a review of the experiences of other countries. A key element of any decision making process should be a review of how the various types of reform will affect the efficiency of the sector and whether they will increase private financing of its significant investment needs.

Infrastructure, Growth, and Inequality : An Overview

Calderon, Cesar; Serven, Luis
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Academics and policy makers have long considered an adequate supply of infrastructure services to be essential for economic development. This paper reviews recent theoretical and empirical literature on the effects of infrastructure development on growth and income distribution. The theoretical literature has employed a variety of analytical settings regarding the drivers of income growth, the degree to which infrastructure represents a public or a private good, and the extent of market distortions, notably in capital markets. In turn, the empirical literature has used various econometric methodologies on time-series and cross-section macro and microeconomic data to test for the effects of infrastructure development. However, these empirical tests face challenging issues of measurement, identification, and heterogeneity. Overall, the literature finds positive effects of infrastructure development on income growth and, more tentatively, on distributive equity. Still, the precise mechanisms through which these effects accrue...

Infrastructure Investment Demands in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies

Ruiz-Nuñez, Fernanda; Wei, Zichao
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
The authors have assembled 1960–2012 infrastructure stock data from 145 countries to estimate the demand for infrastructure services in emerging markets and developing economies. This paper identifies that the required resource flows to satisfy new demand while maintaining service for existing infrastructure amounts to $836 billion or 6.1 percent of current gross domestic product per year over the period 2014–20. The annual infrastructure investment gap for emerging markets and developing economies is $452 billion per year, which implies that emerging markets and developing economies should almost double their current spending. The paper also estimates that half of the spending should be allocated to maintenance of existing assets. Acknowledging the challenges to compare infrastructure investment estimates across different methodologies, the authors recognize this result as a lower bound estimate and compare the results with others available in the literature.

Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Rwanda : A Country Framework Report

Private-Public Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
This report aims to provide an objective assessment of the condition of Rwanda's infrastructure sectors and of the institutional and policy frameworks that are associated with them. It also provides a clear route map for infrastructure sector reform, as well as highlighting both the opportunities that exist for the private sector and the role that the donor community can play in assisting the Government with establishing priorities in infrastructure.

Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Lesotho : A Country Framework Report

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
The report looks at Lesotho, a predominantly mountainous, land-locked, poor country with a small population, limited natural resources, and a very fragile ecology. It has low gross national income, and a significant poverty level. To ameliorate this condition, the government has embarked on a pro-poor, growth strategy that includes public, and private investment in infrastructure. It explores the level of private participation at this phase in the evolution of the reforms, which is considerable, given the country's small size, limited institutional capacity, and lack of public and private investment capital. Telecommunications has recorded the most significant reform of any of the infrastructure sectors. Other than telecommunications, reforms in other sectors have not advanced significantly. Not surprisingly, the report identifies specific lessons learned from the telecommunications sector, and examines their relevance to reform efforts under way in the other sectors. In summary, this report finds that private participation in infrastructure could offer Lesotho three key advantages: 1) augmenting budget resources in cases where the private sector undertakes to finance projects...

Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Honduras : A Country Framework Report

Public–Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
This document is designed to promote the development of infrastructure services in Honduras, with the aim of improving the country's competitiveness and contributing to poverty reduction. Its central argument is that Honduras needs a significant increase in private investment in infrastructure services, which should take place in a more competitive environment, and be subject to an adequate legal and regulatory framework. The study details the progress to date in Honduran infrastructure sectors, identifying the principal problems that exist and outlining a strategy for their solution. It proposes a general set of principles that should guide the provision of infrastructure services. In addition, it recommends specific policies for each sector. The document's scope includes the following services: transportation, water and sanitation, electricity, and telecommunications. Part 1 presents an overview of general themes related to the development of infrastructure services and to private participation in all the sub-sectors. Part 2 presents an analysis of the current situation of the four infrastructure services covered in this study. One of the major recommendations is the need to establish participative and transparent planning...

Africa's Infrastructure : A Time for Transformation

Foster, Vivien; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
This study is part of the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD), a project designed to expand the world's knowledge of physical infrastructure in Africa. The AICD will provide a baseline against which future improvements in infrastructure services can be measured, making it possible to monitor the results achieved from donor support. It should also provide a more solid empirical foundation for prioritizing investments and designing policy reforms in the infrastructure sectors in Africa. The AICD is based on an unprecedented effort to collect detailed economic and technical data on the infrastructure sectors in Africa. The project has produced a series of original reports on public expenditure, spending needs, and sector performance in each of the main infrastructure sectors, including energy, information and communication technologies, irrigation, transport, and water and sanitation. The first phase of the AICD focused on 24 countries that together account for 85 percent of the gross domestic product...

Decentralizing Infrastructure Services : Lessons from the East Asia Experience

Muzzini, Elisa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
This document specifies, most east asian countries have increasingly shifted responsibilities for infrastructure services to subnational tiers of governments. Infrastructure service provision involves a broad set of functions, including setting investment priorities, building and operating infrastructure facilities, and financing capital and operation and maintenance requirements. The extent to which each of these functions is transferred to subnational agencies defines a country's decentralization approach for infrastructure services. Subnational governments also have significant leeway in deciding how to mobilize funds for infrastructure projects. The infrastructure projects focused in three countries China, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In China, the central government plays a prominent role in setting investment priorities across infrastructure sectors. Indonesia and the Philippines have adopted a big bang approach to infrastructure decentralization. The report concludes, despite the heterogeneous environments in which decentralization has been implemented in the three countries...

Infrastructure Gap in South Asia : Inequality of Access to Infrastructure Services

Biller, Dan; Andres, Luis; Herrera Dappe, Matias
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
The South Asia region is home to the largest pool of individuals living under the poverty line, coupled with a fast-growing population. The importance of access to basic infrastructure services on welfare and the quality of life is clear. Yet the South Asia region's rates of access to infrastructure (sanitation, electricity, telecom, and transport) are closer to those of Sub-Saharan Africa, the one exception being water, where the South Asia region is comparable to East Asia and the pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. The challenge of increasing access to these services across the South Asia region is compounded by the unequal distribution of existing access for households. This study improves understanding of this inequality by evaluating access across the region's physical (location), poverty, and income considerations. The paper also analyzes inequality of access across time, that is, across generations. It finds that while the regressivity of infrastructure services is clearly present in South Asia, the story that emerges is heterogeneous and complex. There is no simple explanation for these inequalities...

Mexico : Infrastructure Public Expenditure Review (IPER)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
This Infrastructure Public Expenditure Review presents options for addressing infrastructure services needs in Mexico, including (a) improvements in program design and budget allocations, (b) efficiency gains in service provision, and (c) increased private sector participation and financing in a manner consistent with the government's goals for economic growth, and within its fiscal constraints. Three infrastructure sectors-water supply and sanitation, transport, and electricity have been selected for inclusion. The study is structured in five interrelated chapters: Chapter 1 presents an overview of the infrastructure sectors-agencies and aggregate Spending. Chapter 2 reviews the levels of spending on the selected infrastructure sectors in Mexico, and existing cost-recovery mechanisms, and the related outcomes: quality and efficiency of service, and extent of coverage being offered. To explain these outcomes, Chapter 3 analyzes the processes of planning, spending allocation, and coordination within and across sub-sectors. The role of local governments and the nature of incentives they face are also discussed. Chapter 4 discusses the effectiveness of the existing programs in Mexico to encourage private participation and financing in the selected infrastructure sectors. The challenges for infrastructure development will require new and different uses of private sector financing and operations...

Zambia Growth, Infrastructure, and Investments : Role for Public Private Partnership

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.49%
The main purpose of this paper is to document and discuss infrastructure gaps, investment needs, and policy challenges in improving infrastructure services, with an emphasis on the role of Public Private Partnerships to access needed resources for investments in the various sub-sectors for accelerated growth and poverty reduction in Zambia. Zambia has made substantial progress in extending some infrastructure services, including telecom and roads, to its citizens. However, service delivery in other areas, such as water and sanitation, and electricity has been poor. With Zambia's annual growth increasing and demand for infrastructure services escalating, infrastructure bottlenecks are becoming more acute. This paper is targeted at two main audiences: the first is the broader universe of policymakers, planners, regulators, and technical specialists directly concerned with the delivery of infrastructure services. For these readers, the note provides an overview of the physical, financial, social, and institutional conditions of the country that cut across subsectors. It compares Zambia's infrastructure performance in terms of access rates...

Infrastructure in Latin America

Calderón, César; Servén, Luis
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
An adequate supply of infrastructure services has long been viewed by both academics and policy makers as a key ingredient for economic development. Over the past quarter-century, the retrenchment of Latin America's public sector from its dominant position in the provision of infrastructure, and the opening up of these industries to private participation, have renewed the debate on the role of infrastructure in the region's development. The focus of this paper is three-fold. First, it documents, in a comparative cross-regional perspective, the trends in Latin America's infrastructure development, as reflected in the quantity and quality of infrastructure services and the universality of their access. Overall, this suggests the emergence of an infrastructure gap vis-a-vis other industrial and developing regions. Second, it provides an empirical assessment of the contribution of infrastructure development to growth across Latin America. Third, it examines the trends in the financing of infrastructure investment -- documenting the changing roles of the public and private sectors -- and analyzes how they have been shaped by macroeconomic policy constraints.

Effects of Improving Infrastructure Quality on Business Costs : Evidence from Firm-Level Data

Iimi, Atsushi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
Economic development is affected by infrastructure services in both volume and quality terms. However, the quality of infrastructure is relatively difficult to measure and assess. The current paper, using firm-level data collected by a business environment assessment survey in 26 countries in Europe and Central Asia, estimates the marginal impacts on firm costs of infrastructure quality. The results suggest that the reliability or continuity of services is important for business performance. Firm costs significantly increase when electricity outages occur more frequently and the average outage duration becomes longer. Similarly, increased hours of water supply suspensions also reduce firms' competitiveness. In these countries, it is found that the total benefit for the economy from eliminating the existing electricity outages ranges from 0.5 to 6 percent of gross domestic product. If all water suspensions are removed, the economy could receive a gain of about 0.5 to 2 percent of gross domestic product. By contrast...