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Um estudo sobre o setor informal urbano e formas de participação na produção ; An urban informal sector study and participating modes in the production

Cacciamali, Maria Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/11/1982 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
O ponto de partida para o desenvolvimento deste estudo é a existência de segmentação na produção aqui entendida como contínua diferenciação de atividades produtivas – de formas de organizar a produção e o trabalho, de processos produtivos e de trabalhos e de atributos requeridos para exerce-lo – e com este pano de fundo conceitua-se o termo Setor Informal e desenvolve-se o quadro metodológico que irá originar um conjunto de elementos empíricos sobre os trabalhadores no Município de São Paulo em 1980. O Setor Informal é aqui associado com as formas de organizar a produção, que não tem como motor o trabalho assalariado, ou seja, considera-se Setor Informal como o conjunto de produtores que, de posse dos meios de trabalho, desenvolvem suas atividades baseadas na própria força de trabalho. O quadro metodológico, por sua vez, foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de refletir espectros de formas dos indivíduos participarem da produção – proprietários, assalariados e trabalhadores por conta própria - , qualificados por aspectos referentes: requisitos para o trabalho – idade, sexo e escolaridade –, condições de trabalho – vínculo jurídico, qualificação, horas trabalhadas e tempo de permanência no posto de trabalho ou atividade – e níveis de renda. Decorre da análise empreendida...

O Setor Informal Urbano: A Organização e as Condições de Saúde de um Grupo de Vendedores Ambulantes; The Urban Informal Sector: the Organizations and the Health Conditions of a Street Salesman Group

Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/07/1999 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
OBJETIVO: Este trabalho analisa a organização e as condições de vida e problemas de saúde referidos de um grupo de vendedores ambulantes em um espaço geográfico delimitado no bairro de Santana na cidade de São Paulo, através de uma amostra intencional disponível de 54 sujeitos. Os objetivos são: identificar as formas básicas de inserção, relacionamento e permanência no grupo, identificar os aspectos físicos, ambientais e organizacionais do processo de trabalho e levantar os itens básicos referentes à situação de emprego, instrução, tipo de moradia, renda individual e familiar e acesso aos serviços de saúde. MÉTODO: Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulários, entrevistas e observações sistematizadas. Busca-se interpretar as representações sociais através de análises de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: Tendo em vista as alterações econômico-socias e o crescimento do setor informal urbano, procura-se melhor conhecer o problema a fim de contribuir na discussão das políticas públicas, particularmente na organização e administração dos serviços de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: Dada a não absorção da mão de obra disponível e o desemprego registrados, parte destes ambulantes, na faixa dos 18 a 24 anos, se inserem no mercado de trabalho através desta atividade; outros...

Sector informal, microfinanças e empresariado nacional em Moçambique

Abreu, António
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Africanos do ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Centro de Estudos Africanos do ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
O sector informal tem um peso significativo, sobretudo em economias subdesenvolvidas de África, América Latina e Ásia. Alguns estudiosos vêem o seu surgimento e florescimento como negação da repressão económica que teve lugar em muitos desses países, onde dominou o controlo estatal sobre os preços, as taxas de juro e de câmbios, assim como sobre os mercados de bens e de serviços, o que terá, acreditam, limitado a iniciativa privada e o livre funcionamento dos mercados. Estudos mais recentes, sobretudo em países como Moçambique, que estão empreendendo reformas estruturais nos últimos 15 ‑20 anos, dão conta de que o sector informal emerge e prospera como contrapeso do processo de liberalização e abertura dessas economias ao exterior e ao investimento estrangeiro, constituindo uma espécie de tubo de escape por onde passa o desemprego criado com o advento das privatizações e de onde se espera a maturação de um processo endógeno de criação do empresariado nacional/local. Com efeito, funcionando à margem do sistema tributário e dos registos estatísticos oficiais, o sector informal, nestes países, representa no entanto um salto qualitativo em relação à economia de subsistência – onde o sector familiar produz fundamentalmente para o autoconsumo e procede a trocas directas de eventuais excedentes –...

The Household Enterprise Sector in Tanzania : Why It Matters and Who Cares

Kweka, Josaphat; Fox, Louise
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
The household enterprise sector has a significant role in the Tanzanian economy. It employs a larger share of the urban labor force than wage employment, and is increasingly seen as an alternative to agriculture as a source of additional income for rural and urban households. The sector is uniquely placed within the informal sector, where it represents both conditions of informal employment and informal enterprise. This paper presents a case study on Tanzania using a mixed approach by combining both quantitative and qualitative analysis to examine the important role of household enterprises in the labor force of Tanzania, and to identify key factors that influence their productivity. Household enterprise owners are similar to typical labor force participants although primary education appears to be the minimum qualification for household enterprise operators to be successful. Access to location matters -- good, secure location in a marketplace or industrial cluster raises earnings - and access to transport and electricity is found to have a significant effect on earnings as well. In large urban areas...

On Defining and Measuring the Informal Sector

Henley, Andrew; Arabsheibani, G. Reza; Carneiro, Francisco G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.55%
A range of alternative empirical definitions of informal activity have been employed in the literature. Choice of definition is often dictated by data availability. Different definitions may imply very different conceptual understandings of informality. In this paper the authors investigate the degree of congruence between three definitions of informality based on employment contract registration, social security protection, and the characteristics of the employer and employment using Brazilian household survey data for the period 1992 to 2001. The authors present evidence showing that 64 percent of the economically active population are informal according to at least one definition, but only 40 percent are informal according to all three. Steady compositional changes have been taking place among informal workers, conditional on definition. The econometric analysis reveals that the conditional impact of particular factors (demographic, educational attainment, and family circumstances) on the likelihood of informality varies considerably from one definition to another. The results suggest growing heterogeneity within the informal sector. Therefore, the authors argue that informal activity may be as much associated with entrepreneurial dynamism as with any desire to avoid costly contract registration and social protection. However...

The Impact of Health Insurance Schemes for the Informal Sector in Low- and Middle-Income Countries : A Systematic Review

Acharya, Arnab; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Taylor, Fiona; Masset, Edoardo; Satija, Ambika; Burke, Margaret; Ebrahim, Shah
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
This paper summarizes the literature on the impact of state subsidized or social health insurance schemes that have been offered, mostly on a voluntary basis, to the informal sector in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial number of papers provide estimations of average treatment on the treated effect for insured persons. The authors summarize papers that correct for the problem of self-selection into insurance and papers that estimate the average intention to treat effect. Summarizing the literature was difficult because of the lack of (1) uniformity in the use of meaningful definitions of outcomes that indicate welfare improvements and (2) clarity in the consideration of selection issues. They find the uptake of insurance schemes, in many cases, to be less than expected. In general, we find no strong evidence of an impact on utilization, protection from financial risk, and health status. However, a few insurance schemes afford significant protection from high levels of out-of-pocket expenditures. In these cases...

Health Insurance for the Informal Sector in Africa : Design Features, Risk Protection, and Resource Mobilization

Arhin-Tenkorang, Dyna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Studies and literature reviews of health insurance schemes targeting rural or informal sector populations in developing countries (often called "community insurance schemes") frequently conclude that schemes have design weaknesses, yet do not explore in detail the effect of design features on performance. This paper presents a conceptualization of how performance in the areas of risk protection and resource mobilization is determined by the interaction of design features with institutional and technical factors. Design features refer to scheme specifications (e.g., required contribution) and to operating modalities (e.g., procedures for enrolment or obtaining benefits. Performance, with respect to risk protection and resource mobilization, of several potential "high population schemes" for the informal sector in Africa, is assessed. The outcome suggests that the design of community health insurance schemes may be improved by: (1) design specifications that utilize data on willingness to pay (WTP) of the target population and projected health care costs; and (2) incorporating modalities of operations that facilitate cost-effective exchange between a formal organization and individuals acting in an informal environment.

Measuring the Risk on Housing Investment in the Informal Sector: Theory and Evidence from Pune, India

Kapoor, Mudit; le Blanc, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The authors provide an economic framework to analyze investment in informal housing in developing countries. They consider a simple model of investment in the housing market where investors can choose between two sectors-the formal sector, where physical investment faces no risk of destruction, and the informal sector, where investment in each period is subjected to an exogenous risk of destruction. Construction costs differ between the two sectors. All households are renters. Renters shop for dwelling attributes and do not care about the sector (formal or informal) itself. The model implies that returns on investment, measured by the rent-to-value ration, will be higher in the informal sector. The authors use a survey conducted by the World Bank in Pune, India in 2002. The sample comprises 2,850 households. This survey had the peculiarity of asking the households, regardless of tenure status, questions about the market rent and value of their dwelling. Thus they can calculate individual rates of return for each unit without facing the typical selection bias problems. Comparing the distributions of returns in the informal and formal sectors...

Coagglomeration of Formal and Informal Industry : Evidence from India

Mukim, Megha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
A large and growing informal sector is a major feature of developing countries. This paper analyzes coagglomeration patterns between formal and informal manufacturing enterprises in India. It studies (a) the causes underlying these patterns and (b) the positive externalities, if any, on the entry of new firms. The analysis finds that buyer-supplier and technology linkages explain much of formal-informal coagglomeration. Also, within-industry coagglomeration matters mostly to small- and medium-sized formal firm births. Traditional measures of agglomeration remain important in explaining new industrial activity, whether in the formal or the informal sector.

Universal Health Coverage and the Challenge of Informal Employment : Lessons from Developing Countries

Bitran, Ricardo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.54%
The aim of the report is to review existing approaches and available policy options to improve access to health care services and financial protection against health shocks for informal-sector workers (ISWs). Along with their families, ISWs represent the majority of the population in many developing countries. The report reviews the definition and measurement of the informal sector and the literature on efforts toward its health insurance coverage. It also examines several country cases based on published and unpublished reports and on structured interviews of expert informants. Developing country efforts to expand health coverage are characterized by a common enrollment and financing pattern, starting with formal-sector workers and following with government-subsidized enrollment of the poor. Thus, ISWs are typically left behind and have been referred to as "the missing middle." They find themselves financially unprotected against health shocks and with limited access to quality and timely health care. ISWs are generally reluctant to enroll in insurance schemes...

Encouraging Health Insurance for the Informal Sector : A Cluster Randomized Trial

Wagstaff, Adam; Nguyen, Ha Thi Hong; Dao, Huyen; Bales, Sarah
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
Subsidized voluntary enrollment in government-run health insurance schemes is often proposed as a way of increasing coverage among informal sector workers and their families. This paper reports the results of a cluster randomized control trial in which 3,000 households in 20 communes in Vietnam were randomly assigned at baseline to a control group or one of three treatments: an information leaflet about Vietnam s government-run scheme and the benefits of health insurance; a voucher entitling eligible household members to 25 percent off their annual premium; and both. The four groups were balanced at baseline. In the control group, 6.3 percent (82/1296) of individuals were enrolled in the endline, compared with 6.3 percent (79/1257), 7.2 percent (96/1327), and 7.0 percent (87/1245) in the information, subsidy, and combined intervention groups; the adjusted odds ratios were 0.94, 1.12, and 1.15, respectively. Only among those reporting poor health were any significant intervention effects found, and only for the combined intervention: an enrollment rate of 16.3 percent (33/202) compared with 8.3 percent (18/218) in the control group...

VAT Reform in a Developing Country. A CGE Model with an Informal Sector

Acosta Margain, Jaime
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
I develop a computable general equilibrium model that quantifies the redistributive effects and the efficiency gains of broadening the base of the Value Added Tax (VAT) by removing the zero-rating of food. I incorporate an informal retail sector in the supply of goods with two distinctive features: an indirect tax on the informal retail sector and a productivity gap between the formal and informal retail sectors. In the model the efficiency effect of the reform not only depends on the correction of the price distortion between food and the rest of the goods, induced by the zero-rate on food, but also on the changes of the average productivity of the retail sector. The size of the effect is determined by the indirect tax on the informal sector and by household’s elasticity of substitution between purchases in the formal and informal sector. I calibrate the model for Mexico and I simulate a revenue-neutral harmonization of the VAT. The results show that the efficiency gains from uniform taxation are partially offset by a reallocation of resources to the less productive informal sector. The reform has a regressive effect despite the incorporation of the informal sector as low income households can not fully avoid the tax by buying food in the informal sector.

Informal Economy and the World Bank

Benjamin, Nancy; Beegle, Kathleen; Recanatini, Francesca; Santini, Massimiliano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
Many countries have expressed an interest in the size, performance and motivation of the informal sector, especially where the informal sector provides the livelihood and employment for a critical segment of the population. This essay reviews recent literature, methodologies, and relevant Bank studies as a way to share information with country teams interested in expanding their knowledge of the informal sector and related policy debates. Research in a number of regions points to four main areas where development policy can be improved by taking the informal sector into account. First, improvements should be made along a continuum; the heterogeneity among informal firms points to different policy approaches for different types of firms. Second, there should be public-private collaboration on mutual reforms. Many efforts to improve firm performance focus on elements of the production function (labor skills, credit) while treating government mainly as a cost (taxes, cost of compliance with regulations). Yet research reveals that many characteristics of the public regime strongly influence the decisions of firms regarding informality. Third...

Remittances: Transaction Costs, Determinants, and Informal Flows

Freund, Caroline; Spatafora, Nikola
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
Recorded workers' remittances to developing countries have grown rapidly, to more than $100 billion in 2004, bringing increasing attention to these flows as a potential tool for development. But even these statistics are likely to significantly understate true remittances, as a large share is believed to flow through informal channels. Estimates of the importance of the informal sector vary widely, ranging from 35 percent to 250 percent of total remittances. The primary motivation of the authors is to develop the first empirical methodology to estimate informal flows. They use insights from the literature on shadow economies and empirically estimate informal remittances for more than 100 countries using historical data on the balance of payments (BOP), migration, transaction costs, and country characteristics. Their results imply that informal remittances amount to about 35-75 percent of official remittances to developing countries. There is significant regional variation: informal remittances to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe and Central Asia are relatively high, while those to East Asia and the Pacific are relatively low. These estimates are supplemented with detailed household survey data on remittance receipts in a number of countries. The results also shed light on the determinants of recorded remittances and the associated fees in the formal sector. The authors find that the stock of migrants in OECD countries is the primary determinant of remittances. In addition...

South Africa - Constraints to Growth in Johannesburg's Black Informal Sector : Evidence from the 1999 Informal Sector Survey

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
The report is the third in a series of reports that evolved from a collaboration between the local government of the City of Johannesburg, and the World Bank in 1999-2000 on the theme of local economic development. It presents the main findings of the 1999 World Bank informal sector survey, which covered a number of mostly black informal firm owners across manufacturing, and service sectors, based on firm owners responses, and firm level data. The objectives of the study are to a) examine the characteristics, and constraints facing informal firms in Johannesburg. The government has since 1994, rested its goal of poverty, and inequality-reduction in South Africa, on private sector-led job creation, and, has made a political commitment to black empowerment, allocating resources for credit, and training, as well as other small and medium scale enterprise (SMSE) promotion programs; and, b) explore the policy implications of government assistance to the informal sector, on grounds of poverty reduction, and job creation for the poor. The merit of supporting the sector on the basis of apartheid-created racial inequality...

Are Public Sector Workers Underpaid? Appropriate Comparators in a Developing Country

Bales, Sarah; Rama, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
How is public sector compensation best aligned with the market? In industrial countries a common reference is the salary paid by private employers for similar jobs (the "jobs approach"). But comparable jobs are formal, and in developing countries the relevant alternative for many public sector workers is informal sector employment. Another approach uses as a reference, the earnings of similar workers in the private sector, regardless of whether their jobs are formal, or informal (the "workers approach"). A potential shortcoming of this approach is that workers may differ in characteristics that are unobservable. The authors assess the importance of this shortcoming, by relying on five econometric methods, four of which correct the bias from unobservable characteristics. The authors focus on state-owned enterprises in Vietnam, which recruited workers on the basis of political loyalty, and other unobservable characteristics. A massive downsizing program, which led to the departure of the most entrepreneurial workers...

Economic Impacts of Professional Training in the Informal Sector : The Case of the Labor Force Training Program in Côte d'Ivoire

Verner, Dorte; Verner, Mette
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
The authors address the economic impact of the labor force training program (PAFPA) developed for the informal sector in Côte d'Ivoire. The data contain a subsample of the participants in the agricultural sector, tailoring sector, and the electronics sector, and a comparable control group of nonparticipants. The data have been analyzed using standard program evaluation tools, namely difference-in-difference estimators, in order to detect potential program impacts. The authors find positive economic impacts as a result of training received for some groups, namely women, the agricultural and electronics sectors, firms employing 1-3 individuals, and firms with 10 or more employees.

Unemployment insurance in the presence of an informal sector

Bardey, David; Jaramillo, Fernando; Peña, Ximena
Fonte: Facultad de Economía Publicador: Facultad de Economía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/book; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
We study the effect of UI benefits in a typical developing country where the informal sector is sizeable and persistent. In a partial equilibrium environment, ruling out the macroeconomic consequences of UI benefits, we characterize the stationary equilibrium of an economy where policyholders may be employed in the formal sector, short-run unemployed receiving UI benefits or long-run unemployed without UI benefits. We perform comparative static exercises to understand how UI benefits affect unemployed worker´s effort to secure a formal job, their labor supply in the informal sector and leisure time. Our model reveals that an increase in UI benefits generates two opposing effects for the short-run unemployed. First, since search efforts cannot be monitored it generates moral hazard behaviours that lower effort. Second, it generates an income effect as it reduces the marginal cost of searching for a formal job and increases effort.The overall effect is ambiguous and depends on the relative strength of these two effects. Additionally, we show that an increase in UI benefits increases the efforts of long-run unemployed workers. We provide a simple simulation exercise which suggests that the income effect pointed out is not necessarily of second-order importance in comparison with moral hazard strength. This result softens the widespread opinion...

Más allá de la domesticidad. Un análisis de género de los trabajos de los inmigrantes en el sector informal

Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette; Estrada, Emir; Ramírez, Hernán
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
El género es una característica constitutiva de las relaciones económicas y sociales. En el presente documento, se examina cómo el género está íntimamente ligado al aumento de las ocupaciones del sector informal entre los nuevos inmigrantes. Nos centramos en tres empleos en el sector informal que se han institucionalizado como ocupaciones de inmigrantes latinos en Los Ángeles, California: el trabajo doméstico remunerado, el mantenimiento de jardines en zonas residenciales y la venta ambulante. El análisis de género es comúnmente empleado en los estudios sobre las mujeres migrantes que trabajan en el sector doméstico remunerado, considerado durante mucho tiempo como un paradigma «natural» de empleo femenino. El género, sin embargo, no se limita a la esfera del hogar o al espacio exclusivamente considerado como perteneciente a las mujeres, sino que es una condición que afecta a todas las personas y a los distintos sectores de la sociedad. Nosotros sostenemos que la próxima etapa de la investigación sobre género y migración requerirá ampliar el análisis de género a nuevos escenarios, incluyendo a los hombres y a los jóvenes en las esferas públicas, por ello ofrecemos un análisis de las continuidades y las discontinuidades del género en estos contextos diversos.; Gender is a constitutive feature of economic and social relations...

Rural Migrants in the Urban Labor Market in Brazil: An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Informal and Formal Sectors; A Inserção do Migrante Rural no Mercado de Trabalho Urbano no Brasil: Uma Análise Empírica da Importância dos Setores Informal e Formal

Ramalho, Hilton Martins de Brito; Neto, Raul da Mota Silveira
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the insertion of the rural-urban migrant into the urban labor market in Brazil. Three different aspects are specifically considered. First, it provides evidence for the importance of human capital to the insertion of Brazilian rural-urban migrants between formal and informal sector. Second, it investigates if the Brazilian informal sector can be considered as a transitory stage for the migrant who intends to work in the formal sector. Finally, it analyses if the observed insertion of Brazilian rural-urban migrant in the labor market reflects his best possible choice given expected returns to his individual characteristics. The results indicate that the migrant human capital is positively associated to the chance of being allocated to formal sector and that there are barriers to entry in some sectors. The set of evidence is also consistent with the idea that urban informal sector represent a temporary stage for the migrant who intends to work in the formal sector.; Este artigo analisa a inserção do migrante rural-urbano no mercado de trabalho urbano no Brasil. Primeiro, fornece evidências sobre a importância do capital humano para a inserção do migrante brasileiro entre setores formal e informal. Em segundo lugar...