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DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS-DISEASE AGENTS IN TISSUE BY IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY

Bacchi, C. E.; Gown, A. M.; Bacchi, M. M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (ABRADIC)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2803-2820
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
1. Immunocytochemical procedures have played an increasingly larger role in the identification of infectious disease agents in tissue sections owing to the increased availability and specificity of antibody reagents, the great sensitivity of the methods, and the relative facility with which the studies are performed.2. Immunocytochemical methods can be applied to routine formalin-fixed tissue for the detection of infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa among other microorganisms for diagnostic and research purposes.

Emerging Trends in International Law Concerning Global Infectious Disease Control1

Fidler, David P.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
International cooperation has become critical in controlling infectious diseases. In this article, I examine emerging trends in international law concerning global infectious disease control. The role of international law in horizontal and vertical governance responses to infectious disease control is conceptualized; the historical development of international law regarding infectious diseases is described; and important shifts in how states, international institutions, and nonstate organizations use international law in the context of infectious disease control today are analyzed. The growing importance of international trade law and the development of global governance mechanisms, most prominently in connection with increasing access to drugs and other medicines in unindustrialized countries, are emphasized. Traditional international legal approaches to infectious disease control—embodied in the International Health Regulations—may be moribund.

Fatal Infectious Disease Surveillance in a Medical Examiner Database1

Wolfe, Mitchell I.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Yoon, Steven S.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
Increasing infectious disease deaths, the emergence of new infections, and bioterrorism have made surveillance for infectious diseases a public health concern. Medical examiners and coroners certify approximately 20% of all deaths that occur within the United States and can be a key source of information regarding infectious disease deaths. We hypothesized that a computer-assisted search tool (algorithm) could detect infectious disease deaths from a medical examiner database, thereby reducing the time and resources required to perform such surveillance manually. We developed two algorithms, applied them to a medical examiner database, and verified the cases identified against the opinion of a panel of experts. The algorithms detected deaths with infectious components with sensitivities from 67% to 94%, and predictive value positives ranging from 8% to 49%. Algorithms can be useful for surveillance in medical examiner offices that have limited resources or for conducting surveillance across medical examiner jurisdictions.

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Association Between Outpatient Statins Use and Infectious Disease-Related Mortality

Ma, Yu; Wen, Xiaozhong; Peng, Jing; Lu, Yi; Guo, Zhongmin; Lu, Jiahai
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
Background: To update and refine systematic literature review on the association between outpatient statins use and mortality in patients with infectious disease. Materials and Methods: We searched articles published before September 31, 2012, on the association between statins and infectious disease-related mortality through electronic databases. Eligible articles were analyzed in Review Manager 5.1. We conducted stratification analysis by study design, infection types, clinical outcomes and study locations. Results: The pooled odds ratio (OR) for death (statins use vs. no use) across the 41 included studies was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.64, 0.78). The corresponding pooled ORs were 0.58 (0.38, 0.90), 0.66 (0.57, 0.75), 0.71 (0.57, 0.89) and 0.83 (0.67, 1.04) for the case-control study, retrospective cohort studies, prospective cohort studies and RCTs; 0.40 (0.20, 0.78), 0.61 (0.41, 0.90), 0.69 (0.62, 0.78) and 0.86 (0.68, 1.09) for bacteremia, sepsis, pneumonia and other infections; 0.62 (0.534, 0.72), 0.68 (0.53, 0.89), 0.71 (0.61, 0.83) and 0.86 (0.70, 1.07) for 30-day, 90-day, in-hospital and long-term (>1 year) mortality, respectively. Conclusions: Outpatient statins use is associated with a lower risk of death in patients with infectious disease in observational studies...

Differences in research funding for women scientists: a systematic comparison of UK investments in global infectious disease research during 1997–2010

Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Atun, Rifat
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
Objectives: There has not previously been a systematic comparison of awards for research funding in infectious diseases by sex. We investigated funding awards to UK institutions for all infectious disease research from 1997 to 2010, across disease categories and along the research and development continuum. Design: Systematic comparison. Methods: Data were obtained from several sources for awards from the period 1997 to 2010 and each study assigned to—disease categories; type of science (preclinical, phases I–III trials, product development, implementation research); categories of funding organisation. Fold differences and statistical analysis were used to compare total investment, study numbers, mean grant and median grant between men and women. Results: 6052 studies were included in the final analysis, comprising 4357 grants (72%) awarded to men and 1695 grants (28%) awarded to women, totalling £2.274 billion. Of this, men received £1.786 billion (78.5%) and women £488 million (21.5%). The median value of award was greater for men (£179 389; IQR £59 146–£371 977) than women (£125 556; IQR £30 982–£261 834). Awards were greater for male principal investigators (PIs) across all infectious disease systems, excepting neurological infections and sexually transmitted infections. The proportion of total funding awarded to women ranged from 14.3% in 1998 to 26.8% in 2009 (mean 21.4%)...

Funding Infectious Disease Research: A Systematic Analysis of UK Research Investments by Funders 1997–2010

Fitchett, Joseph R.; Head, Michael G.; Cooke, Mary K.; Wurie, Fatima B.; Atun, Rifat
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
Background: Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research. Methodology/Principal Findings Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0%) of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4%) by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%). The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%), closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) with £673 million (25.9%). Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders. Conclusions/Significance: Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment...

Systematic analysis of funding awarded to institutions in the United Kingdom for infectious disease research, 1997–2010

Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Moore, David AJ; Atun, Rifat
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Summary Objectives: This study aimed to assess the research investments made to UK institutions for all infectious disease research and identify the direction of spend by institution. Design: Systematic analysis. Databases and websites were systematically searched for information on relevant studies funded for the period 1997–2010. Setting: UK institutions carrying out infectious disease research. Participants: None. Main outcome measures Twenty academic institutions receiving greatest sum investments across infection are included here, also NHS sites, Sanger Institute, Health Protection Agency and the Medical Research Council. We measured total funding, median award size, disease areas and position of research along the R&D value chain. Results: Included institutions accounted for £2.1 billion across 5003 studies. Imperial College and University of Oxford received the most investment. Imperial College led the most studies. The Liverpool and London Schools of Tropical Medicine had highest median award size, whereas the NHS sites combined had many smaller studies. Sum NHS funding appears to be declining over time, whilst university income is relatively stable. Several institutions concentrate almost exclusively on pre-clinical research. In some areas...

On SARS Type Economic Effects During Infectious Disease Outbreaks

Brahmbhatt, Milan; Dutta, Arindam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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66.12%
Infectious disease outbreaks can exact a high human and economic cost through illness and death. But, as with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in East Asia in 2003, or the plague outbreak in Surat, India, in 1994, they can also create severe economic disruptions even when there is, ultimately, relatively little illness or death. Such disruptions are commonly the result of uncoordinated and panicky efforts by individuals to avoid becoming infected, of preventive activity. This paper places these "SARS type" effects in the context of research on economic epidemiology, in which behavioral responses to disease risk have both economic and epidemiological consequences. The paper looks in particular at how people form subjective probability judgments about disease risk. Public opinion surveys during the SARS outbreak provide suggestive evidence that people did indeed at times hold excessively high perceptions of the risk of becoming infected, or, if infected, of dying from the disease. The paper discusses research in behavioral economics and the theory of information cascades that may shed light on the origin of such biases. The authors consider whether public information strategies can help reduce unwarranted panic. A preliminary question is why governments often seem to have strong incentives to conceal information about infectious disease outbreaks. The paper reviews recent game-theoretic analysis that clarifies government incentives. An important finding is that government incentives to conceal decline the more numerous are non-official sources of information about a possible disease outbreak. The findings suggest that honesty may indeed be the best public policy under modern conditions of easy mass global communications.

Invasion of infectious diseases in finite homogeneous populations

Ross, J.
Fonte: Academic Press Ltd Publicador: Academic Press Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
We consider the initial invasion of an infectious disease in a finite, homogeneous population. Methodology for evaluating the basic reproduction number, R(0), and the probability mass function of secondary infections is presented. The impact of finite population size, and infectious period distribution (between exponential, two-phase gamma, and constant), is assessed. Implications for infectious disease invasion and estimation of infectious disease model and parameters from data of secondary infections by initially infected individuals in naive, finite, homogeneous populations are reported. As any individual interacts with a finite number of contacts during their infectious period, these results are important to the study of infectious disease dynamics.; J.V. Ross

Spatiotemporal Infectious Disease Modeling: A BME-SIR Approach

Angulo Ib????ez, Jos?? Miguel; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Langousis, Andrea; Kolovos, Alexander; Wang, Jinfeng; Madrid Garc??a, Ana Esther; Christakos, George
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
This paper is concerned with the modeling of infectious disease spread in a composite space-time domain under conditions of uncertainty. We focus on stochastic modeling that accounts for basic mechanisms of disease distribution and multi-sourced in situ uncertainties. Starting from the general formulation of population migration dynamics and the specification of transmission and recovery rates, the model studies the functional formulation of the evolution of the fractions of susceptible-infected-recovered individuals. The suggested approach is capable of: a) modeling population dynamics within and across localities, b) integrating the disease representation (i.e. susceptible-infected-recovered individuals) with observation time series at different geographical locations and other sources of information (e.g. hard and soft data, empirical relationships, secondary information), and c) generating predictions of disease spread and associated parameters in real time, while considering model and observation uncertainties. Key aspects of the proposed approach are illustrated by means of simulations (i.e. synthetic studies), and a real-world application using hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) data from China.

Beach sand and the potential for infectious disease transmission: observations and recommendations

Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Harwood, Valerie J.; Kay, David; Fujioka, Roger S.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Caniça, Manuela; Fonseca, Rita Carvalho da; Duarte, Aida; Gargaté, Maria J.; Silva, Alexandra Nogueira da; Prada, Susana; Rodrigues, Raquel; Romão, Dani
Fonte: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Publicador: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
Recent studies suggest that sand can serve as a vehicle for exposure of humans to pathogens at beach sites, resulting in increased health risks. Sampling for microorganisms in sand should therefore be considered for inclusion in regulatory programmes aimed at protecting recreational beach users from infectious disease. Here, we review the literature on pathogen levels in beach sand, and their potential for affecting human health. In an effort to provide specific recommendations for sand sampling programmes, we outline published guidelines for beach monitoring programmes, which are currently focused exclusively on measuring microbial levels in water. We also provide background on spatial distribution and temporal characteristics of microbes in sand, as these factors influence sampling programmes. First steps toward establishing a sand sampling programme include identifying appropriate beach sites and use of initial sanitary assessments to refine site selection. A tiered approach is recommended for monitoring. This approach would include the analysis of samples from many sites for faecal indicator organisms and other conventional analytes, while testing for specific pathogens and unconventional indicators is reserved for high-risk sites. Given the diversity of microbes found in sand...

Infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change: challenges in future China

Tong, M.X.; Hansen, A.L.; Hanson-Easey, S.; Cameron, S.; Xiang, J.; Liu, Q.; Sun, Y.; Weinstein, P.; Han, G.S.; Williams, C.; Bi, P.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future.; Michael Xiaoliang Tong, Alana Hansen, Scott Hanson-Easey...

Unhealthy landscapes: policy recommendations on land use change and infectious disease emergence

Patz, Jonathan A; Daszak, Peter; Tabor, Gary M; Aguirre, A Alfonso; Pearl, Mary; Epstein, Jon; Wolfe, Nathan D; Kilpatrick, A M; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Molyneux, David; Bradley, David J; Butler, Colin; McMichael, Anthony
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 7 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, disease introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. The Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence grew out of a special colloquium that convened international experts in infectious diseases, ecology, and environmental health to assess the current state of knowledge and to develop recommendations for addressing these environmental health challenges. The group established a systems model approach and priority lists of infectious diseases affected by ecologic degradation. Policy-relevant levels of the model include specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels. The group recommended creating Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training...

Factors Influencing Performance of Internet-Based Biosurveillance Systems Used in Epidemic Intelligence for Early Detection of Infectious Diseases Outbreaks

Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Le Strat, Yann; Hartley, David M.; Nelson, Noele P.; Mawudeku, Abla; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Linge, Jens P.; Collier, Nigel; Brownstein, John S.; Astagneau, Pascal
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Background: Internet-based biosurveillance systems have been developed to detect health threats using information available on the Internet, but system performance has not been assessed relative to end-user needs and perspectives. Method and Findings Infectious disease events from the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS) weekly international epidemiological bulletin published in 2010 were used to construct the gold-standard official dataset. Data from six biosurveillance systems were used to detect raw signals (infectious disease events from informal Internet sources): Argus, BioCaster, GPHIN, HealthMap, MedISys and ProMED-mail. Crude detection rates (C-DR), crude sensitivity rates (C-Se) and intrinsic sensitivity rates (I-Se) were calculated from multivariable regressions to evaluate the systems’ performance (events detected compared to the gold-standard) 472 raw signals (Internet disease reports) related to the 86 events included in the gold-standard data set were retrieved from the six systems. 84 events were detected before their publication in the gold-standard. The type of sources utilised by the systems varied significantly (p<0001). I-Se varied significantly from 43% to 71% (p = 0001) whereas other indicators were similar (C-DR: p = 020; C-Se...

Taking sociology seriously: a new approach to the bioethical problems of infectious disease

Tausig, Mark; Selgelid, Michael; Subedi, Sree; Subedi, Janardan
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
After a history of neglect, bioethicists have recently turned their attention to the topic of infectious disease. In this paper we link bioethicists' earlier neglect of infectious disease to their under-appreciation of the extent to which the problem of i

Final CIDC Report to Defra; The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium

Wood, James
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Report; submitted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium (CIDC) was established to provide a multi-institutional, world class quality environment for infectious disease research addressing important questions and for the recruitment and training of high quality veterinarians into careers in infectious disease research. The programme has been a demonstrable success in achieving these overall aims. The institutions that have played a key role in the consortium include the Department of Veterinary Medicine, the Department of Zoology and The Department of Pathology in the University of Cambridge, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI), The Animal Health Trust, The Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA), The Institute of Animal Health (IAH), The Institute of Zoology (London: IOZ) and the University of Pretoria. In terms of research infrastructure, the programme has successfully consolidated or established research and education collaborations with all of the participating institutions, including VLA, IAH, IOZ, WTSI and AHT. Since the inception of CIDC, additional collaborative research funds have supported collaborative projects in infectious disease dynamics with all of these institutions. Subject areas have included bovine Tuberculosis, Bluetongue serotype-8 vaccination...

Phylodynamic Methods for Infectious Disease Epidemiology

Rasmussen, David Alan
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%

In this dissertation, I present a general statistical framework for phylodynamic inference that can be used to estimate epidemiological parameters and reconstruct disease dynamics from pathogen genealogies. This framework can be used to fit a broad class of epidemiological models, including nonlinear stochastic models, to genealogies by relating the population dynamics of a pathogen to its genealogy using coalescent theory. By combining Markov chain Monte Carlo and particle filtering methods, efficient Bayesian inference of all parameters and unobserved latent variables is possible even when analytical likelihood expressions are not available under the epidemiological model. Through extensive simulations, I show that this method can be used to reliably estimate epidemiological parameters of interest as well as reconstruct past disease dynamics from genealogies, or jointly from genealogies and other common sources of epidemiological data like time series. I then extend this basic framework to include different types of host population structure, including models with spatial structure, multiple-hosts or vectors, and different stages of infection. The later is demonstrated by using a multistage model of HIV infection to estimate stage-specific transmission rates and incidence from HIV sequence data collected in Detroit...

Immunological disturbance and infectious disease in anorexia nervosa: A review

Brown, Rhonda; Bartrop, Roger; Birmingham, C Laird
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
Objective: Severely malnourished patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are reported to show fewer symptomatic viral infections and a poorer response to bacterial infection than controls. They are also reported to show mild immune system changes, although the relevance of these to altered infection disease presentation in AN and AN pathophysiology is unknown. Thus, in this paper, we suggest a range of immune system changes that might underpin these altered responses to common pathogens, and review a number of recent infectious disease findings for their utility in explaining the pathophysiology of AN. Methods: A systematic review of the literature pertaining to immunity and infectious disease in AN was performed. Results: AN is associated with leucopenia, and the increased spontaneous and stimulated levels of proinflammatory cytokines [i.e. interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor α). A range of less consistent findings are also reviewed. Most of these data were not controlled for length of illness, degree of malnutrition, micronutrient or vitamin deficiencies or recent refeeding and starvation. Conclusion: Cytokine disturbances have been suggested to be causally related to AN symptomatology and pathophysiology of AN, although the evidence supporting this assertion is lacking. Immune and cytokine changes in AN do...

Skeletal evidence for the emergence of infectious disease in bronze and Iron Age northern Vietnam

Oxenham, Marc; Thuy, Nguyen Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Lan
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Inc Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
Human skeletal evidence for the emergence of chronic infectious disease in northern Vietnam is examined. The sample includes the remains of 192 individuals representing the Mid-Holocene and Bronze to Iron Ages. The objective is to see if the transition from sedentary, foraging, coastally oriented economies to centralized chiefdoms with attendant development and intensification of agriculture, trade, metal technologies, warfare, and population increase was accompanied by an emergence of and/or increase in infectious disease. It was found that skeletal evidence for infectious disease was absent in the Mid-Holocene, while over 10% of the Metal period sample exhibited lesions consistent with either infectious disease or immune system disorders. Factors potentially contributing to the emergence of infectious disease in northern Vietnam in the Metal period include: increased contact with bacterial or fungal pathogens either directly or by way of vertebrate and/or arthropod vectors; higher levels of debilitation and/or decreased levels of immunocompetence in the Metal period; and evolution of pathogens present in Mid-Holocene human hosts into more virulent forms in the Metal period. The first two factors may be related to historically and archaeologically documented major demographic (Han colonizing efforts) and economic (agricultural intensification) changes in the region during the Metal period.

Infectious disease risks from dead bodies following natural disasters

Morgan,Oliver
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
OBJECTIVE: To review existing literature to assess the risks of infection from dead bodies after a natural disaster occurs, including who is most at risk, what precautions should be taken, and how to safely dispose of the bodies. METHODS: Disease transmission requires the presence of an infectious agent, exposure to that agent, and a susceptible host. These elements were considered to characterize the infectious disease risk from dead bodies. Using the PubMed on-line databases of the National Library of Medicine of the United States of America, searching was done for relevant literature on the infection risks for public safety workers and funeral workers as well as for guidelines for the management of the dead and prevention of infection. A small but significant literature was also reviewed regarding the disposal of the dead and the contamination of groundwater by cemeteries. RESULTS: Victims of natural disasters usually die from trauma and are unlikely to have acute or "epidemic-causing" infections. This indicates that the risk that dead bodies pose for the public is extremely small. However, persons who are involved in close contact with the dead-such as military personnel, rescue workers, volunteers, and others-may be exposed to chronic infectious hazards...