Os indicadores sociais se tornaram imprescindíveis no elenco de variáveis dos estudos epidemiológicos a partir da constatação de que a determinação dos agravos à saúde é complexa e multidimensional. Nessa perspectiva, a desigualdade social vem ocupando destaque como um fator explicativo das condições de saúde das populações. O objetivo é discutir as diferentes concepções que norteiam a seleção dos indicadores utilizados nos estudos epidemiológicos e abordar os efeitos psicossociais nos seres humanos acarretados pela desigualdade social. Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura acerca dos estudos epidemiológicos que utilizaram os indicadores de desigualdade social e capital social para uma melhor compreensão dos problemas de saúde, bem como uma investigação no campo da sociologia e da psicologia social. De acordo com a pesquisa pode-se constatar que há controvérsias sobre o efeito da desigualdade social na saúde humana pelo fato desses indicadores serem baseados, majoritariamente, pela renda e capacidade de consumo dos indivíduos. Da mesma forma, os indicadores de capital social em nível cognitivo e estrutural são muito limitados para compreender o dinamismo das relações sociais. Nesse sentido, são necessários mais estudos para a construção de indicadores sociais que contemplem a complexidade das sociedades modernas.; Social indicators are now indispensable in the list of variables of epidemiological studies...
Esta pesquisa visa realizar uma radiografia da desigualdade de renda no estado de São Paulo a partir da base de dados disponibilizada pelos Censos de 1991 e 2000. Nesse sentido, avaliar-se-á qual o valor dos indicadores de desigualdade de renda para os diferentes níveis de agregação existentes no Estado disponibilizados pelo Censo. No caso, a metodologia aplicada é a mesma utilizada por Bourguignon e Morrisson em seu trabalho seminal "Inequality among world citizens: 1820 - 1992" (2002), que ressalta o fato de que os estudos sobre a desigualdade mundial são, em sua maioria, simplistas demais ao só considerarem a desigualdade de renda entre países, mas não levar em conta desigualdade dentro dos mesmos. Assim, baseados nos indicadores tratados em Bourguignon (1979), os autores estimam a desigualdade entre países e dentro dos países, dado que a soma de ambas seria igual à desigualdade de renda total. A presente pesquisa faz a mesma análise, mas tendo como foco o estado de São Paulo ao invés do mundo e utilizando-se da variável rendimento mensal domiciliar - dada pelo Censo - dividida pelo número de moradores por domicílio. A radiografia da desigualdade de renda no Estado é feita nos seguinte níveis de agregação: Mesorregiões...
In this paper, we present evidence on the relationship between inequality and long-term development using data on different Brazilian regions. A new framework of analysis is provided in the sense that our empirical approach is developed within a constant de jure institutional environment - Brazil - accounting for possible differences in the de facto institutional environments (Brazilian regions) rooted in distinct colonial experiences within the same national territory. New inequality indicators are constructed from scratch for Brazilian municipalities in 1920 (using the Census of 1920, which, surprisingly, had thus far been ignored for such purposes). We find no significant relationship between economic (land) inequality (proxied by the Land Gini) and political concentration (proxied by the percentage of eligible voters) for Brazilian municipalities in the early twentieth century. And although our econometric analysis indicates a positive robust relationship between economic inequality and long-term development indicators for Southeastern states (São Paulo, the center of coffee production in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and a state with a large influx of European immigrants, which became the most dynamic Brazilian region; and Minas Gerais...
We studied the effects of changes in banking spreads on distributions of income, wealth and consumption as well as the welfare of the economy. This analysis was based on a model of heterogeneous agents with incomplete markets and occupational choice, in which the informality of firms and workers is a relevant transmission channel. The main finding is that reductions in spreads for firms increase the proportion of entrepreneurs and formal workers in the economy, thereby decreasing the size of the informal sector. The effects on inequality, however, are ambiguous and depend on wage dynamics and government transfers. Reductions in spreads for individuals lead to a reduction in inequality indicators at the expense of consumption and aggregate welfare. By calibrating the model to Brazil for the 2003-2012 period, it is possible to find results in line with the recent drop in informality and the wage gap between formal and informal workers
Chemerynski, Susan M; Tuchmann, Jessica L; Levy, Jonathan Ian
Fonte: BioMed CentralPublicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
Background: Although environmental policy decisions are often based in part on both risk assessment information and environmental justice concerns, formalized approaches for addressing inequality or inequity when estimating the health benefits of pollution control have been lacking. Inequality indicators that fulfill basic axioms and agree with relevant definitions and concepts in health benefits analysis and environmental justice analysis can allow for quantitative examination of efficiency-equality tradeoffs in pollution control policies. Methods: To develop appropriate inequality indicators for health benefits analysis, we provide relevant definitions from the fields of risk assessment and environmental justice and consider the implications. We evaluate axioms proposed in past studies of inequality indicators and develop additional axioms relevant to this context. We survey the literature on previous applications of inequality indicators and evaluate five candidate indicators in reference to our proposed axioms. We present an illustrative pollution control example to determine whether our selected indicators provide interpretable information. Results and Conclusions: We conclude that an inequality indicator for health benefits analysis should not decrease when risk is transferred from a low-risk to high-risk person...
The results of new direct price level
comparisons across 148 countries in 2005 have led to large
revisions of purchasing power parity exchanges rates,
particularly for China and India. The recalculation of
international and global inequalities, using the new
purchasing power parity rates, shows that inequalities are
substantially higher than previously thought. Inequality
between global citizens is estimated at 70 Gini points
rather than 65 as before. The richest decile receives 57
percent of global income rather than 50 percent.
Latin America is together with
Sub-Saharan Africa the most unequal region of the world.
This paper documents recent inequality trends in the Latin
American region, going beyond traditional measures of income
inequality. The paper also reviews some of the explanations
that have been put forward to understand the current
situation, and discusses why reducing income inequality
should be an important policy priority. In particular, the
authors discuss channels through which inequality can affect
growth and output volatility. On the whole, the analysis
suggests a two-pronged approach to reduce inequality in the
region that combines policies aimed at improving the
distribution of assets (especially education) with elements
aimed at improving the capacity of the state to redistribute
income through taxes and transfers.
Consumption baskets vary across households and inflation rates vary across goods. As a result, standard consumer price index (CPI) inflation may provide a misleading measure of the inflation actually faced by poor households, more so the more unequal the distribution of aggregate consumption across households. Likewise, changes in observed nominal consumption inequality may be very different from those in true inequality, that is, that measured using household-specific CPIs. The authors explore empirically these issues using household data covering nine episodes from four Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru). They find that in these countries standard CPI inflation typically reflects the inflation rate faced by a rich consumer located in the 80 to 90 percentile of the distribution of consumption expenditure. In most episodes the authors also find that inflation was anti-rich-that is, the inflation faced by the richest consumers was higher than the inflation faced by the poorest consumers. As a result of this bias, the observed increases in nominal inequality generally exceed the actual changes in real inequality. These results are robust to correcting for quality change bias in the CPI, to the use of alternative price indices...
Existing empirical studies on the relation between inequality and growth have been criticized for their focus on income inequality and their use of cross-country data sets. Schipper and Hoogeveen use two sets of small area welfare estimates-often referred to as poverty maps-to estimate a model of rural per capita expenditure growth for Uganda between 1992 and 1999. They estimate the growth effects of expenditure and education inequality while controlling for other factors, such as initial levels of expenditure and human capital, family characteristics, and unobserved spatial heterogeneity. The authors correct standard errors to reflect the uncertainty due to the fact that they use estimates rather than observations. They find that per capita expenditure growth in rural Uganda is affected positively by the level of education as well as by the degree of education inequality. Expenditure inequality does not have a significant impact on growth.
The paper combines state-level fiscal
data with household survey data to assess the links between
sub-national fiscal policy and income inequality in Brazil
over the period 1995-2011. The results indicate that a
tighter fiscal stance at the sub-national level is not
associated with a deterioration in inequality measures. This
finding contrasts with the conclusions of several papers in
the burgeoning literature on the effects of fiscal
consolidation on inequality using national data for OECD
economies. In addition, the authors find that a tighter
stance is typically positively associated with a measure of
"shared prosperity". Hence, the results caution
against extrapolating policy implications of the literature
focusing on advanced economies to other settings.
The paper uses harmonized household
survey micro-data to assess the levels and determinants of
economic inequality in 12 Arab countries. It focuses on the
sources of rural-urban, as well as
metropolitan-nonmetropolitan, inequalities and applies the
unconditional quantile regression decomposition technique to
analyze the welfare gaps across the entire distribution. The
analysis finds moderate inequality levels, with the Gini
coefficient for the distribution of household real per
capita total expenditures ranging between 30.7 in Libya and
45 in Mauritania. Differences in households'
endowments, such as demographic composition, human capital,
and community characteristics, appear as the main sources of
the urban-rural welfare gap. There is inequality between
metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions in many countries,
mainly because of differences in returns to households'
characteristics and particularly returns to human capital.
With the recent resurgence of interest
in equity, inequality, and growth, the possibility of a
negative relationship between inequality and economic
growth, has received renewed interest in the literature.
Faced with the prospect that high levels of inequality may
persist, and give rise to poverty traps, policymakers are
paying more attention to the distributional implications of
macroeconomic policies. Because high levels of inequality
may hurt overall growth, policymakers are exploring measures
to promote growth and equity at the same time. How the
consequences of inequality are analyzed, along with the
possible cures, depends partly on how inequality is
measured. The authors use assets (land) rather than income -
and a GMM estimator - to examine the robustness of the
relationship between inequality and growth that has been
observed in the cross-sectional literature, but has been
drawn into question by recent studies using panel
techniques. They find evidence that asset inequality - but
not income inequality - has a relatively large negative
impact on growth. They also find that a highly unequal
distribution of assets reduces the effectiveness of
educational interventions. This means that policymakers
should be more concerned about households' access to
Poverty reduction is an important goal
for governments of many developing countries. This goal is
synonymous with economic development and achieving a higher
quality of life for all population groups. Thus, monitoring
the dynamics of poverty and inequality is implicit in the
monitoring of progress in societal development. As the vast
literature shows, development progress to a large extent
depends on economic and social policies and economic growth.
Thus, identifying the relationship between relevant economic
variables and poverty and inequality indicators may provide
policy guidance on what has furthered the country's
progress. The report consists of two main parts. The first
part discusses poverty and inequality for 2009 and, thus,
from a static perceptive. So, the first section describes
and discusses the main features and correlates of the poor.
The goal is to provide a brief overview of poverty in the
Kyrgyz Republic and describe the characteristics of
households and the poor. This is achieved by considering the
poverty incidence among households and individuals
differentiated by such characteristics as age...
Jordan's economic growth in the
past decade has translated into a significant rise in
household consumption and a decline in poverty and
inequality indicators. Yet, the sentiment of the overall
population seems to point to worsening disparities. Using
official household expenditure surveys for 2002, 2008, and
2010, this paper analyzes the patterns and determinants of
household welfare growth and examines the extent to which
economic growth has been inclusive of the more vulnerable
groups. Using counterfactual decompositions, the paper
dwells first on the dynamics observed behind the drop in
poverty and inequality. It then carries out regression
analysis using re-centered influence functions to examine
the economic determinants of household welfare growth
throughout the decade. The paper finds that welfare growth
as opposed to welfare distribution was the main driver
behind poverty reduction, and that the drop in inequality
was primarily driven by a regional catching-up effect. In
addition, the analysis identifies rent...
Economic development necessarily changes
the welfare of socioeconomic groups to various degrees,
depending on differences in their social arrangements. The
challenge for policymakers is to select the changes that
will be most socially desirable. The author demonstrates the
usefulness of distributional analysis for social evaluation
and, more specifically, for welfare evaluation, using data
from the 1994 Integrated Household Survey in Guinea. Because
the international community has declared poverty eradication
a fundamental objective of development, the author uses a
poverty-focused approach to social evaluation based on the
maximum principle. This principle offers a unifying
framework for analyzing the socioeconomic impact of public
policy by using a wide variety of evaluation functions,
inequality indicators (like the extended Gini coefficient),
and poverty indices (such as Sen's index and the
members of the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke family). The author
also examines, within the context of commodity taxation, how
to identify socially desirable policy options using both the
dominance criterion and abbreviated social welfare
functions. He includes computer routines for calculating
various welfare indices and for plotting the relevant
Over the past decade (2003-12), Latin
America has experienced strong income growth and a notable
reduction in income inequality, with the region's Gini
coefficient falling from 55.6 to 51.8. Previous studies have
warned about the sustainability of such a decline, and this
paper presents evidence of stagnation in the pace of
reduction of income inequality in Latin America since 2010.
This phenomenon of stagnation is robust to different
measures of inequality and is largely attributable to the
impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Mexico and Central
America, where inequality rose after 2010 as labor income
recovered. Moreover, this paper finds evidence that much of
the continuation of inequality reduction after the crisis at
the country level has been due to negative or zero income
growth for households in the top of the income distribution,
and lower growth of the incomes of the poorest households.
The crisis also highlighted weaknesses in the region's
labor markets and the heavy reliance on public transfers to
Utilizando os dados da PNAD, o trabalho analisa a distribuição de rendimentos entre os empregados temporários e permanentes e com e sem carteira de trabalho na agricultura brasileira, de 1992 a 2008. Primeiramente são discutidos os principais condicionantes dos rendimentos dos empregados agrícolas, com atenção especial para a política de valorização do salário mínimo real. Além de chamar a atenção para os determinantes clássicos da desigualdade da distribuição dos rendimentos, foi encontrado que o salário mínimo afeta de maneira distinta os rendimentos das diferentes categorias de empregados agrícolas, tendo efeitos mais positivos sobre os rendimentos dos trabalhadores do segmento mais estruturado do mercado de trabalho (permanentes e com carteira). Por meio da decomposição das medidas de desigualdade utilizadas no trabalho, foi mensurada a contribuição da situação do empregado (permanente ou temporário e com ou sem carteira de trabalho) para a desigualdade total entre estes. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a importância da carteira de trabalho na conformação dos rendimentos dos empregados agrícolas, verificando-se que a diferença de remuneração associada à posse da carteira de trabalho é maior do que a diferença entre trabalhadores permanentes e temporários. Por fim...
The adjustment of the information obtained from household surveys to make the
figures compatible with National Accounts is a non-standard and potentially
questionable practice given that it alters the structure of income distribution.
This paper analyzes the sensitivity of inequality and poverty indicators to the
adjustments made by ECLAC so as to enable a consistency between what is
reported by the CASEN survey and the National Accounts figures in Chile. The
results reveal that this leads to important changes in the top-end of the distribution
and to an overestimation in the main inequality indicators in Chile. Chile looks
more unequal in international relative terms due to this adjustment.
Artículo de publicación ISI; The adjustment of the information obtained from household surveys to make the figures compatible with National Accounts is a non-standard and potentially questionable practice given that it alters the structure of income distribution. This paper analyzes the sensitivity of inequality and poverty indicators to the adjustments made by ECLAC so as to enable a consistency between what is reported by the CASEN survey and the National Accounts figures in Chile. The results reveal that this leads to important changes in the top-end of the distribution and to an overestimation in the main inequality indicators in Chile. Chile looks more unequal in international relative terms due to this adjustment.
In response to a growing interest in
comparing inequality levels and trends across countries,
several cross-national inequality databases are now
available. These databases differ considerably in purpose,
coverage, data sources, inclusion and exclusion criteria,
and quality of documentation. A special issue of the Journal
of Economic Inequality, which this paper introduces, is
devoted to an assessment of the merits and shortcomings of
eight such databases. Five of these sets are
microdata-based: CEPALSTAT, Income Distribution Database,
Luxembourg Income Study, PovcalNet, and Socio-Economic
Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Two are based
on secondary sources: All the Ginis and the World Income
Inequality Database; and one is generated entirely through
multiple-imputation methods: the Standardized World Income
Inequality Database. Although there is much agreement across
these databases, there is also a nontrivial share of
country/year cells for which substantial discrepancies
exist. In some cases...