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Desigualdade social e os estudos epidemiológicos: uma reflexão; Social inequality and epidemiological studies: a reflection

Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira
Fonte: ABRASCO; RIO DE JANEIRO Publicador: ABRASCO; RIO DE JANEIRO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Os indicadores sociais se tornaram imprescindíveis no elenco de variáveis dos estudos epidemiológicos a partir da constatação de que a determinação dos agravos à saúde é complexa e multidimensional. Nessa perspectiva, a desigualdade social vem ocupando destaque como um fator explicativo das condições de saúde das populações. O objetivo é discutir as diferentes concepções que norteiam a seleção dos indicadores utilizados nos estudos epidemiológicos e abordar os efeitos psicossociais nos seres humanos acarretados pela desigualdade social. Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura acerca dos estudos epidemiológicos que utilizaram os indicadores de desigualdade social e capital social para uma melhor compreensão dos problemas de saúde, bem como uma investigação no campo da sociologia e da psicologia social. De acordo com a pesquisa pode-se constatar que há controvérsias sobre o efeito da desigualdade social na saúde humana pelo fato desses indicadores serem baseados, majoritariamente, pela renda e capacidade de consumo dos indivíduos. Da mesma forma, os indicadores de capital social em nível cognitivo e estrutural são muito limitados para compreender o dinamismo das relações sociais. Nesse sentido, são necessários mais estudos para a construção de indicadores sociais que contemplem a complexidade das sociedades modernas.; Social indicators are now indispensable in the list of variables of epidemiological studies...

Crescimento econômico e desigualdade de renda no estado de São Paulo: uma análise das disparidades regionais; Income Inequality in the state of Sao Paulo: an analysis of regional disparities

Pinto, Jeronymo Marcondes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Esta pesquisa visa realizar uma radiografia da desigualdade de renda no estado de São Paulo a partir da base de dados disponibilizada pelos Censos de 1991 e 2000. Nesse sentido, avaliar-se-á qual o valor dos indicadores de desigualdade de renda para os diferentes níveis de agregação existentes no Estado disponibilizados pelo Censo. No caso, a metodologia aplicada é a mesma utilizada por Bourguignon e Morrisson em seu trabalho seminal "Inequality among world citizens: 1820 - 1992" (2002), que ressalta o fato de que os estudos sobre a desigualdade mundial são, em sua maioria, simplistas demais ao só considerarem a desigualdade de renda entre países, mas não levar em conta desigualdade dentro dos mesmos. Assim, baseados nos indicadores tratados em Bourguignon (1979), os autores estimam a desigualdade entre países e dentro dos países, dado que a soma de ambas seria igual à desigualdade de renda total. A presente pesquisa faz a mesma análise, mas tendo como foco o estado de São Paulo ao invés do mundo e utilizando-se da variável rendimento mensal domiciliar - dada pelo Censo - dividida pelo número de moradores por domicílio. A radiografia da desigualdade de renda no Estado é feita nos seguinte níveis de agregação: Mesorregiões...

Institutions, inequality, and long-term development: a perspective from Brazilian regions; Instituições, desigualdade e desenvolvimento de longo prazo: uma perspectiva a partir de regiões brasileiras

Funari, Pedro Paulo Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
In this paper, we present evidence on the relationship between inequality and long-term development using data on different Brazilian regions. A new framework of analysis is provided in the sense that our empirical approach is developed within a constant de jure institutional environment - Brazil - accounting for possible differences in the de facto institutional environments (Brazilian regions) rooted in distinct colonial experiences within the same national territory. New inequality indicators are constructed from scratch for Brazilian municipalities in 1920 (using the Census of 1920, which, surprisingly, had thus far been ignored for such purposes). We find no significant relationship between economic (land) inequality (proxied by the Land Gini) and political concentration (proxied by the percentage of eligible voters) for Brazilian municipalities in the early twentieth century. And although our econometric analysis indicates a positive robust relationship between economic inequality and long-term development indicators for Southeastern states (São Paulo, the center of coffee production in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and a state with a large influx of European immigrants, which became the most dynamic Brazilian region; and Minas Gerais...

Financial frictions, informality and income inequality

Merlin, Giovanni Tondin; Kuhl Teles, Vladimir
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
We studied the effects of changes in banking spreads on distributions of income, wealth and consumption as well as the welfare of the economy. This analysis was based on a model of heterogeneous agents with incomplete markets and occupational choice, in which the informality of firms and workers is a relevant transmission channel. The main finding is that reductions in spreads for firms increase the proportion of entrepreneurs and formal workers in the economy, thereby decreasing the size of the informal sector. The effects on inequality, however, are ambiguous and depend on wage dynamics and government transfers. Reductions in spreads for individuals lead to a reduction in inequality indicators at the expense of consumption and aggregate welfare. By calibrating the model to Brazil for the 2003-2012 period, it is possible to find results in line with the recent drop in informality and the wage gap between formal and informal workers

Incorporating Concepts of Inequality and Inequity into Health Benefits Analysis

Chemerynski, Susan M; Tuchmann, Jessica L; Levy, Jonathan Ian
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Background: Although environmental policy decisions are often based in part on both risk assessment information and environmental justice concerns, formalized approaches for addressing inequality or inequity when estimating the health benefits of pollution control have been lacking. Inequality indicators that fulfill basic axioms and agree with relevant definitions and concepts in health benefits analysis and environmental justice analysis can allow for quantitative examination of efficiency-equality tradeoffs in pollution control policies. Methods: To develop appropriate inequality indicators for health benefits analysis, we provide relevant definitions from the fields of risk assessment and environmental justice and consider the implications. We evaluate axioms proposed in past studies of inequality indicators and develop additional axioms relevant to this context. We survey the literature on previous applications of inequality indicators and evaluate five candidate indicators in reference to our proposed axioms. We present an illustrative pollution control example to determine whether our selected indicators provide interpretable information. Results and Conclusions: We conclude that an inequality indicator for health benefits analysis should not decrease when risk is transferred from a low-risk to high-risk person...

Global Inequality Recalculated : The Effect of New 2005 PPP Estimates on Global Inequality

Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
The results of new direct price level comparisons across 148 countries in 2005 have led to large revisions of purchasing power parity exchanges rates, particularly for China and India. The recalculation of international and global inequalities, using the new purchasing power parity rates, shows that inequalities are substantially higher than previously thought. Inequality between global citizens is estimated at 70 Gini points rather than 65 as before. The richest decile receives 57 percent of global income rather than 50 percent.

Inequality in Latin America : Determinants and Consequences

Lopez, J. Humberto; Perry, Guillermo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Latin America is together with Sub-Saharan Africa the most unequal region of the world. This paper documents recent inequality trends in the Latin American region, going beyond traditional measures of income inequality. The paper also reviews some of the explanations that have been put forward to understand the current situation, and discusses why reducing income inequality should be an important policy priority. In particular, the authors discuss channels through which inequality can affect growth and output volatility. On the whole, the analysis suggests a two-pronged approach to reduce inequality in the region that combines policies aimed at improving the distribution of assets (especially education) with elements aimed at improving the capacity of the state to redistribute income through taxes and transfers.

Getting Real about Inequality : Evidence from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru

Servén, Luis; López, Humberto; Goñi, Edwin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Consumption baskets vary across households and inflation rates vary across goods. As a result, standard consumer price index (CPI) inflation may provide a misleading measure of the inflation actually faced by poor households, more so the more unequal the distribution of aggregate consumption across households. Likewise, changes in observed nominal consumption inequality may be very different from those in true inequality, that is, that measured using household-specific CPIs. The authors explore empirically these issues using household data covering nine episodes from four Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru). They find that in these countries standard CPI inflation typically reflects the inflation rate faced by a rich consumer located in the 80 to 90 percentile of the distribution of consumption expenditure. In most episodes the authors also find that inflation was anti-rich-that is, the inflation faced by the richest consumers was higher than the inflation faced by the poorest consumers. As a result of this bias, the observed increases in nominal inequality generally exceed the actual changes in real inequality. These results are robust to correcting for quality change bias in the CPI, to the use of alternative price indices...

Which Inequality Matters? Growth Evidence Based on Small Area Welfare Estimates in Uganda

Schipper, Youdi; Hoogeveen, Johannes G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Existing empirical studies on the relation between inequality and growth have been criticized for their focus on income inequality and their use of cross-country data sets. Schipper and Hoogeveen use two sets of small area welfare estimates-often referred to as poverty maps-to estimate a model of rural per capita expenditure growth for Uganda between 1992 and 1999. They estimate the growth effects of expenditure and education inequality while controlling for other factors, such as initial levels of expenditure and human capital, family characteristics, and unobserved spatial heterogeneity. The authors correct standard errors to reflect the uncertainty due to the fact that they use estimates rather than observations. They find that per capita expenditure growth in rural Uganda is affected positively by the level of education as well as by the degree of education inequality. Expenditure inequality does not have a significant impact on growth.

Fiscal Adjustment and Income Inequality : Sub-national Evidence from Brazil

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; David, Antonio C.; Rodrigues Bastos, Fabiano; Pineda, Emilio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The paper combines state-level fiscal data with household survey data to assess the links between sub-national fiscal policy and income inequality in Brazil over the period 1995-2011. The results indicate that a tighter fiscal stance at the sub-national level is not associated with a deterioration in inequality measures. This finding contrasts with the conclusions of several papers in the burgeoning literature on the effects of fiscal consolidation on inequality using national data for OECD economies. In addition, the authors find that a tighter stance is typically positively associated with a measure of "shared prosperity". Hence, the results caution against extrapolating policy implications of the literature focusing on advanced economies to other settings.

Economic Inequality in the Arab Region

Hassine, Nadia Belhaj
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The paper uses harmonized household survey micro-data to assess the levels and determinants of economic inequality in 12 Arab countries. It focuses on the sources of rural-urban, as well as metropolitan-nonmetropolitan, inequalities and applies the unconditional quantile regression decomposition technique to analyze the welfare gaps across the entire distribution. The analysis finds moderate inequality levels, with the Gini coefficient for the distribution of household real per capita total expenditures ranging between 30.7 in Libya and 45 in Mauritania. Differences in households' endowments, such as demographic composition, human capital, and community characteristics, appear as the main sources of the urban-rural welfare gap. There is inequality between metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions in many countries, mainly because of differences in returns to households' characteristics and particularly returns to human capital.

Asset Distribution, Inequality, and Growth

Deininger, Klaus; Olinto, Pedro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
With the recent resurgence of interest in equity, inequality, and growth, the possibility of a negative relationship between inequality and economic growth, has received renewed interest in the literature. Faced with the prospect that high levels of inequality may persist, and give rise to poverty traps, policymakers are paying more attention to the distributional implications of macroeconomic policies. Because high levels of inequality may hurt overall growth, policymakers are exploring measures to promote growth and equity at the same time. How the consequences of inequality are analyzed, along with the possible cures, depends partly on how inequality is measured. The authors use assets (land) rather than income - and a GMM estimator - to examine the robustness of the relationship between inequality and growth that has been observed in the cross-sectional literature, but has been drawn into question by recent studies using panel techniques. They find evidence that asset inequality - but not income inequality - has a relatively large negative impact on growth. They also find that a highly unequal distribution of assets reduces the effectiveness of educational interventions. This means that policymakers should be more concerned about households' access to assets...

Kyrgyz Republic - Profile and Dynamics of Poverty and Inequality, 2009

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Poverty reduction is an important goal for governments of many developing countries. This goal is synonymous with economic development and achieving a higher quality of life for all population groups. Thus, monitoring the dynamics of poverty and inequality is implicit in the monitoring of progress in societal development. As the vast literature shows, development progress to a large extent depends on economic and social policies and economic growth. Thus, identifying the relationship between relevant economic variables and poverty and inequality indicators may provide policy guidance on what has furthered the country's progress. The report consists of two main parts. The first part discusses poverty and inequality for 2009 and, thus, from a static perceptive. So, the first section describes and discusses the main features and correlates of the poor. The goal is to provide a brief overview of poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic and describe the characteristics of households and the poor. This is achieved by considering the poverty incidence among households and individuals differentiated by such characteristics as age...

The Patterns and Determinants of Household Welfare Growth in Jordan : 2002-2010

Mansour, Wael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Jordan's economic growth in the past decade has translated into a significant rise in household consumption and a decline in poverty and inequality indicators. Yet, the sentiment of the overall population seems to point to worsening disparities. Using official household expenditure surveys for 2002, 2008, and 2010, this paper analyzes the patterns and determinants of household welfare growth and examines the extent to which economic growth has been inclusive of the more vulnerable groups. Using counterfactual decompositions, the paper dwells first on the dynamics observed behind the drop in poverty and inequality. It then carries out regression analysis using re-centered influence functions to examine the economic determinants of household welfare growth throughout the decade. The paper finds that welfare growth as opposed to welfare distribution was the main driver behind poverty reduction, and that the drop in inequality was primarily driven by a regional catching-up effect. In addition, the analysis identifies rent...

Assessing the Distributional Impact of Public Policy

Essama-Nssah, B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Economic development necessarily changes the welfare of socioeconomic groups to various degrees, depending on differences in their social arrangements. The challenge for policymakers is to select the changes that will be most socially desirable. The author demonstrates the usefulness of distributional analysis for social evaluation and, more specifically, for welfare evaluation, using data from the 1994 Integrated Household Survey in Guinea. Because the international community has declared poverty eradication a fundamental objective of development, the author uses a poverty-focused approach to social evaluation based on the maximum principle. This principle offers a unifying framework for analyzing the socioeconomic impact of public policy by using a wide variety of evaluation functions, inequality indicators (like the extended Gini coefficient), and poverty indices (such as Sen's index and the members of the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke family). The author also examines, within the context of commodity taxation, how to identify socially desirable policy options using both the dominance criterion and abbreviated social welfare functions. He includes computer routines for calculating various welfare indices and for plotting the relevant concentration curves.

Inequality Stagnation in Latin America in the Aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis

Cord, Louise; Barriga Cabanillas, Oscar; Lucchetti, Leonardo; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos; Sousa, Liliana D.; Valderrama, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Over the past decade (2003-12), Latin America has experienced strong income growth and a notable reduction in income inequality, with the region's Gini coefficient falling from 55.6 to 51.8. Previous studies have warned about the sustainability of such a decline, and this paper presents evidence of stagnation in the pace of reduction of income inequality in Latin America since 2010. This phenomenon of stagnation is robust to different measures of inequality and is largely attributable to the impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Mexico and Central America, where inequality rose after 2010 as labor income recovered. Moreover, this paper finds evidence that much of the continuation of inequality reduction after the crisis at the country level has been due to negative or zero income growth for households in the top of the income distribution, and lower growth of the incomes of the poorest households. The crisis also highlighted weaknesses in the region's labor markets and the heavy reliance on public transfers to redistribute...

Desigualdade de rendimentos entre os empregados na agricultura brasileira, 1992-2008; Income inequality between the employees in Brazilian agriculture, 1992-2008

Regis Borges de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Utilizando os dados da PNAD, o trabalho analisa a distribuição de rendimentos entre os empregados temporários e permanentes e com e sem carteira de trabalho na agricultura brasileira, de 1992 a 2008. Primeiramente são discutidos os principais condicionantes dos rendimentos dos empregados agrícolas, com atenção especial para a política de valorização do salário mínimo real. Além de chamar a atenção para os determinantes clássicos da desigualdade da distribuição dos rendimentos, foi encontrado que o salário mínimo afeta de maneira distinta os rendimentos das diferentes categorias de empregados agrícolas, tendo efeitos mais positivos sobre os rendimentos dos trabalhadores do segmento mais estruturado do mercado de trabalho (permanentes e com carteira). Por meio da decomposição das medidas de desigualdade utilizadas no trabalho, foi mensurada a contribuição da situação do empregado (permanente ou temporário e com ou sem carteira de trabalho) para a desigualdade total entre estes. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a importância da carteira de trabalho na conformação dos rendimentos dos empregados agrícolas, verificando-se que a diferença de remuneração associada à posse da carteira de trabalho é maior do que a diferença entre trabalhadores permanentes e temporários. Por fim...

The impact of income adjustments in the Casen Survey on the measurement of inequality in Chile; El impacto de los ajustes de ingresos realizados en la Encuesta casen sobre la medición de la desigualdad en Chile

Valderrama Torres, José A.; Bravo, David
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The adjustment of the information obtained from household surveys to make the figures compatible with National Accounts is a non-standard and potentially questionable practice given that it alters the structure of income distribution. This paper analyzes the sensitivity of inequality and poverty indicators to the adjustments made by ECLAC so as to enable a consistency between what is reported by the CASEN survey and the National Accounts figures in Chile. The results reveal that this leads to important changes in the top-end of the distribution and to an overestimation in the main inequality indicators in Chile. Chile looks more unequal in international relative terms due to this adjustment.

The impact of income adjustments in the Casen Survey on the measurement of inequality in Chile; El impacto de los ajustes de ingresos realizados en la Encuesta casen sobre la medición de la desigualdad en Chile

Valderrama Torres, José A.; Bravo Urrutia, David
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Artículo de publicación ISI; The adjustment of the information obtained from household surveys to make the figures compatible with National Accounts is a non-standard and potentially questionable practice given that it alters the structure of income distribution. This paper analyzes the sensitivity of inequality and poverty indicators to the adjustments made by ECLAC so as to enable a consistency between what is reported by the CASEN survey and the National Accounts figures in Chile. The results reveal that this leads to important changes in the top-end of the distribution and to an overestimation in the main inequality indicators in Chile. Chile looks more unequal in international relative terms due to this adjustment.

Appraising Cross-National Income Inequality Databases; An Introduction

Ferreira, Francisco H. G.; Lustig, Nora; Teles, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
In response to a growing interest in comparing inequality levels and trends across countries, several cross-national inequality databases are now available. These databases differ considerably in purpose, coverage, data sources, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and quality of documentation. A special issue of the Journal of Economic Inequality, which this paper introduces, is devoted to an assessment of the merits and shortcomings of eight such databases. Five of these sets are microdata-based: CEPALSTAT, Income Distribution Database, Luxembourg Income Study, PovcalNet, and Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Two are based on secondary sources: All the Ginis and the World Income Inequality Database; and one is generated entirely through multiple-imputation methods: the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Although there is much agreement across these databases, there is also a nontrivial share of country/year cells for which substantial discrepancies exist. In some cases...