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Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China

Jie,Y.; Houjin,H.; Xun,M.; Kebin,L.; Xuesong,Y.; Jie,X.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2014 EN
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96.46%
Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM2.5) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (≥18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM2.5 was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM2.5 in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV1, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV1/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC...

Essays on Economics of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution in India

Kishore, Avinash
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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Air pollution—both indoor and outdoor—results in more deaths and diseases in India than in any other country in the world. The first chapter in this dissertation explores why despite profoundly negative health consequences of indoor air pollution, most rural Indian households cook using traditional biomass fuel. Among many factors that contribute to households’ continued use of solid fuels, we focus on one: women’s intra-household status. We exploit Indian son preference: having a girl first child lowers women’s status relative to having a boy first child, and is therefore associated with lower likelihood of using clean fuel. This effect is found throughout the wealth distribution, and is not concentrated among households in states with a high child sex ratio or households where women have some education. The second chapter focuses on outdoor air pollution in India. We use a general equilibrium model of Indian economy to quantify the spillovers from a carbon tax on fossil fuels to local air quality and the health outcomes in urban India. We estimate that a $10/ton of Carbon tax on all fossil fuels will reduce CO2 emission by 10.7% from business-as-usual and save nearly 0.3 million urban lives from pollution related deaths while adding 0.2 percent to the GDP over the three decades from 2003 to 2030. We get this double dividend from carbon tax if the tax revenue is used to reduce existing distortionary taxes. Carbon tax is more progressive if the revenue is repatriated to households...

Indoor Air Pollution

Smith, Kirk R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activities. This note reviews the evidence on health effects from indoor air pollution in developing countries, looking in detail at India. It outlines possible solutions and concludes that the only feasible long-term remedy is improved access to cleaner modern energy.

Indoor Air Quality for Poor Families: New Evidence from Bangladesh

Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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Indoor air pollution (IAP) from cooking and heating is estimated to kill a million children annually in developing countries. To promote a better understanding of IAP, the authors investigate the determinants of IAP in Bangladesh using the latest air monitoring technology and a national household survey. The study concludes that IAP is dangerously high for many poor families in Bangladesh.

Indoor Air Pollution, August 2002 : Energy and Health for the Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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86.57%
A Regional Workshop on Household Energy, Air Pollution and Health was held on 9-10 May 2002 in New Delhi, India. The two-day event provided a forum to exchange information on the latest research, share experiences in mitigation strategies and strengthen commitments to future action programs amongst various stakeholders from fifteen countries. The workshop was linked to the completion of a multisectoral study, India: Household Energy, Air Pollution and Health, undertaken by the World Bank with the support of the joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) and the Government of Norway. The World Bank and the Tata Energy Research Institute organized the workshop in collaboration with several agencies of the Government of India, including the Planning Commission, Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Ministry of Environment and Forests and the Indian Council of Medical Research. The workshop was co-sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), United States Agency for International Development (USAID)...

Indoor Air Pollution, March 2002 : Energy and Health for the Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Switching entirely to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to meet household energy needs is one way of greatly lowering exposure to indoor air pollution, while simultaneously bringing additional benefits of time savings and convenience. Although there are a number of reasons why many households do not use LPG, the primary reason is that the poor cannot afford it. The Government of Andhra Pradesh has launched an innovative targeted subsidy programme, the Deepam scheme, to encourage the uptake of LPG among low-income households. This issue of the newsletter presents the results of an independent evaluation of the Deepam scheme carried out by the National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD) in Hyderabad.

Indoor Air Pollution Associated with Household Fuel Use in India : An Exposure Assessment and Modeling Exercise in Rural Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Mehta, Sumi; Kumar, Priti; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Kumar, Kannappa Satish; Smith, Kirk R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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96.77%
Indoor air pollutants associated with combustion of solid fuels in households of developing countries are now recognized as a major source of health risks to the exposed populations. Based on this background, the present study was designed with three major objectives: to monitor household pollution concentrations in a statistically representative rural sample in southern India; to model household indoor air pollution levels based on information on household-level parameters collected through questionnaires, in order to determine how well such survey information could be used to estimate air pollution levels without monitoring; and to record time/activity and other information at the household-level, in order to estimate the exposures of different household members. This paper contains the following headings: background, study design and methodology, results, and conclusions.

Indoor Air Pollution in Cold Climates : The Cases of Mongolia and China

Baris, Enis; Rivera, Salvador; Boehmova, Zuzana; Constant, Samantha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This note provides a snapshot of indoor air pollution interventions in two cold climate environments. It illustrates the different methodologies used for each of the cases and presents a comparative analysis of results and lessons learned.

EU Policies on Indoor Air Quality

DE OLIVEIRA FERNANDES Eduardo; CARRER Paolo; SEPPÄNEN Olli; KEPHALOPOULOS Stylianos; JANTUNEN Matii
Fonte: International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate Publicador: International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
ENG
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Indoor air quality (IAQ) in non working spaces has being deserved a growing attention in EU, particularly, since the 80´s. Nevertheless quite some time was needed before IAQ could be recognized as a public health issue. It was only recently that EU adopted several initiatives to the improvement of IAQ under Action 12 of the EU Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2012. This Action contains two key elements: addressing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); and developing ways and means to respond to other factors affecting IAQ (dampness, mould, building materials, consumer products, activities indoors, etc.). As far as the exposure to ETS is concerned, two main policy actions were put in place. Activities on ETS are now taken forward, mostly ETS banning in an increasing number of Member States. If the more general issue is how to best deal with the indoor environment as a whole, successive new EU policies on construction products, consumer products, energy performance of buildings and on chemicals refer to IAQ issues suggesting that they could, and probably should, contribute to the IAQ policy development and reinforcement. This integrated vision and approach was one of the conclusions of EnVIE, a project on the formulation of IAQ Policies...

Who Suffers from Indoor Air Pollution? Evidence from Bangladesh

Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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In this paper the authors investigate individuals' exposure to indoor air pollution. Using new survey data from Bangladesh, they analyze exposure at two levels-differences within households attributable to family roles, and differences across households attributable to income and education. Within households, they relate individuals' exposure to pollution in different locations during their daily round of activity. The authors find high levels of exposure for children and adolescents of both sexes, with particularly serious exposure for children under 5. Among prime-age adults, they find that men have half the exposure of women (whose exposure is similar to that of children and adolescents). They also find that elderly men have significantly lower exposure than elderly women. Across households, they draw on results from their previous paper (Dasgupta et al, 2004), which relate pollution variation across households to choices of cooking fuel, cooking locations, construction materials, and ventilation practices. They find that these choices are significantly affected by family income and adult education levels (particularly for women). Overall...

Indoor Air Pollution, July 2002 : Energy and Health for the Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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86.47%
In India, approximately 86 per cent of rural households and 24 per cent of urban households rely on solid biomass fuels for their cooking needs. These fuels used in traditional stoves, in households often with little ventilation, emit smoke containing significant quantities of harmful pollutants in the immediate proximity of people leading to serious health consequences. It is estimated that up to 444,000 premature deaths in children under 5 years, 34,000 cases of chronic respiratory disease in women under 45 years and 800 cases of lung cancer are attributable to exposure to Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) due to use of solid fuels by households. While health risks drive policy concerns, these are often difficult and costly to estimate. Information on population exposure to IAP is a useful proxy for health risks, and hence guide and facilitate mitigation actions. Better information on patterns of exposure and its determinants would assist in designing more effective interventions and strategies. As part of World Bank's study on Household Energy...

Improving Indoor Air Quality for Poor Families : A Controlled Experiment in Bangladesh; Indoor Air

Dasgupta, S.; Wheeler, D.; Huq, M.; Khaliquzzaman, M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
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86.72%
The World Health Organization's 2004 Global and Regional Burden of Disease Report estimates that acute respiratory infections from indoor air pollution (pollution from burning wood, animal dung, and other bio-fuels) kill a million children annually in developing countries, inflicting a particularly heavy toll on poor families in South Asia and Africa. This paper reports on an experiment that studied the use of different fuels in conjunction with different combinations of construction materials, space configurations, cooking locations, and household ventilation practices (use of doors and windows) as potentially-important determinants of indoor air pollution. Results from controlled experiments in Bangladesh were analyzed to test whether changes in these determinants can have significant effects on indoor air pollution. Analysis of the data shows, for example, that pollution from the cooking area is transported into living spaces rapidly and completely. Furthermore, it is important to factor in the interaction between outdoor and indoor air pollution. Hence, the optimal cooking location should take 'seasonality' in account. Among fuels, seasonal conditions seem to affect the relative severity of pollution from wood, dung, and other biomass fuels. However...

Improving Indoor Air Quality for Poor Families : A Controlled Experiment in Bangladesh

Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.75%
The World Health Organization's 2004 Global and Regional Burden of Disease Report estimates that acute respiratory infections from indoor air pollution (pollution from burning wood, animal dung, and other bio-fuels) kill a million children annually in developing countries, inflicting a particularly heavy toll on poor families in South Asia and Africa. This paper reports on an experiment that studied the use of construction materials, space configurations, cooking locations, and household ventilation practices (use of doors and windows) as potentially-important determinants of indoor air pollution. Results from controlled experiments in Bangladesh are analyzed to test whether changes in these determinants can have significant effects on indoor air pollution. Analysis of the data shows, for example, that pollution from the cooking area diffuses into living spaces rapidly and completely. Furthermore, it is important to factor in the interaction between outdoor and indoor air pollution. Among fuels, seasonal conditions seem to affect the relative severity of pollution from wood...

Urban ecosystems and human health in South Africa : examining the relationships between housing, energy, indoor air quality and respiratory health

Savage, Leah Krystyn
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2017884 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.55%
In South Africa one of the strongest influences on domestic indoor air quality is the type of energy used for heating, cooking and other household purposes. Emissions from fuel combustion, along with housing factors, can result in respiratory infections, a leading cause of death in the country. In this study I examine the relationships between energy types, patterns of use, housing conditions such as improper ventilation and overcrowding, indoor air quality and respiratory health in poorer communities of Msunduzi Municipality, South Africa. These variables were examined using an ecohealth perspective through the integration of data concerning individual time-activity budgets, housing materials and structure, energy sources used for heating, cooking and lighting, respiratory symptoms and continuous real time monitoring of indoor air pollutants (particulate matter (PM), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2)). A total of 20 dwellings, displaying large variability in housing structure and energy patterns, were sampled for 24 hours (hr) over a period of 60 days. The mean 24-hr average indoor concentrations measured were as follows: PM2.5= 16 ± 11 µg/m3, PM10= 78 ± 46 µg/m3, CO= 5 ± 6 ppm and SO2= 0.18 ± 0.27 ppm. Mean indoor concentrations measured were significantly greater than mean outdoor concentrations (p<0.0001 (PM2.5)...

Considerations in Intervention Design to Reduce Indoor Air Pollution from Cooking with Biomass

Siemiatycki, Emma
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Outros
EN
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The compilation of the two chapters of this report ultimately conveys an optimistic message, albeit one threaded with caution. Chapter 1 expounds the impact of those more common interventions on particulate emissions and concentrations and displays their potential to substantially reduce human exposure to pollutants. Chapter 2 then examines the literature available on experiences to date with these various interventions and outlines the predominant issues encountered that hindered their overall success. It herein reveals the deeply intertwined nature of the technological and socio-economic facets of indoor air pollution from cooking and affirms the importance of embracing a holistic approach to addressing the problem by considering not only each issue individually, but also how each affects the others. The local specificity of programme requirements is made evident, as is in turn the need for initiatives to be “robust to existing limits” encountered upon implementation in varying locations and conditions (Jin et al., 2006). Moreover, the highlighted importance of participatory programmes echos the WHO’s (2002) call for interventions that strive to “broaden the range of secure and sustainable choices available” which will then “enable people to devise their own solutions”. As greater numbers of longitudinal studies are carried out that monitor the technical performance of interventions...

Does exposure science support the concern over indoor air quality?

Kasper, Kenneth
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 328833 bytes; 424115 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_US
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The purpose of this thesis is to examine the growing concern over indoor air quality (IAQ) and determine if such concern is warranted. The first questions that steer this effort include: Does scientific research substantiate a causal link between IAQ contaminants and human health? In addition, which indoor air contaminants appear to present the greatest health risks? These questions were answered primarily by reviewing exposure science based criteria that have been developed by federal and state agencies and then comparing these criteria to nominal concentrations that have been measured in the workplace. The second purpose of this thesis was to answer this secondary question: Collectively, through the development of suggested response protocols, and individually, through actual response methods, are IAQ professionals focusing on conditions that present the greatest health risks? This question was answered by reviewing the recommended protocols established by standard-setting organizations. In addition, IAQ professionals were questioned about their specific practices. The study concluded that there is a valid concern over IAQ for some substances. The highest levels of risk are generally associated with exposures to volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde and 1...

Poluição do ar interior provocada pelo fumo do cigarro em locais públicos de Portugal; Indoor air pollution caused by cigarette smoke in public places in Portugal

Precioso, José; Lopez, Maria José; Calheiros, José M; Macedo, Manuel; Ariza, Carles; Sanchez, Francesca; Schiaffino, Anna; Fernández, Esteve; Nebot, Manel
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2007 POR
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OBJETIVO: Poucos têm sido os estudos para conhecer o grau de poluição pelo fumo do tabaco a que estão sujeitas as pessoas em vários lugares públicos e privados. O objectivo do estudo foi quantificar o nível de poluição do ar provocada pelo fumo do cigarro em locais de trabalho e de lazer. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no concelho de Braga, Portugal, em 2005. A medição dos teores de nicotina no ar interior foi realizada com monitores passivos contendo um filtro de 37 mm de diâmetro tratado com bissulfato sódico no seu interior. Os monitores foram colocados em lugares públicos, de trabalho e de lazer, pré-definidos. Para cada um dos locais, calculou-se a mediana da nicotina. RESULTADOS: A presença de nicotina foi detectada em 85% das amostras. Foram encontrados valores elevados de contaminação do ar nas discotecas, com mediana de 82,26 µg/m³, variando entre os 5,79 e os 106,31 µg/m³.Os locais de trabalho da administração pública e da universidade apresentaram os valores mais baixos de nicotina. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados confirmam a necessidade de reforçar a implemen-tação e sobretudo, o cumprimento de políticas sem fumo nos locais de trabalho e de lazer, em benefício da saúde dos trabalhadores e como medida reforçadora de um ambiente que facilite aos fumadores o abandono do fumo do tabaco.; OBJECTIVE: There have been few studies investigating the level of cigarette smoke pollution to which people in several public and private places are exposed. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of air pollution produced by cigarette smoking in workplaces and leisure settings. METHODS: The study was carried out in Braga...

The impact of health behaviour change intervention on indoor air pollution indicators in the rural North West Province, South Africa

Barnes,Brendon; Mathee,Angela; Thomas,Elizabeth
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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Indoor air pollution has been associated with a number of health outcomes including child lower respiratory infections such as pneumonia. Behavioural change has been promoted as a potential intervention strategy but very little evidence exists of the impact of such strategies on actual indoor air pollution indicators particularly in poor rural contexts. The aim of this study was to evaluate a community counselling intervention on stationary levels of PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO) as well as CO measured on children younger than five. Using a quasi-experimental design, baseline data was collected in an intervention (n=36) and a control (n=38) community; the intervention was implemented in the intervention community only; and follow-up data was collected one year later amongst the same households. Despite the fact that indoor air pollution was reduced in both communities, the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group when stratified by burning location. The net median reductions associated with the intervention were: PM10=57%, CO=31% and CO (child)=33% amongst households that burned indoor fires. The study provides tentative evidence that a health behaviour change is associated with reductions in child indoor air pollution exposure. The intervention is relatively inexpensive and easy to replicate. However...

Household energy, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in South Africa

Barnes,Brendon; Mathee,Angela; Thomas,Elizabeth; Bruce,Nigel
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
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96.64%
Indoor air pollution due to the indoor burning of polluting fuels has been associated with Acute Lower Respiratory Infections (ALRI) amongst children less than five years old. This paper reviews evidence of the association between household energy, indoor air pollution and child ALRI in South Africa. Studies show evidence consistent with the international literature with the likelihood of ALRI between 2 and 4 amongst children living in households using polluting fuels compared to households using electricity. Indoor air pollution is responsible for the deaths of up to 1 400 children annually. Interventions have demonstrated 46 - 97% lower pollution concentrations compared to open fires. However, the sustainability of selected interventions has been questioned in certain contexts. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence and highlights opportunities for further research.

Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge

Bruce,Nigel; Perez-Padilla,Rogelio; Albalak,Rachel
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.65%
Around 50% of people, almost all in developing countries, rely on coal and biomass in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy. These materials are typically burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Consequently, women and young children are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution every day. There is consistent evidence that indoor air pollution increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and of acute respiratory infections in childhood, the most important cause of death among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. Evidence also exists of associations with low birth weight, increased infant and perinatal mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, cataract, and, specifically in respect of the use of coal, with lung cancer. Conflicting evidence exists with regard to asthma. All studies are observational and very few have measured exposure directly, while a substantial proportion have not dealt with confounding. As a result, risk estimates are poorly quantified and may be biased. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for some 4% of the global burden of disease. Indoor air pollution is a major global public health threat requiring greatly increased efforts in the areas of research and policy-making. Research on its health effects should be strengthened...