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Study of the audio coding algorithm of the MPEG-4 AAC standard and comparison among implementations of modules of the algorithm

Hoffmann, Gustavo André
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.74%
Audio coding is used to compress digital audio signals, thereby reducing the amount of bits needed to transmit or to store an audio signal. This is useful when network bandwidth or storage capacity is very limited. Audio compression algorithms are based on an encoding and decoding process. In the encoding step, the uncompressed audio signal is transformed into a coded representation, thereby compressing the audio signal. Thereafter, the coded audio signal eventually needs to be restored (e.g. for playing back) through decoding of the coded audio signal. The decoder receives the bitstream and reconverts it into an uncompressed signal. ISO-MPEG is a standard for high-quality, low bit-rate video and audio coding. The audio part of the standard is composed by algorithms for high-quality low-bit-rate audio coding, i.e. algorithms that reduce the original bit-rate, while guaranteeing high quality of the audio signal. The audio coding algorithms consists of MPEG-1 (with three different layers), MPEG-2, MPEG-2 AAC, and MPEG-4. This work presents a study of the MPEG-4 AAC audio coding algorithm. Besides, it presents the implementation of the AAC algorithm on different platforms, and comparisons among implementations. The implementations are in C language...

Reusable aspect-oriented implementations of concurrency patterns and mechanisms

Sobral, João Luís Ferreira; Cunha, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Miguel Pessoa
Fonte: ACM Publicador: ACM
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.74%
In this paper, we present a collection of well-known high-level concurrency patterns and mechanisms, coded in AspectJ. We discuss benefits of these implementations relative to plain Java implementations of the same concerns. We detect benefits from using AspectJ in all the cases presented, in the form of higher modularity, reuse, understandability and unpluggability. For most of the implementations, two alternatives can be used: one based on traditional pointcut interfaces and one based on annotations.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - PPC-VM Project POSI/CHS/47158/2002; Project SOFTAS (POSI/EIA/60189/2004).; Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER).

Verifying cryptographic software correctness with respect to reference implementations

Almeida, José Bacelar; Barbosa, Manuel Bernardo; Pinto, Jorge Sousa; Vieira, Bárbara
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
This paper presents techniques developed to check program equivalences in the context of cryptographic software development, where specifications are typically reference implementations. The techniques allow for the integration of interactive proof techniques (required given the difficulty and generality of the results sought) in a verification infrastructure that is capable of discharging many verification conditions automatically. To this end, the difficult results in the verification process (to be proved interactively) are isolated as a set of lemmas. The fundamental notion of natural invariant is used to link the specification level and the interactive proof construction process.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Formal verification of cryptographic software implementations

Vieira, Bárbara
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 25/06/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.74%
Tese de doutoramento em Informática; Security is notoriously difficult to sell as a feature in software products. In addition to meeting a set of security requirements, cryptographic software has to be cheap, fast, and use little resources. The development of cryptographic software is an area with specific needs in terms of software development processes and tools. In this thesis we explore how formal techniques, namely deductive verification techniques, can be used to increase the guarantees that cryptographic software implementations indeed work as prescribed. This thesis is organized in two parts. The first part is focused on the identification of relevant security policies that may be at play in cryptographic systems, as well as the language-based mechanisms that can be used to enforce such policies in those systems. We propose methodologies based on deductive verification to formalise and verify relevant security policies in cryptographic software. We also show the applicability of those methodologies by presenting some case studies using a deductive verification tool integrated in the Frama-c framework. In the second part we propose a deductive verification tool (CAOVerif) for a domainspecific language for cryptographic implementations (CAO). Our aim is to apply the methodologies proposed in the first part of this thesis work to verify the cryptographic implementations written in CAO. The design of CAOVerif follows the same approach used in other scenarios for general-propose languages and it is build on top of a plug-in from the Frama-c framework. At the very end...

A qualitative assessment of modularity in CaesarJ components based on implementations of design patterns

Braz, Sérgio Alexandre Esteves Miranda
Fonte: FCT - UNL Publicador: FCT - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.93%
Tese de Mestrado em Engenharia Informática; The advent of the Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) paradigm brought new features and mechanisms to support the separation of crosscutting concerns, in order to develop programs with higher modularity and consequently, higher reuse. As the paradigm matures, various aspectoriented programming languages appeared that propose varying ways to realize the paradigm’s concepts. CaesarJ is one of those aspect-oriented languages. While the majority of practical studies on AOP languages focused on the AspectJ language, the characteristics of other languages such as CaesarJ remain to be explored. The lack of research on the utilization of CaesarJ in concrete cases leads to the existence of few case studies from which to draw considerations about their strengths and shortcomings. In the past, implementations of design patterns have been used for the demonstration of the characteristics of the programming languages used to implement them. This dissertation follows a similar approach to assess CaesarJ’s support for modularity and reuse by producing CaesarJ design patterns implementations and subjecting those implementations to a qualitative analysis. This dissertation presents CaesarJ implementations of eleven Gang-of-Four pattern that serve as the basis for a qualitative analysis of the modularity degree CaesarJ enables for each pattern. A distinction is made between four levels of module reuse that the implementations support...

Reductionism and complex thinking in ERP systems implementations

Wood Jr,Thomaz; Caldas,Miguel Pinto
Fonte: Associação Nacional dos Programas de Pós-graduação em Administração Publicador: Associação Nacional dos Programas de Pós-graduação em Administração
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.74%
This paper contrasts complex thinking and reductionism during broad organizational transformation processes, focusing on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) rage. ERP implementations have resulted in huge investments for companies around the globe over the last few years, and have been promoted as a management panacea. Not surprisingly, many implementations have failed to live up to expectations. For those dealing with organizational change, the ERP phenomenon may sound uncomfortably familiar. This study introduces the phenomenon, presents a summary of an exploratory field survey of 28 implementation experiences and discusses reductionism in the realm of ERP implementations. It is argued that by applying complex thinking, rather than techno-reductionism and systemic-reductionism, we may open new avenues towards explaining the phenomenon.

Bridging Informatics and Implementation Science: Evaluating a Framework to Assess Electronic Health Record Implementations in Community Settings

Richardson, Joshua E.; Abramson, Erika L.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Kaushal, Rainu;
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.82%
Effective electronic health record (EHR) implementations in community settings are critical to promoting safe and reliable EHR use as well as mitigating provider dissatisfaction that often results. The implementation challenge is compounded given the scale and scope of EHR installations that are occurring and will continue to occur over the next five years. However, when compared to EHR evaluations relatively few biomedical informatics researchers have published on evaluating EHR implementations. Fewer still have evaluated EHR implementations in community settings. We report on the methods we used to achieve a novel application of an implementation science framework in informatics to qualitatively evaluate community-based EHR implementations. We briefly provide an overview of the implementation science framework, our methods for adapting it to informatics, the effects the framework had on our qualitative methods of inquiry and analysis, and discuss its potential value for informatics research.

Comparison between two super-resolution implementations in PET imaging

Chang, Guoping; Pan, Tinsu; Qiao, Feng; Clark, John W.; Mawlawi, Osama R.
Fonte: American Association of Physicists in Medicine Publicador: American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.88%
Super-resolution (SR) techniques are used in PET imaging to generate a high-resolution image by combining multiple low-resolution images that have been acquired from different points of view (POV). In this article, the authors propose a novel implementation of the SR technique whereby the required multiple low-resolution images are generated by shifting the reconstruction pixel grid during the image reconstruction process rather than being acquired from different POVs. The objective of this article is to compare the performances of the two SR implementations using theoretical and experimental studies. A mathematical framework is first provided to support the hypothesis that the two SR implementations have similar performance in current PET/CT scanners that use block detectors. Based on this framework, a simulation study, a point source study, and a NEMA/IEC phantom study were conducted to compare the performance of these two SR implementations with respect to contrast, resolution, noise, and SNR. For reference purposes, a comparison with a native reconstruction (NR) image using a high-resolution pixel grid was also performed. The mathematical framework showed that the two SR implementations are expected to achieve similar contrast and resolution but different noise contents. These results were confirmed by the simulation and experimental studies. The simulation study showed that the two SR implementations have an average contrast difference of 2.3%...

A Comparison of Hardware Implementations for Low-Level Vision Algorithms

Gamble, Ed
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 5442007 bytes; 2098467 bytes; application/postscript; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.74%
Early and intermediate vision algorithms, such as smoothing and discontinuity detection, are often implemented on general-purpose serial, and more recently, parallel computers. Special-purpose hardware implementations of low-level vision algorithms may be needed to achieve real-time processing. This memo reviews and analyzes some hardware implementations of low-level vision algorithms. Two types of hardware implementations are considered: the digital signal processing chips of Ruetz (and Broderson) and the analog VLSI circuits of Carver Mead. The advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches for producing a general, real-time vision system are considered.

Implementation of Atomic Primitives on Distributed Shared Memory Multiprocessors

Michael, Maged M. ; Scott, Michael L. (1959 - )
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Relatório
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.74%
Link to published version: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel2/3040/8763/00386540.pdf?tp=&arnumber=386540&isnumber=8763; In this paper we consider several hardware implementations of the general-purpose atomic primitives fetch_and_Phi, compare_and_swap, load_linked, and store_conditional on large-scale shared-memory multiprocessors. These primitives have proven popular on small-scale bus-based machines, but have yet to become widely available on large-scale, distributed shared memory machines. We propose several alternative hardware implementations of these primitives, and then analyze the performance of these implementations for various data sharing patterns. Our results indicate that good overall performance can be obtained by implementing compare_and_swap in the cache controllers, and by providing an additional instruction to load an exclusive copy of a cache line.

Implementações paralelas para os problemas do fecho transitivo e caminho mínimo APSP na GPU; Parallel implementations for transitive closure and minimum path APSP problems in GPU

Gaioso, Roussian Di Ramos Alves
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Computação (INF); Instituto de Informática - INF (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Computação (INF); Instituto de Informática - INF (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.82%
This paper presents a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) based parallels implementations for the All Pairs Shortest Paths and Transitive Closure problems in graph. The implementations are based on the main sequential algorithms and takes full advantage of the highly multithreaded architecture of current manycore GPUs. Our solutions reduces the communication between CPU and GPU, improves the Streaming Multiprocessors (SMs) utilization, and makes intensive use of coalesced memory access to optimize graph data access. The advantages of the proposed implementations are demonstrated for several graphs randomly generated using the widely known graph library GTgraph. Graphs containing thousands of vertices and different edges densities, varying from sparse to complete graphs, were generated and used in the experiments. Our results confirm that GPU implementations can be competitive even for graph algorithms whose memory accesses and work distribution are both irregular and data-dependent. Keywords; Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq; Este trabalho apresenta implementações paralelas baseadas em Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) para os problemas da identificação dos caminhos mínimos entre todos os pares de vértices e do fecho transitivo em um grafo. As implementações são baseadas nos principais algoritmos sequenciais e tiram o máximo proveito da arquitetura multithreaded das GPUs atuais. Nossa solução reduz a comunicação entre a Central Processing Unit (CPU) e a GPU...

A comparative analysis of the Department of Defense (DoD) passive radio frequency identification (RFID) policy and perspective in terms of site implementations

Meyer, Jacqueline M.; Demirel, Sefa
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.74%
MBA Professional Report; Acquisition research (Graduate School of Business & Public Policy); The purpose of this MBA project is to conduct a comparative analysis of DoDs policy and perspective on passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in terms of site implementations at the Fleet and Industrial Supply Center (FISC), Norfolk, Virginia, Ocean Terminal Division (OTD), and the Defense Distribution Depot San Joaquin (DDJC), California. The FISC, Norfolk, OTD, Container Freight Station has been at the forefront of DoD activities implementing passive RFID and is currently using RFID tags to process all shipments except household goods. DDJC is equipped with RFID readers and the required supporting infrastructure, and has been accepting pallets and cases with passive RFID tags since January 2005. DoD is in the midst of a fundamental transformation of its logistics capabilities, and RFID is becoming an integral element of that transformation with the potential to revolutionize the entire supply chain. On July 30, 2004, the Acting Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics issued a memorandum delineating the final policy and an extensive plan for RFID implementation within DoD. This project will explain DoDs passive RFID policy and perspective and provide observations from the site implementations. Ultimately...

Optoelectronic implementations of Pulse-Coupled Neural Networks : challenges and limitations; Optoelectronic implementations of PCNNs

Wise, Raydiance (Raydiance Raychele)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 79 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.82%
This thesis examines Pulse Coupled Neural Networks (PCNNs) and their applications, and the feasibility of a compact, rugged, cost-efficient optoelectronic implementation. Simulation results are presented. Proposed optical architectures are discussed and analyzed. A new optoelectronic PCNN architecture is also presented. Tradeoffs of optical versus electronic implementations of PCNNs are discussed. This work combines concepts from optical information processing and pulse-coupled neural networks to examine the challenges, limitations, and opportunities of developing an optoelectronic pulse coupled neural network. The analysis finds that, despite advances in optoelectronic technology, fully electronic implementations will still outperform today's proposed optoelectronic implementations in cost, size, flexibility, and ease of implementation.; by Raydiance Wise.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 76-79).

On the Practicality of Atomic MWMR Register Implementations

Georgiou, Chryssis; Nicolaou, Nicolas C.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.88%
Multiple-writer/multiple-reader (MWMR) atomic register implementations provide precise consistency guarantees, in the asynchronous, crash-prone, message passing environment. Fast MWMR atomic register implementations were first introduced in Englert et al. 2009. Fastness is measured in terms of the number of single round read and write operations that does not sacrifice correctness. In Georgiou et al. 2011 was shown, however, that decreasing the communication cost is not enough in these implementations. In particular, considering that the performance is measured in terms of the latency of read and write operations due to both (a) communication delays and (b)local computation, they introduced two new algorithms that traded communication for reducing computation. As computation is still part of the algorithms, someone may wonder: What is the trade-off between communication and local computation in real-time systems? In this work we conduct an experimental performance evaluation of four MWMR atomic register implementations: SFW from Englert et al. 2009, APRX-SFW and CWFR from Georgiou at al. 2011, and the generalization of the traditional algorithm of Attiya et al. 1996 in the MWMR environment, which we call SIMPLE. We implement and evaluate the algorithms on NS2...

Ensemble Kalman Filter Implementations Based on Covariance Matrix Estimation

Nino-Ruiz, Elias D.; Sandu, Adrian
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.93%
This paper develops efficient ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) implementations based on shrinkage covariance estimation. The forecast ensemble members at each step are used to estimate the background error covariance matrix via the Rao-Blackwell Ledoit and Wolf estimator, which has been developed specifically developed to approximate high-dimensional covariance matrices using a small number of samples. Additional samples are taken from the normal distribution described by the background ensemble mean and the estimated background covariance matrix in order to increase the size of the ensemble and reduce the sampling error of the filter. This increase in the size of the ensemble is obtained without running the forward model. After the assimilation step, the additional samples are discarded and only the initial members are propagated. Two implementations are considered. In the EnKF Full-Space (EnKF-FS) approach the assimilation process is performed in the model space, while the EnKF Reduce-Space (EnKF-RS) formulation performs the analysis in the subspace spanned by the ensemble members. Numerical experiments carried out with a quasi-geostrophic model show that the proposed implementations outperform current methods such as the traditional EnKF formulation...

Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution

Cai, Raymond Y. Q.; Scarani, Valerio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.82%
The lists of bits processed in quantum key distribution are necessarily of finite length. The need for finite-key unconditional security bounds has been recognized long ago, but the theoretical tools have become available only very recently. We provide finite-key unconditional security bounds for two practical implementations of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 coding: prepare-and-measure implementations without decoy states, and entanglement-based implementations. A finite-key bound for prepare-and-measure implementations with decoy states is also derived under a simplified treatment of the statistical fluctuations. The presentation is tailored to allow direct application of the bounds in experiments. Finally, the bounds are also evaluated on a priori reasonable expected values of the observed parameters.; Comment: Typo in eq.(3) corrected

Verifying Chemical Reaction Network Implementations: A Pathway Decomposition Approach

Shin, Seung Woo; Thachuk, Chris; Winfree, Erik
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/11/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.88%
The emerging fields of genetic engineering, synthetic biology, DNA computing, DNA nanotechnology, and molecular programming herald the birth of a new information technology that acquires information by directly sensing molecules within a chemical environment, stores information in molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, processes that information by means of chemical and biochemical transformations, and uses that information to direct the manipulation of matter at the nanometer scale. To scale up beyond current proof-of-principle demonstrations, new methods for managing the complexity of designed molecular systems will need to be developed. Here we focus on the challenge of verifying the correctness of molecular implementations of abstract chemical reaction networks, where operation in a well-mixed "soup" of molecules is stochastic, asynchronous, concurrent, and often involves multiple intermediate steps in the implementation, parallel pathways, and side reactions. This problem relates to the verification of Petri Nets, but existing approaches are not sufficient for certain situations that commonly arise in molecular implementations, such as what we call "delayed choice." We formulate a new theory of pathway decomposition that provides an elegant formal basis for comparing chemical reaction network implementations...

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics in cosmology: a comparative study of implementations

Thacker, R. J.; Tittley, E. R.; Pearce, F. R.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Thomas, P. A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.82%
We analyse the performance of twelve different implementations of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) using seven tests designed to isolate key hydrodynamic elements of cosmological simulations which are known to cause the SPH algorithm problems. In order, we consider a shock tube, spherical adiabatic collapse, cooling flow model, drag, a cosmological simulation, rotating cloud-collapse and disc stability. In the implementations special attention is given to the way in which force symmetry is enforced in the equations of motion. We study in detail how the hydrodynamics are affected by different implementations of the artificial viscosity including those with a shear-correction modification. We present an improved first-order smoothing-length update algorithm that is designed to remove instabilities that are present in the Hernquist and Katz (1989) algorithm. For all tests we find that the artificial viscosity is the most important factor distinguishing the results from the various implementations. The second most important factor is the way force symmetry is achieved in the equation of motion. Most results favour a kernel symmetrization approach. The exact method by which SPH pressure forces are included has comparatively little effect on the results. Combining the equation of motion presented in Thomas and Couchman (1992) with a modification of the Monaghan and Gingold (1983) artificial viscosity leads to an SPH scheme that is both fast and reliable.; Comment: 30 pages...

Methodologies for power analysis attacks on hardware implementations of AES

Smith, Kenneth James
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.88%
Side Channel Attacks (SCA) exploit weaknesses in implementations of cryptographic functions resulting from unintended inputs and outputs such as execution timing, power consumption, electromagnetic radiation, thermal and acoustic emanations. Power Analysis Attacks (PAA) are a type of SCA in which an attacker measures the power consumption of a cryptographic device during normal execution. An attempt is then made to uncover a relationship between the instantaneous power consumption and secret key information. PAAs can be subdivided into Simple Power Analysis (SPA), Differential Power Analysis (DPA), and Correlation Power Analysis (CPA). Many attacks have been documented since PAAs were first described in 1998. But since they often vary significantly, it is difficult to directly compare the vulnerability of the implementations used in each. Research is necessary to identify and develop standard methods of evaluating the vulnerability of cryptographic implementations to PAAs. This thesis defines methodologies for performing PAAs on hardware implementations of AES. The process is divided into identification, extraction, and evaluation stages. The extraction stage is outlined for both simulated power consumption waveforms as well as for waveforms captured from physical implementations. An AES encryption hardware design is developed for the experiment. The hardware design is synthesized with the Synopsys 130-nm CMOS standard cell library. Simulated instantaneous power consumption waveforms are generated with Synopsys PrimeTime PX. Single and multiple-bit DPA attacks are performed on the waveforms. Improvements are applied in order to automate and improve the precision and performance of the system. The attacks on the simulated power waveforms are successful. The correct key byte is identified in 15 of the 16 single-bit attacks after 10...

Large substitution boxes with efficient combinational implementations

Wood, Christopher
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.82%
At a fundamental level, the security of symmetric key cryptosystems ties back to Claude Shannon's properties of confusion and diffusion. Confusion can be defined as the complexity of the relationship between the secret key and ciphertext, and diffusion can be defined as the degree to which the influence of a single input plaintext bit is spread throughout the resulting ciphertext. In constructions of symmetric key cryptographic primitives, confusion and diffusion are commonly realized with the application of nonlinear and linear operations, respectively. The Substitution-Permutation Network design is one such popular construction adopted by the Advanced Encryption Standard, among other block ciphers, which employs substitution boxes, or S-boxes, for nonlinear behavior. As a result, much research has been devoted to improving the cryptographic strength and implementation efficiency of S-boxes so as to prohibit cryptanalysis attacks that exploit weak constructions and enable fast and area-efficient hardware implementations on a variety of platforms. To date, most published and standardized S-boxes are bijective functions on elements of 4 or 8 bits. In this work, we explore the cryptographic properties and implementations of 8 and 16 bit S-boxes. We study the strength of these S-boxes in the context of Boolean functions and investigate area-optimized combinational hardware implementations. We then present a variety of new 8 and 16 bit S-boxes that have ideal cryptographic properties and enable low-area combinational implementations.