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Income Inequality, Illiteracy Rate, and Life Expectancy in Brazil

Messias, Erick
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2003 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2003
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Objectives. The link between income disparities and health has been studied mostly in developed nations. This study assesses the relationship between income disparities and life expectancy in Brazil and measures the impact of illiteracy rates on the association.

Evaluating the Impact of Egyptian Social Fund for Development Programs

Abou-Ali, Hala; El-Azony, Hesham; El-Laithy, Heba; Haughton, Jonathan; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.56%
The Egyptian Social Fund for Development was established in 1991 with a mandate to reduce poverty. Since its inception, it has disbursed about $2.5 billion, of which nearly two-fifths was devoted to supporting microcredit and financing community development and infrastructure. This paper investigates the size of the impact of the Fund s interventions, whether the benefits have been commensurate with the costs, and whether the programs have been targeted successfully to the poor. The core of the impact evaluation applies propensity-score matching to data from the 2004/2005 national Household Income, Expenditure and Consumption Survey. The authors find that Egypt s Social Fund for Development programs have had clear and measurable effects, in the expected direction, for all of the programs considered: educational interventions have reduced illiteracy, health and potable water programs have lowered household spending on health, sanitation interventions have cut household spending on sanitation and lowered poverty...

The Road Not Traveled : Education Reform in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.65%
This report focuses on the economic rather than the social and cultural dimensions of education. Its approach in answering the questions raised is analytical and comparative in nature. Education outcomes in the region are compared with education outcomes in other developing countries. The development impact of investment in education is considered in the context of the large body of literature on the subject. The education reform strategies in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are assessed on the basis of a new analytical framework. Labor market outcomes are evaluated on the basis of how well these markets function, given past reform efforts. The feature of the report is that it covers all levels of instruction, not just basic, secondary, or higher education. Although the primary focus of the report is education, it was important to pay special attention to domestic labor markets and migration. After all, this is where the returns to education are determined and its impact on development made.

World Development Indicators 2006

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
The developing world has made remarkable progress. The number of people living in extreme poverty on less than $1 a day has fallen by about 400 million in the last 25 years. Many more children, particularly girls, are completing primary school. Illiteracy rates have fallen by half in 30 years. And life expectancy is nearly 15 years longer, on average, than it was 40 years ago. The demand for statistics to measure progress and demonstrate the effectiveness of development programs has stimulated growing interest in the production and dissemination of statistics. And not just in the traditional domains of debt, demographics, and national accounts, but in new areas such as biodiversity, information, communications, technology, and measures of government and business performance. In response World Development Indicators (WDI) has continued to grow and change. In 1999 members of the statistical community, recognizing that the production of sound statistics for measuring progress is a global responsibility, established the Partnership in Statistics for Development in the twenty-first century (PARIS21) to strengthen statistical capacity at all levels. In 2000 the United Nations millennium summit called on all countries to work toward a quantified...

What Factors Influence World Literacy? Is Africa Different?

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
Ninety-five percent of the world s illiterate people live in developing countries, and about 70 percent are women. Female illiteracy rates are particularly high in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Niger and Burkina Faso, for example, more than 90 percent of women are illiterate. This paper presents a model of literacy. It shows that the main determinants of worldwide literacy are enrollment rates, average years of schooling of adults, and life expectancy at birth. Income has a weak nonlinear effect, negatively affecting literacy until a threshold level of per-capita income of about $2200 a year is reached and positively affecting literacy thereafter. Finally, African countries do not have a significantly higher literacy rate when controlling for other factors.

Africa : Social and Economic Development Goals - A Progress Report

Mattimore, Angel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
During the 1998 Second Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD II), a set of ambitious poverty reduction and human development goals were established for the Africa region, drawing on and reaffirming commitments made three years earlier at the First TICAD conference and at the United Nation (UN) Social Summit in Copenhagen. The Second TICAD Agenda for Action dealt with three broad areas: social development; economic development; and basic foundations for development (good governance, conflict prevention and post-conflict development). Nine time-bound social and economic development goals form a key part of the agenda: 1) Universal Primary Education (UPE) in Africa by 2015, with 80 percent completion by 2005; 2) halve the 1990 illiteracy rate by 2005, with an emphasis on improving female literacy rates; 3) gender equality in primary and secondary enrollments by 2005; 4) halve the 1990 maternal mortality rate by 2005, and by a further half by 2015; 5) reduce infant and child mortality rates to one-third of their 1990 levels by 2015; 6) universal access to reproductive health services by 2015; 7) halve the number of malnourished people by 2015; 8) safe water and sanitation for 80 percent of the population by 2005; and 9) reduce the number of women living in poverty by two-thirds by 2015.

West Africa : Community Based Natural Resource Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
This has to be accomplished against a background of high illiteracy rates, rapidly growing populations, low and erratic rainfall, inherently infertile soils, and development strategies which have had a strong urban bias. Under such conditions, traditional production systems are unable to sustain the population. Without significant change, land degradation will accelerate and the natural resource base on which agricultural production depends will continue to decline. The efforts made in the 1970s and 1980s to tackle this problem were not particularly successful. They tended to focus too much on production and did not attempt to involve the local population in decision-making and management. Drawing on the lessons learned from these projects, governments, and donors initiated a new generation of community-based, decentralized, multi sectoral Natural Resource Management (NRM) projects. Starting as a series of pilot operations in the late 1980s, this approach sought to ensure local community participation in the identification development and implementation of NRM projects...

Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Egypt Country Report

Hamdy, Amr
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.53%
This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Egypt faces significant challenges in harnessing its education system to promote its development plans. The government has articulated a vision of an information society in which widespread access to technology can nurture human capital, improve government services, promote Egyptian culture, and support economic growth, and the ICT sector has been targeted as a vehicle for this growth and social development. A national ICT policy has been adopted and is managed by the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, of which education is one priority. The Egyptian education initiative, launched by the first lady, is a prominent result.

Education in the Arab World : Shift to Quality in Math, Science and Technology Faltering

Ezzine, Mourad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Impressive results still leave Middle East and North Africa (MENA) with an education gap as compared to the rest of the world. With some exceptions, MENA countries have almost reached full primary education enrollment and increased enrollment in secondary schools almost threefold since 1970, and fivefold at the higher education level. The crowning achievement for the MENA region has been the closing of the education gender gap. Illiteracy rates have also been halved in the past 20 years and the absolute difference between male and female adult literacy rates is declining rapidly. These impressive quantitative achievements have contributed to improving the quality of life for citizens through longer life expectancy, lower fertility and infant mortality rates, and a more cohesive national identity.

Jordan - Poverty Assessment (Vol. 2 of 2) : Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.53%
This report assesses poverty in Jordan in 2002-03, and examines the changes that have occurred since 1997 as a result of economic growth and the income distribution policies of the Government of Jordan. The study concludes that poverty declined in Jordan in that time period, no matter which poverty line one chooses to use, and was made possible with an equally remarkable growth in per capita private consumption, in which the poor participated, at about 3.5 percent a year. The fast rise in private consumption appears to be due to a recovery in consumption trends that is mainly policy driven. The report, however, identifies some concerns about the sustainability of poverty reduction, and recommends that long-term policy focus more on regional imbalances in development; improve access of the poor in education, health, and jobs; plug the leakage in government transfer programs; and institute poverty monitoring systems for timely remedial action.

Diagnostics and Policy Advice for Supporting Roma Inclusion in Romania

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.58%
Romanian Roma families today constitute a large, young, and extremely poor ethnic minority group, facing exclusion from markets and services. Investments in Roma inclusion are essential for Romania to achieve its Europe 2020 social inclusion goals, and the considerable returns on such investments will lay a more solid foundation for achieving sustained, shared prosperity across Romanian society. Therefore, Roma inclusion is not only a moral imperative, but also smart economics for Romania. This report discusses what it will take for Romania to achieve the socioeconomic inclusion of its Roma population. The report identifies the most important socioeconomic achievement gaps of Romanian Roma. It identifies obstacles to Roma inclusion and examines the relevant institutional framework. It draws policy recommendations based on the observed gaps in outcomes and policies, informed by evidence on what works from international experience. These recommendations focus on providing support and enhancing opportunities for the next generation of Roma while helping to improve the living conditions of the current generation. In this context...

Shaping the Future : A Long-Term Perspective of People and Job Mobility in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
The objective of this study is to provide a long-term perspective for the ongoing policy dialogue on the management of labor migration in Europe and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. It is organized as follows. Chapter one puts the report and migration in the context of the economic and social development in MENA countries. Chapter two provides the historical context of MENA migration patterns and an overview of the presence and skill characteristics of migrants in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries today. This chapter also discusses the potential for insourcing, that is, migration of jobs into the region as an alternative or complement to labor migration. Chapter three analyzes the demand and supply framework for migration, the determinants of migration patterns, and the potential demand for labor in the European Union (EU), and the characteristics and trends of MENA labor supply. Chapter four looks to the worldwide impact of demographic and labor force developments in the decades ahead and their implications on labor and job mobility. The chapter analyzes the likely population and labor force growth in Europe and MENA...

Thailand

World Bank Group
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
Over the past two and a half decades, Thailand has made great progress in expanding basic education, closing the gap in attendance between socioeconomic groups, and putting more focus on the quality of education. Building on this progress, it appears that even more can be done to maximize the potential of Thailand’s students to become productive workforce participants. Functional illiteracy can be seen across the various types of schools in Thailand, indicating that there are still system-wide issues affecting the quality of education. Improving educational outcomes among these poorer-performing students can have major impacts at the individual level and for Thailand’s economic growth prospects. Having a workforce with stronger analytical reasoning and problem solving skills - skills that extend well beyond simply being functionally literate - can help Thailand move up the value-added ladder to a more knowledge-based economy. Therefore, addressing the remaining gaps will enable Thailand to improve its competitiveness...

Tracking Basic Education Expenditure in Yemen : Analyses of Public Resource Management and Teacher Absenteeism

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.63%
Yemen faces significant challenges in expanding access and promoting quality for improved educational outcomes. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative methods to provide recommendations for tracking public expenditure and improving service delivery in the basic education sector in Yemen. To this end, it documents the management of public resources in Yemen's education sector and potential inefficiencies in the use of these resources. This report, through its various components, revealed significant impediments-teacher deployment and salary payment, materials provision, student and teacher attendance, among others-on the path to improving education service delivery in Yemen. This study examines four main research issues related to Yemen's education sector: 1) leakage in the flow of funds, 2) compliance with financial management standards, 3) incentives to provide better quality services, and 4) teacher management issues. The study investigates the disparities and inconsistencies between formal regulations and informal practices in teacher deployment, wage payments, and resource allocations to schools. The study explores how absenteeism correlates with a wide range of potential determinants of the quality of education at the individual...

Pakistan Development Policy Review : A New Dawn?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
This Development Policy Review describes, and evaluates the Government of Pakistan's policies, in six critical areas : governance, investing in people, macroeconomic sustainability, the financial sector, the investment climate for the private sector, and, agriculture and irrigation. Governance reforms are aimed at addressing four major issues: devolution, civil service reform, reduction of corruption and improvement of financial management, and institutionalizing realistic budget processes. On investing in people, the social gap (reinforced by gender discrepancies) show high illiteracy, and ill-health rates, which limits the possibilities for economic growth. To this end, spending commitments prioritize on social sectors, and effective service delivery. As for macroeconomic sustainability, the unsustainable public debt poses a serious problem, exacerbated by defense spending, which diminishes development expenditure. This challenges the move of public debt dynamics towards improving the investment climate...

African Development Indicators 2004

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: World Development Indicators
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
This year's edition of the World Bank publication, African Development Indicators (ADI) 2004, depicts a diverse picture of development in Africa, with several countries making remarkable progress and others lagging seriously behind. ADI 2004 presents data for more than 500 indicators of development for 53 countries. Thirteen Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries averaged more than 5 percent growth for the period 1995-2002, but many others saw their economies contract, usually as a result of severe civil conflict and adverse weather conditions. The region's economic growth slowed in 2002 to 2.8 percent, slightly down from 2.9 percent in 2001. Net foreign direct investment flows continued on a rising trend and reached $8.9 billion in 2002. These continued to be heavily concentrated in oil exporting countries and South Africa. The increase in official aid to the region fell far below the levels required to put a significant dent on poverty or achieve the MDGs. Debt relief is playing a larger role in Africa's resource picture...

Nicaragua : Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
Nicaragua is a small, open economy that is vulnerable to external and natural shocks. With an estimated Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of US$1000 in 2006, and a total population of 5.2 million, it is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Forty six percent of the population lived below the poverty line in 2005 (while 15 percent lived in extreme poverty), and the incidence of poverty is more than twice as high in rural areas (68 percent) than in urban areas (29 percent). Nicaragua's social indicators also rank among the lowest in the region, commensurate with its relatively low per capita income level. Nicaragua's long-term development vision is set out in its National Development Plan (NDP), 2005-2009, which gives greater importance to economic growth than the strategy document that preceded it. This also serves as its second Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS). The goals of the PRS incorporate the MDGs, and establish medium (2006-2010) to long term targets (2015). By 2005, the country had made satisfactory progress on meeting the PRS/MDG targets for reducing extreme poverty...

Is Functional Literacy a Prerequisite for Entering the Labor Market? An Analysis of Determinants of Adults Literacy and Earnings in Ghana

Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
The authors analyze the determinants of literacy and earnings in Ghana. They link literacy and earnings with various other factors, including age, gender, family educational background, distance to school, and income. Literacy and age are negatively correlated, suggesting that efforts to strengthen the supply and quality of basic education programs in recent years have succeeded in raising literacy rates. Parents' education is positively associated with literacy. Distance to the nearest primary school, residence in a rural area, and poverty are negatively associated with literacy. Functional literacy appears to be a prerequisite for entering the labor market, which may partly explain the lack of returns to education other than middle school and technical and professional training. The policy implications of this study: Basic education and literacy programs should target girls and poorer households, especially in rural areas.

Mexico : Determinants of Learning Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Education Sector Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
This report aims to identify the determinants of learning in Mexico, focusing on equity, cross-country comparisons and national studies. The present report provides new analytical work on the determinants of learning using international and national assessments, as well as new work on the returns to quality of education and an assessment of media coverage of international assessments. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 reviews the existing international and Mexican literature on education quality and the determinants of learning. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the state of education in Mexico. Chapter 3 discusses the analysis of the National Assessments (Estandures Nacionales) from 1998 to 2000 and the results of the analysis of PISA 2000 and PISA 2003 data. Finally, Chapter 4 concludes the main report with an agenda for action, which responds to the education situation in Mexico. The report's main message is that Mexico needs to increase secondary school enrollment rates. The country continues to do well at maintaining equity in terms of the impact of family background on scores and the very low dispersion between top and bottom achievers, which is unusual for a Latin American country participating in international achievement tests. To improve quality...

Education and Its Poverty-Reducing Effects: The Case of Paraiba, Brazil

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
Breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty requires far-reaching actions in the education sector. Widespread poverty affects both students' performance and their availability to attend school. Low-quality education leads to low income, which in turn perpetuates poverty. Furthermore, low levels of education affect growth though low labor productivity. Although Paraiba, Brazil suffers from a history of educational neglect, the state has recently made significant gains in primary enrollment; 93 percent of the children aged 7-14 are enrolled in school. However, 30 percent of the population aged 15 and older are illiterate and, unfortunately, it is not only the older generations that cannot read and write: 15 percent of children aged 10 to 15 are illiterate. However, substantial achievements in education have helped the extremely poor segment of population as much as expected. Probit analyses reveal that education attainment is the single most important poverty-reducing factor. All levels of education from primary to tertiary are significant and negatively associated with the probability of being poor.