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The Role of Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Control of Hypercholesterolemia in Rats

SALGADO, Jocelem Mastrodi; OLIVEIRA, Anderson Giovanni Candido de; MANSI, Debora Niero; DONADO-PESTANA, Carlos M.; BASTOS, Candido Ricardo; MARCONDES, Fernanda Klein
Fonte: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC Publicador: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Cardiovascular disease is a serious public health problem; it is the first cause of death in Brazil and in developed countries. Thus, it is essential to search for alternative sources such as some functional foods to prevent and control the risks of this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipidemic parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats fed diets containing black rice variety IAC 600 or unrefined rice. Adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinos) were used, weighing about 200-220 g. The animals were divided into four groups: the first received a control casein diet, the second received hypercholesterolemic diet, and the other two groups, after induction of hypercholesterolemia, received the test diets, the first containing 20% black rice and the second 20% unrefined, for 30 days. It was observed that diet containing black rice reduced the level of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein. For high-density lipoprotein values, the diet that provided an increase in the levels was the black rice. The diet containing black rice was more effective in controlling the lipidemia in rats compared with the whole rice diet.

Severe Periodontitis Is Associated With Diastolic Blood Pressure Elevation in Individuals With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Pilot Study

VIEIRA, Carolina L. Z.; CURY, Patricia R.; MINAME, Marcio H.; MARTINEZ, Lilton R.; BORTOLOTTO, Luiz A.; GIULIANO, Isabela B.; SANTOS, Raul D.; CARAMELLI, Bruno
Fonte: AMER ACAD PERIODONTOLOGY Publicador: AMER ACAD PERIODONTOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Background: This pilot study evaluates the association of severe periodontitis with pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT), and clinical, metabolic, and atherogenic inflammatory markers in 79 subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hFH). All subjects were free of previous vascular disease manifestations. Methods: The body mass index (in kilograms per square meter), plasma lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein, and white blood cell counts were evaluated. After full-mouth periodontal examinations, patients were categorized into the severe periodontitis group (SPG) or non-severe periodontitis group (NSPG). Results: The SPG showed significantly higher values of cholesterol-year scores, triglycerides, glucose, PWV, IMT, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P <= 0.05) than the NSPG. After adjustment for traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, only the association between severe periodontitis and DBP (odds ratio: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 8.5; P = 0.03) was confirmed. Conclusion: In individuals with hFH, severe periodontitis was associated with a higher DBP, which suggests that severe periodontitis, itself, may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk profile in this population. J Periodontol 2011;82:683-688.; National Council for Scientific and Technological Development...

Evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis by computed tomography coronary angiography and its association with risk factors in familial hypercholesterolemia

MINAME, Marcio H.; II, Mario S. Ribeiro; PARGA FILHO, Jose; AVILA, Luis F.; BORTOLOTTO, Luiz A.; MARTINEZ, Lilton R. C.; ROCHITTE, Carlos E.; SANTOS, Raul D.
Fonte: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Background: Increasing age and cholesterol levels, male gender, and family history of early coronary heart disease (CHD) are associated with early onset of CHD in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Objective: Assess subclinical atherosclerosis by computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and its association with clinical and laboratorial parameters in asymptomatic FH subjects. Methods: 102 FH subjects (36% male, 45 +/- 13 years, LDL-c 280 +/- 54 mg/dL) and 35 controls (40% male, 46 +/- 12 years, LDL-c 103 +/- 18 mg/dL) were submitted to CTCA. Plaques were divided into calcified, mixed and non-calcified; luminal stenosis was characterized as >50% obstruction. Results: FH had a greater atherosclerotic burden represented by higher number of patients with: plaques (48% vs. 14%, p = 0.0005), stenosis (19% vs. 3%, p = 0.015), segments with plaques (2.05 +/- 2.85 vs. 0.43 +/- 1.33, p = 0.0016) and calcium scores (55 perpendicular to 129 vs. 38 perpendicular to 140, p = 0.0028). After multivariate analysis, determinants of plaque presence were increasing age (OR = 2.06, for age change of 10 years, CI95%: 1.38-3.07, p < 0.001) and total cholesterol (OR = 1.86, for cholesterol change by 1 standard deviation, CI95%: 1.09-3.15, p = 0.027). Coronary calcium score was associated with the presence of stenosis (OR = 1.54; CI95%: 1.27-1.86...

No correlation and low agreement of imaging and inflammatory atherosclerosis` markers in familial hypercholesterolemia

MARTINEZ, Lilton R. C.; MINAME, Marcio H.; BORTOLOTTO, Luiz A.; CHACRA, Ana P. M.; ROCHITTE, Carlos E.; SPOSITO, Andrei C.; SANTOS, Raul D.
Fonte: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Our purpose was to study the determinants of coronary and carotid subclinical atherosclerosis, aortic stiffness and their relation with inflammatory biomarkers in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) subjects. Furthermore, we evaluated the agreement degree of imaging and inflammatory markers` severity used for coronary heart disease (CHD) prediction. Coronary calcium scores (CCS), carotid intima media thickness (IMT), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), C reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells count (WBC) were determined in 89 FH patients (39 +/- 14 years, mean LDL-C=279 mg/dl) and in 31 normal subjects (NL). The following values were considered as imaging and biomarkers` severity: CCS > 75th% for age and sex, IMT > 900 mu m, PWV > 12 m/s, and CRP > 3 mg/l. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) prevalence and severity, IMT, PWV and WBC values were higher in FH than in NL (all parameters, p < 0.05). After multivariate analysis, the following variables were considered independent determinants of (1) IMT: systolic blood pressure, 10-year CHD risk by Framingham risk scores (FRS) and apolipoprotein B (r(2)=0.33); (2) PWV: age (r(2)=0.35); (3) CAC as a continuous variable: male gender and LDL-cholesterol year score (LYS) (r(2)=0.32); (4) presence of CAC as dichotomous variable: FRS (p=0.0027) and LYS (p=0.0228). With the exception of a moderate agreement degree between IMT and PWV severity (kappa=0.5) all other markers had only a slight agreement level (kappa < 0.1). In conclusion...

CYP3A5*3A allele is associated with reduced lowering-lipid response to atorvastatin in individuals with hypercholesterolemia

WILLRICH, Maria Alice V.; HIRATA, Mario H.; GENVIGIR, Fabiana D. V.; ARAZI, Simone S.; REBECCHI, Ivanise M. M.; RODRIGUES, Alice C.; Bernik, Marcia Martins Silveira; DOREA, Egidio Lima; BERTOLAMI, Marcelo C.; FALUDI, Andre A.; HIRATA, Rosario D. C.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Background: The cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A5 (CYP3A5) has an important role on biotransformation of xenobiotics. CYP3A5 SNPs have been associated with variations on enzyme activity that can modify the metabolism of several drugs. Methods: In order to evaluate the influence of CYP3A5 variants on response to lowering-cholesterol drugs, 139 individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected. After a wash-out period of 4 weeks, individuals were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks). Genomic DNA was extracted by a salting-out procedure. CYP3A5*3C, CYP3A5*6 and CYP3A5*1D were analyzed by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. Results: >Frequencies of the CYP3A5*3C and CYP3A5*1D alleles were lower in individuals of African descent (*3C: 47.8% and *1D: 55.2%) than in non-Africans (*3C: 84.9% and *1D 84.8%, p<0.01). Non-Africans carrying *3A allele (*3C and *1D combined alleles) had lower total and LDL-cholesterol response to atorvastatin than non-*3A allele carriers (p<0.05). Conclusion: CYP3A5*3A allele is associated with reduced cholesterol-lowering response to atorvastatin in non-African individuals. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; FAPESP[2000/12224-0]; FAPESP[2003/02086-8]; CNPq, Brasilia, DF, Brazil

As bases moleculares das hipercolesterolemias familiares no Brasil: o Rio Grande do Sul; The molecular bases of the familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul.

Werutsky, Carlos Alberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/10/2006 PT
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A hipercolesterolemia familiar (HF) é uma doença autossômica dominante causada por mutações no gene do receptor de LDL (LDLR) (cromossomo 19p13.1 - p13.3), que alteram parcialmente ou totalmente a função do LDLR. A HF é também uma das doenças genéticas mais comuns com freqüências estimadas de heterozigotos e homozigotos de 1/500 e 1/1.000.000, respectivamente. Manifesta-se com altos níveis de LDL colesterol, arco corneal, xantomas tendíneos e sintomas prematuros de doença coronariana.. A grande heterogeneidade observada na manifestação clínica desta doença pode ser explicada, ao menos parcialmente, pelo amplo espectro de mutações no gene do LDLR. O presente estudo teve por objetivo a caracterização molecular do gene LDLR em pacientes com HF do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. Para isso, foram obtidas amostras de DNA de 40 indivíduos provenientes de cinco macrorregiões do Estado, representando seis diferentes populações de ascendência européia, para a realização do seqüenciamento direto do gene do LDLR, com posterior análise por meio das ferramentas de bioinformática. Quinze mutações pontuais foram identificadas no gene do LDLR, a saber: c.408C>T (D115D), c.1616C>T (P518L), c.1773C>T (N570N) e c.2243A>G (D727G) na região codificadora...

Relação entre doenças periodontais e aterosclerose subclínica em indivíduos com hipercolesterolemia familiar; Association between periodontitis and subclinical atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolemia individuals

Vieira, Carolina Letícia Zilli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2009 PT
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Introdução: A periodontite é uma doença inflamatória caracterizada clinicamente pela destruição dos tecidos de suporte dental. Apresenta etiologia multifatorial, sendo a principal causa o acúmulo de bactérias patogênicas na superfície dentária. A periodontite tem sido associada ao avanço da aterosclerose. Os indivíduos portadores da hipercolesterolemia familiar apresentam o desenvolvimento precoce da doença aterosclerótica devido à exposição crônica a níveis altos de colesterol total e LDL-colesterol. Não existem estudos que analisem a associação entre a infecção periodontal e aterosclerose subclínica nessa população. Objetivo: Este trabalho analisou a relação entre a aterosclerose, coronariana, carotídea e/ou aórtica, e a doença periodontal em indivíduos com hipercolesterolemia familiar e em controles presumidamente sem a doença. Métodos: Foram incluídos 82 indivíduos com diagnóstico de hipercolesterolemia familiar pelo critério do U.S. MEDPED e 31 indivíduos saudáveis como grupo controle. A calcificação arterial coronariana foi avaliada por tomografia computadorizada e a medida realizada pelo método de Agatston. O espessamento médio-intimal carotídeo e o diâmetro da artéria carótida comum direita foram determinados por ultrassom pulsátil tipo echotracking. A rigidez arterial foi medida por meio da velocidade das ondas de pulso. Todos os indivíduos responderam a um questionário estruturado e foram submetidos à avaliação periodontal. A sondagem periodontal dos dentes foi realizada em seis sítios por dente em cada paciente. Dados sobre inflamação gengival...

A hipercolesterolemia abole o efeito cardioprotetor do pré e pós-condicionamento isquêmico em um modelo experimental de isquemia e reperfusão em ratos; Hypercholesterolemia abolishes the cardioprotective effect of ischemic pre and postconditioning in an experimental model of ischemia and reperfusion in rats

Landim, Maurício Batista Paes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/11/2009 PT
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O pré e pós-condicionamento isquêmico são fenômenos cardioprotetores que limitam o dano tecidual no infarto agudo do miocárdio. Seus efeitos benéficos ocorrem através da ativação de complexas vias sinalizadoras intracelulares, que têm a inibição da formação do poro de transição de permeabilidade mitocondrial como efetor final comum. A presença de fatores de risco, como a hipercolesterolemia, pode interferir nos resultados finais quando se lança mão de tais medidas cardioprotetoras. Entretanto, há na literatura achados contraditórios que não mostram interferência do colesterol elevado sobre a cardioproteção do pré-condicionamento isquêmico. No pós-condicionamento isquêmico, mais recentemente descrito, as primeiras evidências também mostram resultados conflitantes, que carecem de mais estudos. A baixa disponibilidade do óxido nítrico presente na hipercolesterolemia está associada a níveis elevados de dimetilarginina assimétrica, um inibidor da óxido nítrico sintetase, e pode ser o responsável por abolir os benefícios de ambas as medidas cardioprotetoras aqui estudadas. Procuramos, neste trabalho, avaliar a influência da hipercolesterolemia sobre o pré e pós-condicionamento isquêmico, e correlacionar os níveis de colesterol total e dimetilarginina assimétrica com o tamanho do infarto do miocárdio experimental em ratos anestesiados. Nós encontramos um maior tamanho do infarto nos animais hipercolesterolêmicos apesar do uso destas medidas cardioprotetoras.; Ischemic pre and postconditioning are cardioprotective phenomena that limit heart tissue damage in acute myocardial infarction. Its beneficial effects occur through the activation of complex intracellular signaling pathways...

Avaliação da aterosclerose subclínica coronariana e carotídea em portadores de hipercolesterolemia familiar: análise pela angiotomografia coronária, rigidez arterial e espessura íntima-média carotídea; Assessment of coronary and carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: analysis by computed tomography coronary angiography, arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness

Miname, Márcio Hiroshi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/08/2010 PT
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A hipercolesterolemia familiar (HF) é uma doença autossômica dominante caracterizada por níveis elevados de LDL-c e doença arterial coronária (DAC) precoce. Existem evidências de maior prevalência de aterosclerose subclínica nesta população avaliada pelo escore de cálcio (CAC) e pela espessura íntima-média carotídea (EIMC). O objetivo do nosso estudo foi avaliar aterosclerose subclínica por meio da angiotomografia de coronárias em portadores de HF sem aterosclerose manifesta, correlacionando os achados com parâmetros clínicos, laboratoriais, rigidez aórtica e carotídea e com a EIMC. Incluímos 102 HFs, (45±13 anos, 36% homens, LDL-c 280±54mg/dL) e 35 controles (46±12 anos, 40% homens, LDL-c 103±18mg/dL). O grupo HF apresentava maior carga de placa aterosclerótica representado por: maior número de pacientes com placa (48% versus 14%, p=0,0005), maior número de pacientes com estenose luminal acima de 50% (19% versus 3%, p=0,015), maior número total de segmentos com placas (2,0±2,8 versus 0,4±1,3, p=0,0016), maior número de segmentos com placas calcificadas (0,8±1,54 versus 0,11±0,67, p= 0,0044) e maior escore de cálcio pelo método de Agatston (55±129, mediana:0 versus 38±140, mediana:0; p=0,0028). Houve correlação positiva no grupo HF do número total de segmentos com placa com: idade (r=0...

Avaliação do efeito do extrato aquoso e da fração fenólica livre do Alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) sobre o estado antioxidante e o perfil lipídico em ratos com hipercolesterolemia induzida pela dieta; Evaluation of the effect of aqueous extract and free phenolic fraction from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on antioxidant status and lipid profile in rats with hypercholesterolemia induced by diet

Afonso, Milessa da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/07/2010 PT
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A hipercolesterolemia é considerada um importante fator de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares, já que a hiperlipidemia associada ao estresse oxidativo é um dos fatores para estabelecimento destas doenças. Neste contexto, antioxidantes presentes em alimentos como vitaminas, compostos fenólicos, entre outros têm recebido crescente atenção devido sua função quimiopreventiva contra danos oxidativos. O alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) é um membro da família Labiatae, cujas propriedades antioxidantes têm sido atribuídas a uma variedade de compostos fenólicos capazes de finalizar as reações de radicais livres e varrer as espécies reativas de oxigênio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade antioxidante in vitro dos extratos e frações de ácidos fenólicos obtidos das folhas de alecrim e seu efeito sobre ratos com hipercolesterolemia induzida pela dieta suplementada com 0,50% de colesterol e 0,25% de ácido cólico. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os extratos quanto as frações apresentaram altos teores de compostos fenólicos totais e expressiva atividade antioxidante in vitro nos métodos de cooxidação de substratos β-caroteno/ácido linoleico e na varredura do radical DPPH. No ensaio in vivo...

Metabolismo de quilomícrons e aterosclerose subclínica em portadores de hipercolesterolemia familiar heterozigótica; Chylomicrons metabolism and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

Carneiro, Marcia Maria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2011 PT
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36.85%
A hipercolesterolemia familiar (HF) é uma doença caracterizada por elevadas concentrações do colesterol das lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL) e doença coronariana (DAC) prematura. Os remanescentes de quilomícrons são removidos principalmente pelo seu receptor específico (RLP), mas também pelo receptor da LDL. Este último encontra-se defeituoso na maior parte dos casos de HF e poderia levar a menor remoção plasmática dos quilomícrons. Há controvérsias se existem distúrbios do metabolismo dos quilomícrons em portadores de HF. Mais ainda não se sabe se estes defeitos poderiam contribuir para o desenvolvimento de DAC na HF. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se portadores de HF apresentam defeitos na remoção plasmática de quilomícrons artificiais e seus remanescentes em relação a indivíduos normolipidêmicos. Foi avaliado também em estudo transversal se existe associação da cinética dos quilomícrons com a presença de DAC subclínica medida pela calcificação da artéria coronária (CAC). Foram estudados 36 pacientes portadores de HF e 50 controles normolipidêmicos pareados para idade e sexo. A remoção plasmática dos quilomícrons foi medida pelo decaimento radioisotópico da emulsão de quilomícrons artificiais injetada após jejum. A CAC foi determinada por tomografia computadorizada cardíaca nos portadores de HF. As taxas fracionais de remoção (TFR) dos quilomícrons e de seus remanescentes representadas pelo decaimento do 14C-éster de colesterol (TFR 14C-CE em min-1) foram menores nos portadores de HF em comparação aos normolipidêmicos: mediana (intervalos) 0...

Protective effect of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia

Arruzazabala,M.L.; Noa,M.; Menéndez,R.; Más,R.; Carbajal,D.; Valdés,S.; Molina,V.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2000 EN
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Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols purified from sugar cane wax, with cholesterol-lowering effects demonstrable in experimental models and in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. The protective effects of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions experimentally induced by lipofundin in rabbits and rats and spontaneously developed in stumptail monkeys have been described. The present study was conducted to determine whether policosanol administered orally to rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia also protects against the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Male New Zealand rabbits weighing 1.5 to 2 kg were randomly divided into three experimental groups which received 25 or 200 mg/kg policosanol (N = 7) orally for 60 days with acacia gum as vehicle or acacia gum alone (control group, N = 9). All animals received a cholesterol-rich diet (0.5%) during the entire period. Control animals developed marked hypercholesterolemia, macroscopic lesions and arterial intimal thickening. Intima thickness was significantly less (32.5 ± 7 and 25.4 ± 4 µm) in hypercholesterolemic rabbits treated with policosanol than in controls (57.6 ± 9 µm). In most policosanol-treated animals, atherosclerotic lesions were not present...

Relationship of Lifestyle Medical Advice and Non-HDL Cholesterol Control of a Nationally Representative US Sample with Hypercholesterolemia by Race/Ethnicity

Vaccaro, Joan A.; Huffman, Fatma G.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Objective. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of lifestyle medical advice and non-HDL cholesterol control of a nationally representative US sample of adults with hypercholesterolemia by race/ethnicity. Methods. Data were collected by appending sociodemographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data from two cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Survey (2007-2008 and 2009-2010). This study acquired data from male and female adults aged ≥ 20 years (N = 11,577), classified as either Mexican American (MA), (), other Hispanic (OH) (), Black non-Hispanic (BNH) (), or White non-Hispanic (WNH) (). Results. Minorities were more likely to report having received dietary, weight management, and exercise recommendations by healthcare professionals than WNH, adjusting for confounders. Approximately 80% of those receiving medical advice followed the recommendation, regardless of race/ethnicity. Of those who received medical advice, reporting “currently controlling or losing weight” was associated with lower non-HDL cholesterol. BNH who reported “currently controlling or losing weight” had higher non-HDL cholesterol than WNH who reported following the advice. Conclusion. The results suggest that current methods of communicating lifestyle advice may not be adequate across race/ethnicity and that a change in perspective and delivery of medical recommendations for persons with hypercholesterolemia is needed.

A genetic variant in the LDLR promoter is responsible for part of the LDL-cholesterol variability in primary hypercholesterolemia

Castro Orós, Isabel de; Pérez López, Javier; Mateo Gallego, Rocío; Rebollar González, Soraya; Ledesma Fuentes, Marta; León Latrea, Montserrat; Cofán Pujol, Montserrat; Casasnovas Lenguas, José A.; Ros Rahola, Emilio; Rodríguez Rey, José Carlos;
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
ENG
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BACKGROUND: GWAS have consistently revealed that LDLR locus variability influences LDL-cholesterol in general population. Severe LDLR mutations are responsible for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, most primary hypercholesterolemias are polygenic diseases. Although Cis-regulatory regions might be the cause of LDL-cholesterol variability; an extensive analysis of the LDLR distal promoter has not yet been performed. We hypothesized that genetic variants in this region are responsible for the LDLR association with LDL-cholesterol found in GWAS. METHODS: Four-hundred seventy-seven unrelated subjects with polygenic hypercholesterolemia (PH) and without causative FH-mutations and 525 normolipemic subjects were selected. A 3103 pb from LDLR (-625 to +2468) was sequenced in 125 subjects with PH. All subjects were genotyped for 4 SNPs (rs17242346, rs17242739, rs17248720 and rs17249120) predicted to be potentially involved in transcription regulation by in silico analysis. EMSA and luciferase assays were carried out for the rs17248720 variant. Multivariable linear regression analysis using LDL-cholesterol levels as the dependent variable were done in order to find out the variables that were independently associated with LDL-cholesterol. RESULTS: The sequencing of the 125 PH subjects did not show variants with minor allele frequency ≥ 10%. The T-allele from g.3131C > T (rs17248720) had frequencies of 9% (PH) and 16.4% (normolipemic)...

Portuguese Familial Hypercholesterolemia Study: presentation of the study and preliminary results

Bourbon, M.; Rato, Q.; Investigadores do Estudo Português de Hipercolesterolemia Familiar
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/11/2006 POR
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Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused, in the majority of cases, by a partial or total lack of functional low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). Mutations in the LDLR gene lead to increased plasma cholesterol levels, resulting in cholesterol deposition in the arteries, thereby increasing the risk of premature coronary heart disease. The homozygous form of FH is rare but heterozygous FH is common, although underdiagnosed in many populations, including the Portuguese. In 1999 the Portuguese Familial Hypercholesterolemia Study was begun at the National Institute of Health.

Relationship of Lifestyle Medical Advice and Non-HDL Cholesterol Control of a Nationally Representative US Sample with Hypercholesterolemia by Race/Ethnicity

Vaccaro, Joan A.; Huffman, Fatma G.
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Objective. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of lifestyle medical advice and non-HDL cholesterol control of a nationally representative US sample of adults with hypercholesterolemia by race/ethnicity. Methods. Data were collected by appending sociodemographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data from two cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Survey (2007-2008 and 2009-2010). This study acquired data from male and female adults aged ≥ 20 years (N = 11,577), classified as either Mexican American (MA), (), other Hispanic (OH) (), Black non-Hispanic (BNH) (), or White non-Hispanic (WNH) (). Results. Minorities were more likely to report having received dietary, weight management, and exercise recommendations by healthcare professionals than WNH, adjusting for confounders. Approximately 80% of those receiving medical advice followed the recommendation, regardless of race/ethnicity. Of those who received medical advice, reporting “currently controlling or losing weight” was associated with lower non-HDL cholesterol. BNH who reported “currently controlling or losing weight” had higher non-HDL cholesterol than WNH who reported following the advice. Conclusion. The results suggest that current methods of communicating lifestyle advice may not be adequate across race/ethnicity and that a change in perspective and delivery of medical recommendations for persons with hypercholesterolemia is needed.

The Lebanese mutation as an important cause of familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil

Alberto,F.L.; Figueiredo,M.S.; Zago,M.A.; Araújo,A.G.; Dos-Santos,J.E.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1999 EN
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Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal disorder that affects about one in 500 individuals in most Western populations and is caused by a defect in the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) gene. In this report we determined the molecular basis of FH in 59 patients from 31 unrelated Brazilian families. All patients were screened for the Lebanese mutation, gross abnormalities of the LDLr gene, and the point mutation in the codon 3500 of the apolipoprotein B-100 gene. None of the 59 patients presented the apoB-3500 mutation, suggesting that familial defective ApoB-100 (FDB) is not a major cause of inherited hypercholesterolemia in Brazil. A novel 4-kb deletion in the LDLr gene, spanning from intron 12 to intron 14, was characterized in one family. Both 5' and 3' breakpoint regions were located within Alu repetitive sequences, which are probably involved in the crossing over that generated this rearrangement. The Lebanese mutation was detected in 9 of the 31 families, always associated with Arab ancestry. Two different LDLr gene haplotypes were demonstrated in association with the Lebanese mutation. Our results suggest the importance of the Lebanese mutation as a cause of FH in Brazil and by analogy the same feature may be expected in other countries with a large Arab population...

Plasma insulin levels predict the development of atherosclerosis when IRS2 deficiency is combined with severe hypercholesterolemia in apolipoprotein E-null mice

González-Navarro, Herminia; Vila-Caballer, Marian; Pastor, María Francisca; Vinué, Ángela; White, Morris F.; Burks, Deborah J.; Andrés, Vicente
Fonte: Frontiers in Bioscience Publications Publicador: Frontiers in Bioscience Publications
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 361905 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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This is an, un-copyedited, author manuscript that has been accepted for publication in the Frontiers in Bioscience; Atherosclerosis is increased in type 2 diabetic patients but the precise mechanisms underlying this predisposition remain vague. Mice deficient for insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) develop type 2-like diabetes and thus, provide a model to explore the molecular connection between deranged carbohydrate metabolism and atherosclerosis. To explore the relationship between defective insulin signalling and atherosclerosis, we have examined the development of atherosclerosis in the following groups of fat-fed mice: wild-type, diabetic Irs2-null (Irs2-/-), atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-null (apoE-/-), and doubly-deficient apoE-/-Irs2-/-. Surprisingly, glucose levels of apoE-/-Irs2-/- mice were comparable to those seen in wild-type and apoE-/- and significantly lower than in Irs2-/- mice. Irs2-/- and apoE-/-Irs2-/- were hyperinsulinemic compared to wild-type and apoE-/- mice. Atherosclerotic lesions were barely detectable in wild-type and Irs2-/- mice, which displayed moderate hypercholesterolemia (~280 mg/dL). Notably, atherosclerosis was significantly enhanced in apoE-/-Irs2-/- compared with apoE-/- mice, although both models displayed similar levels of severe hypercholesterolemia (>600 mg/dL). Circulating insulin levels predicted atherosclerotic lesion burden in apoE-/-Irs2-/- mice. Our results suggest that hyperinsulinemia as a result of Irs2 genetic ablation contributes to increased atherosclerosis when combined with severe hypercholesterolemia (apoE-/-Irs2-/- mice) in the absence of hyperglycaemia...

Complement regulation in murine and human hypercholesterolemia and role in the control of macrophage and smooth muscle cell proliferation

Verdeguer, Francisco; Castro, Claudia; Kubicek, Markus; Pla Ferrer, Davinia; Vila-Caballer, Marian; Vinué, Ángela; Civeira, Fernando; Pocoví, Miguel; Calvete, Juan J.; Andrés, Vicente
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 1815412 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Cardiovascular Research following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version Cardiovasc Res. 76 (2):340-350 is available online at: http://cardiovascres.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/76/2/340; OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence suggests that activation of complement, an important constituent of innate immunity, contributes to atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the expression of complement components (CCs) in the setting of experimental and clinical hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, their effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and macrophage proliferation, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: For this study we analyzed the mRNA and protein expression of several CCs in plasma and aorta of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-null mice (apoE-KO) and in plasma of normocholesterolemic subjects and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients. We also carried out in vitro molecular studies to assess the role of CCs on the control of macrophage and VSMC proliferation. RESULTS: Fat-fed apoE-KO mice experiencing severe hypercholesterolemia (~400 mg/dL), but not fat-fed wild-type controls with plasma cholesterol level <110 mg/dL...

Hipercolesterolemia em escolares e seus fatores de risco; Hypercholesterolemia and its risk factors among schoolchildren

Coronelli, Cleunice Luzia Smania; Moura, Erly Catarina de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2003 POR
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OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores de risco da hipercolesterolemia em escolares de sete a dez anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle, desenvolvido com 172 escolares do Município de Campinas, SP, pareados conforme sexo e trimestre de idade. Considerou-se caso a hipercolesterolemia, diagnosticada quando a criança apresentava colesterol ;³;200 mg/dL, e controle quando a criança apresentava colesterol entre 140 e 170 mg/dL. Além da coleta de sangue para a dosagem do nível de colesterol, foram levantados dados sobre pressão arterial, índice de massa corporal e história familiar de doenças cardiovasculares. Os dados foram analisados por correlação bivariada usando o teste t para as variáveis quantitativas e o qui-quadrado para a história familiar de doenças cardiovasculares. O odds-ratio foi usado para estimar o risco de hipercolesterolemia. RESULTADOS: A média do colesterol encontrada foi de 215 mg/dL nos casos e de 154 mg/dL nos controles. A média da pressão arterial sistólica foi de 107 mmHg nos casos e de 106 mmHg nos controles e da diastólica foi de 67 mmHg nos casos e 68 mmHg nos controles. O índice de massa corporal (Kg/m²) apresentou média de 18,2 nos casos e de 17,1 nos controles. A análise bivariada mostrou associação entre hipercolesterolemia e índice de massa corporal (p=0...