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Impactos no sistema de proteção da rede de distribuição com a ligação de pequenas centrais hidrelétricas.; Impacts of small hydroeletric power plants on the distribution protection systems.

Koehler, Marcos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2006 PT
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46.26%
Geração Distribuída é uma expressão utilizada para designar a geração elétrica proveniente de locais próximos ou juntos de consumidores, não interferindo a potência, tecnologia ou fonte de energia empregada. Estudos indicam que, até o ano de 2010, 20% do total de geração (em termos mundiais) serão provenientes desta forma de obtenção, uma vez que se torna fático sua vantagem sobre a geração central, por oferecer economia em matéria de investimentos relacionados à transmissão, redução de perdas e melhoria acerca da estabilidade do serviço de energia elétrica. Exemplos de geração distribuída são observados em pequenas centrais hidrelétricas, eólicas, térmicas, fotovoltaicas e geradoras de emergência, por terem pequeno porte e serem integradas ao sistema elétrico. Voltandose por hora ao potencial hidráulico passível de exploração no país, associado por sua vez às pequenas centrais hidrelétricas, tem-se cerca de 4% da potência instalável total (parcela extremamente significativa). De acordo com o Plano 2.015 da ELETROBRÁS, centrais que atingem até 30 MW de potência instalada representam um potencial de 9.456 MW. Informações de Geração da ANEEL indicam que há cerca de 254 PCH em operação no país...

Potencial de repotenciação de usinas hidrelétricas no Brasil e sua viabilização; Potential rehabilitation of hydraulic power plants in Brazil and their viability

Elisa de Podestá Gomes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/08/2013 PT
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46.37%
O desenvolvimento de um país exige energia. Ela está presente em diferentes formas ao nosso redor, seja na lâmpada que ilumina o nosso ambiente de trabalho, no combustível dos veículos, ou em todos os processos de produção industrial. Este trabalho foca a geração de energia elétrica proveniente de usinas hidrelétricas através da repotenciação. Repotenciar é o ato de melhorar os parâmetros atuais de uma usina, seja aumentando sua capacidade instalada, ou seu fator de capacidade, seja melhorando o rendimento, ou as características mecânicas/elétricas das suas máquina. A automação também é um fator importante nas repotenciações de hoje. Repotenciar demanda um prazo muito menor do que a construção de uma usina nova, além de não gerar impactos ambientais adicionais e possuir menor custo. As usinas brasileiras estão envelhecendo e precisam passar por algum processo de modernização para manter (ou aumentar) sua geração. Neste trabalho são apresentados os vários tipos de repotenciações possíveis e os componentes envolvidos em uma usina, assim como se estima a capacidade instalada das usinas hidrelétricas brasileiras mais adequadas para uma repotenciação. Exemplos de repotenciações no País e no exterior são discutidos...

Hydro Electric Commission of Niagara Falls Ontario Scrapbook, 1936-1939, 1943-1951

Adams, Anne
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Outros
EN
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46.52%
Sir Adam Beck ( a London, Ontario manufacturer, Mayor and Conservative member of the provincial legislature) was a champion of municipal and provincial power ownership. Beck become the “Power Minister” and chairman of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario which was the world’s first publicly owned utility. In 1925 the first unit of the Hydro Electric Power Commission’s Queenston Chippawa hydro-electric development on the Niagara River went into service. The station was renamed in 1950 as “Sir Adam Beck #1”. This marked the 25th anniversary of Beck’s death. This is one of 2 generating stations in Niagara Falls. There is also Adam Beck Plant #2. The Niagara generating stations supply one quarter of all power used in New York State and Ontario.Ontario Hydro has two water tunnels which traverse the entire City of Niagara Falls from the Village of Chippawa in the South to the Sir Adam Beck Hydro Electric Generating Stations in the North. Also they are in the process of building the third tunnel. In addition, Ontario Hydro has a 13.6 km open canal which traverses the entire City of Niagara Falls. Source: http://www.hydroone.com/OurCompany/Pages/OurHistory.aspx; 1 Scrapbook divided into 2 sections. Each section contains clippings. The first half of the scrapbook contains clippings which range from 1936 – 1942. The second half of the book also contains clippings. These clippings feature stories about: 1936 – Information about bondholders 1946 – Critical power shortages which last until 1950 1947 – Conversion to 60-cycle is urged 1948 – Local industries are badly crippled by a lack of power 1949 – Announcement of construction of a plant on the lower Niagara River to start as soon as a treaty is signed. 1950 - Power treaty is announced which will double the output of Niagara power 1951 – 60 cycle power is made available in Niagara Falls on July 6th...

Canadian Niagara Power Glass Slide - Group of men walking through the hydro tunnel

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Imagem
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Four men (unidentified) walking in tunnel wearing hard hats and carrying flashlights.

Canadian Niagara Power Glass Slide - Drawing: Section thru Wheelpit

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Imagem
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Drawing of "Section thru Wheelpit" dated September 1925. Shows unit no.1 through unit no.11, power house floor and water surface.

Canadian Niagara Power Glass Slide - Engineer Drawing (untitled)

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Imagem
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Engineer drawing (untitled), some of the labels read "exciter chamber", "fore bay", "power house floor".

Canadian Niagara Power Glass Slide - Four Men in Tunnel

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Imagem
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
Four men standing in hydro tunnel.

Canadian Niagara Power Company - Water rushing through tunnel

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Imagem
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
Photograph of water rushing through hydro tunnel.

Canadian Niagara Power Company - Group in Tunnel

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Imagem
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
Group of men in the hydro tunnel with a loaded dolly and large lamp for light.

Canadian Niagara Power Company - Tunnel Wall

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Imagem
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A photograph of the hydro tunnel wall.

Power System Planning in India : Incorporating Environmental Externality Costs and Benefits

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper has been prepared in accordance with the terms of reference for a study on power system planning in India: incorporating externality costs and benefits. It reviews estimates of the external costs of power in international studies as well as in India and compares the figures available. It also comments on the validity of the external cost estimates available and the use made of them in power system planning and regulation both outside and inside India. The structure is as follows. Section two reviews the external cost estimates of electricity generation in the European Union (EU), and other countries. It also reports some recent work on the external costs associated with transmission. Some comments for the range of estimates are offered. Section three reviews a few studies on external costs for India and compares those with the international estimates. Section four discusses the use made of external cost data in power system planning and regulation both internationally and in India and makes some recommendations for possible reforms in the Indian case. Section five reviews the Indian and international estimates of external costs of hydro and section six does the same for resettlement and rehabilitation (RR) costs. Section seven offers some conclusions.

International Experience with Cross-border Power Trading

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
The five main lessons for Southern Africa from our review of the experiencewith cross-border power trading in other regions of the work are that: Security of supply concerns need to be explicitly addressed and understood by the parties to proposed cross-border transactions. Regional entities need to be empowered to make decisions based on legally enforceable national government commitments, particularly in relation to planning, pricing, and settlement rules. Bilateral trading provides a basis for expanding trading volumes, both through constructing the physical infrastructure that future deals will use and by establishing workable legal and regulatory frameworks. Power pools will help to generate sustained increases in cross-border trading along with other regional trading arrangements, particularly in power systems with several interconnection. The substance and process of regulatory reviews in importing and exporting countries must be clear to create sufficient investment certainty.

Revisiting Public-Private Partnerships in the Power Sector

Vagliasindi, Maria
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
As the world demand for energy continues to grow, a big question is where will all the energy come from and what will the price tag be. With such enormous sums needed, public-private partnerships (PPPs) could play a big role. But the financial crisis has raised worries about funding, and much is still not known about how best to attract PPPs. This report reviews the evidence to date with sectoral reforms and considers different approaches in varying circumstances to help outline the potential role of the private and public sector in: 1) strengthening the corporate governance of private and public utilities; 2) helping governments to establish legal, regulatory, contractual, and fiscal frameworks; and 3) improved market governance to attract private investment. Chapter one reviews the impact of the recent financial crisis on PPP investment compared with what happened in earlier financial crises. It also looks out the latest projections for additional power sector investment needed because of climate change and the possible sources of financing. Chapter two examines how PPP investment in the power sector has fared. It also gives the results of an econometric study that explores which types of incentives and variables matter most to PPPs when they are weighing entering the power sector...

Revisiting Policy Options on the Market Structure in the Power Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.09%
The objectives of this study are to develop a taxonomy of the existing power market structures, as shown by the extent of vertical and horizontal unbundling found among restructured power systems, across developing countries; to design an analytical framework for assessing the desirability of unbundling under the variety of economic conditions found among developing countries; and To propose insights for operational guidance on alternative market structures based on relevant criteria, in particular on the initial conditions of a country and its power sector. The study specifically examines whether power system size and country per capita income can be reliable indicators of initial conditions for guiding policy on power market structure. This guidance is needed to address issues such as whether there are solid foundations for recommending vertical unbundling for small power systems in low-income countries, particularly in the absence of short term privatization prospects. The policy recommendations therefore have to be tailored to the specific taxonomy of market structures that characterize the electricity sector in developing countries. The study reports the evidence from econometric analysis and case studies on the (relative) success of achieving the objectives of unbundling. These objectives may be to enhance transparency and governance...

The Potential of Regional Power Sector Integration : Manantali Generation Case Study

Economic Consulting Associates
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Developing countries are increasingly pursuing and benefitting from regional power system integration (RPSI) as an important strategy to help provide reliable, affordable electricity to their economies and citizens. Increased electricity cooperation and trade between countries can enhance energy security, bring economies-of-scale in investments, facilitate financing, enable greater renewable energy penetration, and allow synergistic sharing of complementary resources. This briefing note draws from the experiences of RPSI schemes around the world to present a set of findings to help address these challenges. It is based on case studies of 12 RPSI projects and how they are dealing with key aspects of RPSI, such as: (i) finding the right level of integration; (ii) optimizing investment on a regional basis; (iii) appropriate regional institutions (iv) technical and regulatory harmonization; (v) power sector reform and integration (vi) the role of donor agencies (vii) reducing emissions through RPSI; and (viii) RPSI and renewable energy.

Designing Strategies and Instruments to Address Power Projects Stress Situations

Meyerman, Gerald; Covindassamy, Ananda M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
It is an internationally recognized reality that continued and increased investment in the power sector by private firms is essential to providing affordable and reliable energy to an increasing portion of the world population. However, investing in power projects in the developing regions of the world exposes nations, governments, consumers, and investors to unusually high levels of risk. This study will have succeeded if it encourages parties, on all sides, to recognize problems as early as possible and concentrate on identifying possible solutions, and then implementing them. This study marks the interest of investors and lenders in finding procedures and instruments to facilitate the resolution of disputes arising from stress situations. To begin with we will summarize the predominant causes, characteristics, and consequences of project stress in the energy sector of emerging markets. The author will seek to describe and understand the incidence of various patterns of characteristics and consequences of project stress that emerge as power projects are broken down by type industry stage and region. Then the author will discuss how to prevent the emergence of stress situations in power projects as well as the instruments and strategies available for the resolution of power project stress.

Hydroelectric Power; A Guide for Developers and Investors

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Worldwide, hydropower is a crucial power supply option for several reasons. First, it is a renewable energy resource that can contribute to sustainable development by generating local, typically inexpensive power. Second, hydropower reduces reliance on imported fuels that carry the risks of price volatility, supply uncertainty and foreign currency requirements. Third, hydro systems can offer multiple co-benefits including water storage for drinking and irrigation, drought-preparedness, flood control protection, aquaculture and recreational opportunities, among others. Finally, hydro can allow more renewables, especially wind and solar, to be added to the system by providing rapid-response power when intermittent sources are off-line, and pumped energy storage when such sources are generating excess power

Incorporating Energy Cycle Externality Costs and Benefits in India's Power System Planning Mechanisms

Powell, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The power sector in India plays a fundamental role in the economic development process. The country faces formidable challenges in meeting its energy needs in an environmentally sustainable manner and at reasonable costs. The planning and operation of the sector has hitherto been conducted without due regard to the environmental consequences. As a result, additions to capacity in recent years have been sub-optimal. Moreover different types of capacity are treated differently. Hydropower is required directly to bear more of its external environmental costs than other sources. The recent Supreme Court ruling has reinforced this tendency. Looking forward, much of the large capacity additions required over the next few years are likely to be coal-fired, with concomitant effects on the country's environment. Against that background, the paper looks at India's power generation planning process; whether and how it might adapt in the light of increased attention to environmental costs and benefits; and if there are other...

Energizing Economic Growth in Ghana : Making the Power and Petroleum Sectors Rise to the Challenge

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
The main objective of this report is to provide the new Government of Ghana with recommendations on the actions needed to improve the performance of Ghana's energy sector. The report focuses on the power and petroleum sectors, taking account of the interdependence between the sectors, and providing recommendations for how they can, together, drive future economic growth. This report aims to highlight the centrality of fixing the problems in the power sector as a path to ensuring that Ghana's economic growth ambitions are not stymied by a lack of electricity. The problems and their solutions are well known; what has been lacking is decisive and timely decision making to break the tendency to adopt reactive measures that often come too late when proactive measures will have led to better outcomes. Demand for gas in the power sector is set to expand rapidly, as new thermal generation capacity is built to meet rapidly growing power demand. However, to ensure successful development of its gas sector, Ghana will need to address a number of important challenges. The paper is organized as follows: chapter one gives introduction; chapter two deals with electricity demand and supply; chapter three deals with resolving generation and transmission bottlenecks; chapter four gives reforms urgently needed in power distribution; chapter five focuses on natural gas sector; and chapter six focuses on upstream oil and gas sector.

Canadian Niagara Power Glass Slide - Engineer Drawing Hydro Station

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Imagem
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
Appears to be an engineer's drawing of the Hydro Station. It is a cross-section view of the interior.