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Caracterização de Listeria monocytogenes e Yersinia enterocolitica isoladas em abatedouros e cortes de carne suína no Estado de São Paulo e sua comparação com isolados de casos clínicos em humanos; Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from slaughterhouses and pork in São Paulo State and their comparision with isolates from clinic cases in humans

Paixão, Renata
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/03/2010 PT
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Listeria monocytogenes e Yersinia enterocolitica são agentes zoonóticos e têm capacidade de transmissão através dos alimentos, inclusive carne suína. O presente estudo avaliou, mensalmente, de maio de 2007 a abril de 2008, alguns pontos da cadeia produtiva da carne suína em abatedouros e açougues do Estado de São Paulo. Foram avaliados ambientes dos estabelecimentos visitados e amostras de línguas, tonsilas e cortes de carne suína. Listeria monocytogenes foi isolada de todos os tipos de amostra, com presença dos sorotipos 4b, 1/2b, 1/2a e 1/2c. Estes isolados demonstraram grande similaridade, sugerindo até que haja persistência do agente em ambiente, de acordo com a PFGE, reforçando seu potencial de transmissão para humanos. Yersinia enterocolitica 4/ O:3 foi detectada exclusivamente em abatedouros, principalmente nos animais, apresentando, portanto, menor potencial de transmissão para humanos. Entretanto, Yersinia enterocolitica 1A, considerada não patogênica, foi isolada de todos os tipos de amostras, e a maioria apresentou fatores de virulência, devendo este fato ser melhor investigado. Os resultados apresentados indicam a necessidade de se tomar medidas para controle e prevenção da disseminação dos agentes...

Ensino de cálculo diferencial e integral: das técnicas ao humans-with-media; Differential and Integral calculus: from the technique to humans-with-media

Vieira, Aldo Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/04/2013 PT
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As dificuldades epistemológicas e metodológicas do ensino de Cálculo Diferencial e Integral em cursos do ensino superior presenciais, a rápida evolução tecnológica (tanto em hardwares como em softwares) e o avanço aparentemente irreversível do ensino a distância, constituíram uma grande motivação para este trabalho. Analisando as dificuldades na construção de significados no estudo do Cálculo como em Barufi (1999), sua natureza epistemológica em Rezende (2003), e metodologias usadas na Educação à Distância, apresentam-se as idéias da natureza artificial de Simon (1981), as tecnologias da inteligência de Lévy (1993), as mediações sobre a técnica de Ortega y Gasset (1963), culminando no conceito do coletivo humans-with-media, como em Borba e Villarreal (2005). Pretende-se alargar os passos, verificando-se os limites e possibilidades do uso de novas Tecnologias da Informação (TI´s) no ensino do Cálculo Diferencial e Integral, aplicáveis tanto no ensino Presencial como na Educação à Distância, no coletivo humans-with-media. A expectativa é a de que uma nova fase da técnica tem início, uma fase em que a separação homem/técnica é impossível. Não se trata mais da técnica e o humano, ou o humano e a técnica...

Estudos da inativação do cromossomo X em humanos: iniciação e imprinting; X-chromosome inactivation in humans: initiation and imprinting

Mello, Joana Carvalho Moreira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2015 PT
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Eventos epigenéticos como o imprinting genômico e a inativação do cromossomo X (ICX), já foram amplamente estudados em camundongos. Nesses animais muitos dos processos epigenéticos que levam à ICX já estão profundamente esclarecidos. Em humanos entretanto, o conhecimento sobre a ICX é mais limitado, em particular os eventos iniciais do processo durante o desenvolvimento embrionário. O desenvolvimento e aprimoramento de ensaios que envolvem o sequenciamento em larga escala do transcriptoma (RNA-Seq) de células únicas iniciam uma nova era nos estudos sobre a ICX. São crescentes os dados de RNA-Seq depositados em bancos de dados públicos e em 2013 os trabalhos de Xue e colaboradores e de Yan e colaboradores tornaram disponíveis os resultados de RNA-Seq de células individuais isoladas de embriões humanos a partir do estágio de duas células até a fase de blastocisto. Através de técnicas de bioinformática avaliamos o nível de expressão do gene XIST, intimamente envolvido no processo de ICX, nos diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento. Alinhamos também as leituras geradas por RNA-Seq contra o genoma humano de referência no intuito de se identificar variantes em regiões transcritas e assim verificar a origem do alelo expresso. Com isso...

Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dairy cattle, dogs, and humans from the Jauru micro-region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

Santos, T. R.; Costa, A. J.; Toniollo, Gilson Hélio; Luvizotto, M. C. R.; Benetti, A. H.; Santos, R. R.; Matta, D. H.; Lopes, W. D. Z.; Oliveira, J. A.; Oliveira, G. P.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 324-326
ENG
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In order to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, 2000 serum samples from female dairy cattle belonging to 50 farms in the southwest of Mato Grosso state were analyzed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT >= 64). Serum samples from 61 dogs (IFAT >= 40) and 116 humans (IFAT = 40), all from the same farm, were also tested. Among these samples, 1420 (71.0%) cattle, 54 (88.5%) dogs, and 113 (97.4%) humans were seropositive for the infection. No significant differences (P >= 0.05) were observed for risk factors associated with the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in humans due to contaminated sources such as fresh milk, cheese/sausage, and contact with felines or other animals. The presence of felines can indicate the likelihood of a contaminated environment, posing a risk to the human population and other animals. The work presented herein is the first report to evaluate the seroprevalence of T gondii in bovines from the Southwest region of the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Piranha Attacks on Humans in Southeast Brazil: Epidemiology, Natural History, and Clinical Treatment, with Description of a Bite Outbreak

Haddad Jr., Vidal; Sazima, Ivan
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 249-254
ENG
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There are many tales describing ferocious schools of piranha attacking humans, but there are few scientific data supporting such behavior. The very few documented instances of humans attacked and eaten by piranha schools include 3 that occurred after death by other causes (eg, heart failure and drowning). These predaceous fishes, however, do occasionally injure bathers and swimmers in lakes and rivers. The characteristic profile of most injuries is a single bite per victim, generally related to the fish defending its brood. This paper describes an outbreak of piranha bites in a dammed river portion in southeast Brazil. The outbreak was caused by the speckled piranha, Serrasalmus spilopleura, a widespread species which benefits from the growing tendency of damming rivers all over Brazil. This article focuses on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the injuries, as well as on piranha biology, to gain a better understanding of the natural history of bite outbreaks.

Attacks by jaguars (Panthera onca) on humans in central Brazil: Report of three cases, with observation of a death

Neto, Manoel Francisco Campos; Garrone Neto, Domingos; Haddad Jr., Vidal
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 130-135
ENG
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Conflicts between humans and big cats have been known for centuries throughout the world, but have intensified in recent decades. Recently, attacks by Panthera onca on humans in Brazil have been brought to the forefront through exposure in the press and because of the severity of the attacks. We report 3 cases of patients attacked by jaguars in provoked and predatory situations. Two patients survived the attacks and one died. Attack mechanisms and lesions in victims are discussed. The attacks demonstrate a real risk of accidents from jaguars in certain regions, such as the Pantanal and the Amazon. © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society.

Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon

Fernandes,Marcus Emanuel Barroncas; Costa,Lanna Jamile Corrêa da; Andrade,Fernanda Atanaena Goncalves de; Silva,Lucila Pereira
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
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We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p < 0.01), but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis.

An Examination of the Relationship between Humans and Animals in the Hebrew Bible

Windham, Mary
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the relationship between humans and animals in the Hebrew Bible. Although the Hebrew Bible contains a multitude of different perspectives on animals, I argue that there are two basic categories into which these perspectives fall. One group of biblical texts, most notably Gen 1:28, affirms humans’ dominion over animals. Despite the ubiquity of this perspective in scholarly literature, an examination of the entire biblical corpus suggests that these texts represent the minority. A larger group of biblical texts, most notably Job 39:9, depict animals as beyond the dominion of human beings. Rather than attempting to account for every mention of animals in the Hebrew Bible, I will examine a select group of passages that represent each of the two positions. Regarding passages that depict animals as under humans’ dominion, I conclude that while these passages suggest that humans have some authority over animals, that dominion is neither complete nor absolute. Regarding passages that depict animals as beyond humans’ dominion, I will conclude that they in fact indicate that animals are under the direct dominion of God. The Hebrew Bible nowhere grants humans absolute dominion over animals but instead typically presents humans as having little...

Pancreatic β-cell function and immune responses to insulin after administration of intranasal insulin to humans at risk for type 1 diabetes; Pancreatic beta-cell function and immune responses to insulin after administration of intranasal insulin to humans at risk for type 1 diabetes

Harrison, L.; Honeyman, B.; Steele, C.; Stone, N.; Sarugeri, E.; Bonifacio, E.; Couper, J.; Coleman, P.
Fonte: Amer Diabetes Assoc Publicador: Amer Diabetes Assoc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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OBJECTIVE: Mucosal administration of insulin retards development of autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic mouse model. We conducted a double-blind crossover study in humans at risk for type 1 diabetes to determine if intranasal insulin was safe, in particular did not accelerate beta-cell destruction, and could induce immune effects consistent with mucosal tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 38 individuals, median age 10.8 years, with antibodies to one or more pancreatic islet antigens (insulin, GAD65, or tyrosine phosphatase-like insulinoma antigen 2) were randomized to treatment with intranasal insulin (1.6 mg) or a carrier solution, daily for 10 days and then 2 days a week for 6 months, before crossover. The primary outcome was beta-cell function measured as first-phase insulin response (FPIR) to intravenous glucose at 0, 6, and 12 months and then yearly; the secondary outcome was immunity to islet antigens, measured monthly for 12 months. RESULTS: No local or systemic adverse effects were observed. Diabetes developed in 12 participants with negligible beta-cell function at entry after a median of 1.1 year. Of the remaining 26, the majority had antibodies to two or three islet antigens and FPIR greater than the first percentile at entry...

Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on short-term appetite and food intake in humans

Vozzo, R.; Wittert, G.; Horowitz, M.; Morley, J.; Chapman, I.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 EN
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Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may be a physiological regulator of appetite; NO synthase (NOS) inhibition suppresses food intake in rats, mice, and chickens. It is not known whether NO has any effect on appetite in humans. We have usedN G-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) andN G-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), both competitive, nonselective inhibitors of NOS, in two separate studies to evaluate the role of NO in the short-term regulation of appetite in humans. Instudy I, 13 men (18–25 yr) underwent paired studies, in randomized, double-blind fashion, after an overnight fast. l-NMMA (4 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ h−1) or saline (0.9%) was infused intravenously at a rate of 40 ml/h for 1.5 h. In study II, eight men (18–26 yr) underwent three randomized, double-blind studies after an overnight fast. l-NAME (75 or 180 μg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ h−1) or saline (0.9%) was infused intravenously at a rate of 20 ml/h for 120 min. Hunger and fullness were measured using visual analog scales; blood pressure and heart rate were monitored, and 30 min before the end of the infusion, subjects were offered a cold buffet meal. Total caloric intake and the macronutrient composition of the meal were determined. Both l-NMMA (P = 0.052) andl-NAME (P < 0.05; both doses) decreased heart rate...

Effects of exogenous corticotropin-releasing factor on antropyloroduodenal motility and appetite in humans

Su, Y.C.; Doran, S.; Wittert, G.; Chapman, I.; Jones, K.; Smout, A.; Horowitz, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
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OBJECTIVES: Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to affect GI motor function and appetite in animals. We have evaluated the effects of exogenous CRF on antropyloroduodenal motility and appetite in humans. METHODS: On 2 separate days, six healthy volunteers received, in randomized, double-blind fashion, i.v. CRF as a 1.0-microg/kg bolus (0-5 min) followed by a constant infusion (1.0 microg/kg/h) (5-150 min), or an identical volume of saline. At t = 28 min each subject drank 200 ml of a nutrient liquid containing 20 mg/kg of paracetamol. Antropyloroduodenal pressures were measured with sleeve/sidehole manometry and perceptions of appetite by visual analog scales. Venous blood was obtained for measurements of serum cortisol and paracetamol. At t = 150 min the manometric catheter was removed and subjects offered a buffet meal (150-180 min). The amount and macronutrient content of food consumed were quantified. RESULTS: CRF increased serum cortisol (p < 0.001), the number of isolated pyloric pressure waves (p < 0.05), duodenal pressure waves (p < 0.05), and the percentage of antegrade duodenal pressure waves (p < 0.05). CRF had no significant effect on the number of antral pressure waves, basal pyloric pressure, serum paracetamol concentrations...

Impact of concentration and rate of intraluminal drug delivery on absorption and gut wall metabolism of verapamil in humans

Glaeser, H.; Drescher, S.; Hofmann, U.; Heinkele, G.; Somogyi, A.; Eichelbaum, M.; Fromm, M.
Fonte: Mosby Inc Publicador: Mosby Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In humans gut wall metabolism can be quantitatively as important as hepatic drug metabolism in limiting the systemic exposure to drugs after oral administration. However, it has been proposed that the role of gut wall metabolism might be overemphasized, because high luminal drug concentrations would lead to a saturation of gut wall metabolism. Therefore we investigated the impact of concentration and rate of intraluminal drug delivery on absorption (Fabs) and gastrointestinal extraction (EGI) of a luminally administered cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrate (verapamil) using a multilumen perfusion catheter in combination with a stable isotope technique. METHODS: Two 20-cm-long, adjacent jejunal segments were isolated with the multilumen perfusion catheter in 7 subjects. In this study 80 mg of unlabeled verapamil (d0-verapamil15 min) was infused into one segment over a 15-minute period, 80 mg of 3-fold deuterated verapamil (d3-verapamil240 min) was administered over a 240-minute period into the other segment, and simultaneously, 5 mg of 7-fold deuterated verapamil (d7-verapamil) was injected intravenously over a 15-minute period. RESULTS: The rate of intraluminal drug delivery had only a modest effect on bioavailability of the verapamil isotopes (after correction for Fabs) (F/Fabsd3-verapamil240 min versus d0-verapamil15 min...

Cytotoxic chemotherapy upregulates pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak in the small intestine of rats and humans

Bowen, J.; Gibson, R.; Keefe, D.; Cummins, A.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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Aims: Small intestinal crypt cells rapidly undergo apoptosis in response to cytotoxic drug treatment that results in gastrointestinal toxicity. The Bcl-2 family have been implicated in both positive and negative regulation of intestinal cell apoptosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cytotoxic treatment on Bcl-2 protein expression in patients and rats with tumours. Methods: Four pro- and four anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, caspase-3 and p53 were examined in small intestinal crypts before and after treatment in rats and humans. Immunohistochemistry identified changes in protein expression over time, while relative RT-PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression in rat small intestine. Results: Cytotoxic treatment increased p53 and caspase-3 which coincided with elevated levels of apoptosis. Bax and Bak protein and mRNA expression also significantly increased at 6 hours following treatment in rats. Bax and Bak protein increased at day 1 after treatment in humans. Anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein decreased within 24 hours. Other Bcl-2 family members showed only modest changes. Conclusion: Increased expression of Bax and Bak but not other Bcl-2 family members is associated with apoptosis in small intestinal crypts and may amplify the sensitivity and susceptibility of crypt cells to chemotherapy-induced enteropathy.; Joanne M. Bowen; Rachel J. Gibson; Dorothy M. Keefe; Adrian G. Cummins

Effects of lauric acid on upper gut motility, plasma cholecystokinin and peptide YY, and energy intake are load, but not concentration, dependent in humans

Feltrin, K.; Little, T.; Meyer, J.; Horowitz, M.; Rades, T.; Wishart, J.; Feinle-Bisset, C.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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Animal studies suggest that the effects of fatty acids on gastric emptying and pancreatic secretion are both concentration and load dependent, while their suppressive effect on energy intake is only load dependent. We postulated that, in humans, the modulation of antropyloroduodenal pressurewaves, plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptideYY(PYY) concentrations and energy intake by intraduodenal lauric acid, a fatty acid with 12 carbon atoms (‘C12’) would be load, but not concentration, dependent. Two groups of 12 healthy males were each studied on three separate occasions in double-blind randomized fashion. Antropyloroduodenal pressure waves, plasma CCK and PYY, and appetite perceptions were measured during intraduodenal infusions of C12 at (1) different loads of (i) 0.2, (ii) 0.3 and (iii) 0.4 kcal min−1 (all 56mM) for 90 min, and (2) different concentrations of (i) 40, (ii) 56 and (iii) 72mM (all 0.4 kcal min−1) for 60 min. Energy intake at a buffet meal consumed immediately following each infusion was quantified. Suppression of antral and duodenal pressure waves, stimulation of pyloric pressure waves, stimulation of plasma CCK and PYY, and suppression of energy intake, were related to the load of C12 administered (r >0.65...

Expression of taste molecules in the upper gastrointestinal tract in humans with and without type 2 diabetes

Young, R.; Sutherland, K.; Pezos, N.; Brierley, S.; Horowitz, M.; Rayner, C.; Blackshaw, L.
Fonte: British Med Journal Publ Group Publicador: British Med Journal Publ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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OBJECTIVE: Nutrient feedback from the small intestine modulates upper gastrointestinal function and energy intake; however, the molecular mechanism of nutrient detection is unknown. In the tongue, sugars are detected via taste T1R2 and T1R3 receptors and signalled via the taste G-protein alpha-gustducin (G alpha(gust)) and the transient receptor potential ion channel, TRPM5. These taste molecules are also present in the rodent small intestine, and may regulate gastrointestinal function. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Absolute transcript levels for T1R2, T1R3, G alpha(gust) and TRPM5 were quantified in gastrointestinal mucosal biopsies from subjects with and without type 2 diabetes; immunohistochemistry was used to locate G alpha(gust). Effects of luminal glucose on jejunal expression of taste molecules were also quantified in mice. RESULTS: T1R2, T1R3, G alpha(gust) and TRPM5 were preferentially expressed in the proximal small intestine in humans, with immunolabelling for G alpha(gust) localised to solitary cells dispersed throughout the duodenal villous epithelium. Expression of T1R2, T1R3, TRPM5 (all p<0.05) and G alpha(gust) (p<0.001) inversely correlated with blood glucose concentration in type 2 diabetes subjects but, as a group, did not differ from control subjects. Transcript levels of T1R2 were reduced by 84% following jejunal glucose perfusion in mice (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taste molecules are expressed in nutrient detection regions of the proximal small intestine in humans...

Endogenous nitric oxide modulates small intestinal nutrient transit and activity in healthy adult humans

Fraser, R.; Yandell, R.; Di Matteo, A.; Boeckxstaens, G.; Adachi, K.; Dent, J.; Tournadre, J.P.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis As Publicador: Taylor & Francis As
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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Objective: Nitric oxide (NO) mechanisms have been shown to modulate fasting small intestinal motility in humans, but a role in the regulation of human postprandial small intestinal motility has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) on the regulation of small intestinal nutrient transit and postprandial small intestinal motility in healthy humans. Material and methods: Seven healthy male volunteers (18–27 years) underwent antroduodenal manometry recordings for 4 h on 2 occasions after intraduodenal instillation of a 500 KJ [120 Kcal] test meal. The meal was administered 15 min after the commencement of a 60-min intravenous infusion of l-NMMA (4 mg kg−1 h−1) or saline (0.9%). Studies were separated, performed in randomized order and >3 days apart. The frequency and amplitude of duodenal pressure waves together with time to return of fasting motility (phase III) was determined. On each day, small intestinal transit was measured using a lactulose breath test. Results: The test meal interrupted fasting small intestinal motility in all subjects. The time to recurrence of fasting motility following its postprandial disruption was similar (l-NMMA versus saline 1.6±0.2 h versus 1.9±0.1 h; p>0.05). Duodenocaecal transit was delayed by infusion of l-NMMA compared with saline (l-NMMA versus saline 92.1±3.9 min versus 66.4±6.4 min; p<0.005). Infusion of l-NMMA significantly increased the frequency (l-NMMA versus saline 50.4±6.6 versus 34.8±5.5 waves per 30 min; p<0.05) and amplitude (l-NMMA versus saline 20.4±1.5 versus 15.5±1.1 mmHg; p<0.01) of duodenal pressure waves. Conclusions: These data suggest that endogenous NO may play a role in the regulation of small intestinal nutrient transit by regulating small intestinal motility in healthy individuals.; Robert Fraser...

Commonality among Fluoroquinolone-resistant sequence type ST131 extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates from humans and companion animals in Australia

Platell, J.; Cobbold, R.; Johnson, J.; Heisig, P.; Heisig, A.; Clabots, C.; Kuskowski, M.; Trott, D.
Fonte: Amer Soc Microbiology Publicador: Amer Soc Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131), an emergent multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogen, has spread epidemically among humans and was recently isolated from companion animals. To assess for human-companion animal commonality among ST131 isolates, 214 fluoroquinolone-resistant extraintestinal E. coli isolates (205 from humans, 9 from companion animals) from diagnostic laboratories in Australia, provisionally identified as ST131 by PCR, selectively underwent PCR-based O typing and blaCTX-M-15 detection. A subset then underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, extended virulence genotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and fluoroquinolone resistance genotyping. All isolates were O25b positive, except for two O16 isolates and one O157 isolate, which (along with six O25b-positive isolates) were confirmed by MLST to be ST131. Only 12% of isolates (25 human, 1 canine) exhibited blaCTX-M-15. PFGE analysis of 20 randomly selected human and all 9 companion animal isolates showed multiple instances of ≥94% profile similarity across host species; 12 isolates (6 human, 6 companion animal) represented pulsotype 968, the most prevalent ST131 pulsotype in North America (representing 23% of a large ST131 reference collection). Virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles differed minimally...

Altered glucose metabolism in mouse and humans conceived by IVF

Chen, M.; Wu, L.; Zhao, J.; Wu, F.; Davies, M.J.; Wittert, G.A.; Norman, R.J.; Robker, R.L.; Heilbronn, L.K.
Fonte: American Diabetes Association Publicador: American Diabetes Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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In vitro fertilization (IVF) may influence the metabolic health of children. However, in humans, it is difficult to separate out the relative contributions of genetics, environment, or the process of IVF, which includes ovarian stimulation (OS) and embryo culture. Therefore, we examined glucose metabolism in young adult humans and in adult male C57BL/6J mice conceived by IVF versus natural birth under energy-balanced and high-fat-overfeeding conditions. In humans, peripheral insulin sensitivity, as assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (80 mU/m²/min), was lower in IVF patients (n = 14) versus control subjects (n = 20) after 3 days of an energy-balanced diet (30% fat). In response to 3 days of overfeeding (+1,250 kcal/day, 45% fat), there was a greater increase in systolic blood pressure in IVF versus controls (P = 0.02). Mice conceived after either OS alone or IVF weighed significantly less at birth versus controls (P < 0.01). However, only mice conceived by IVF displayed increased fasting glucose levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the liver after 8 weeks of consuming either a chow or high-fat diet (60% fat). Thus, OS impaired fetal growth in the mouse, but only embryo culture resulted in changes in glucose metabolism that may increase the risk of the development of metabolic diseases later in life...

Rights of Non-humans? Electronic Agents and Animals as New Actors in Politics and Law

TEUBNER, Gunther
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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Lecture Delivered January 17th 2007. Personification of non-humans is best understood as a strategy of dealing with the uncertainty about the identity of the other, which moves the attribution scheme from causation to double contingency and opens the space for presupposing the others’ selfreferentiality. But there is no compelling reason to restrict the attribution of action exclusively to humans and to social systems, as Luhmann argues. Personifying other non-humans is a social reality today and a political necessity for the future. The admission of actors does not take place, as Latour suggests, into one and only one collective. Rather, the properties of new actors differ extremely according to the multiplicity of different sites of the political ecology.

Presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in humans and their cats in the urban zone of Guadalajara

Galván Ramírez,María de la Luz; Sánchez Vargas,Guillermo; Vielma Sandoval,Marcos; Soto Mancilla,Juan Luis
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/1999 EN
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Cats are the definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii. Infected cats excrete oocysts in their feces, infecting humans and other animals. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in cat owners and their pets, and determine if there was a relationship between Toxoplasma infection and humans who live with infected cats. IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in sera of 59 cat owners were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in 24 sera from their cats, IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies were found using Burney's ELISA. Thirty-eight (64%) of 59 cat owners were positive to IgG anti-Toxoplasma. Seropositivity for cats was 70.8% IgG, 8.3% IgM, and 62.5% IgA. Cohabitation with cats infected by T. gondii, feeding with leftovers or raw viscera, and lack of control over how their feces were handled are risk factors conducive for humans to become infected by T. gondii.