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Intervenções humanitárias: um debate introdutório sobre as críticas e sobre as justificativas morais; Humanitarian interventions: the importance of circumscribing the humanitarian intervention within tolerable moral limits

Ueta, Andres Sei Ichi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/07/2006 PT
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Esta dissertação examina, da ótica da teoria política normativa, as justificativas oferecidas para intervenções humanitárias com uso da força dentro do contexto atual, quando a internacionalização dos direitos humanos e as crises humanitárias exigiram uma adequação da soberania estatal a princípios internacionais de justiça. Como se trata de uma intervenção militar, ainda que humanitária, o uso abusivo da força pode comprometer a eficácia dos direitos humanos que a própria intervenção pretendia defender. Daí ser importante circunscrever a intervenção humanitária dentro de limites toleráveis, de modo que o emprego da força física não comprometa o objetivo de proteger direitos humanos. Tanto as justificações normativas para as intervenções, como os riscos envolvidos nesse tipo de ação, são discutidos; This dissertation discusses, from the perspective of the normative political theory, the justification for forcible humanitarian interventions in world's present circumstances, when both the international reach of human rights and humanitarian crises call for an adjustment of the state sovereignty to international principles of justice. Since a military, though humanitarian, intervention is involved...

Intervenções humanitarias : aspectos politicos, morais e juridicos de um conceito em (trans)formação; Humanitarian intervention : political, moral and legal aspects of a concept in trasformation

Ivan Contente Marques
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2007 PT
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Este trabalho se propõe a estudar os debates acerca das intervenções humanitárias e sua relação com os conceitos de legalidade e legitimidade nas relações internacionais. Para isso, partiremos do início desta discussão que ocorreu antes da formação e da consolidação dos Estados nacionais e o fortalecimento do princípio da soberania, e passaremos pelos impactos causados pela nova ordem jurídica internacional criada pela Organização das Nações Unidas. Isso trará subsídios para a análise da situação do combate às crises humanitárias nos anos 1990 sob a ótica da intervenção. Como exemplo da atuação do Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas, investigaremos dois casos emblemáticos de intervenções humanitárias deste período: o genocídio de Ruanda, em 1994, e os ataques da OTAN no Kosovo, em 1999. Dessa forma, levantaremos o entendimento atual sobre o tema, demonstrando o dilema entre o dever moral de salvar vidas em risco e o impedimento legal de fazê-lo dado o sistema jurídico internacional vigente. Por fim, apresentaremos a teoria “Responsabilidade de Proteger” que tem a pretensão de dar respostas ao problema da aceitação das intervenções humanitárias como prática legítima nas relações internacionais.; This work proposes to study the debates on humanitarian intervention and its relation with concepts of validity and legitimacy on international relations. For that...

Democratic Jihad? Military Intervention and Democracy

Gleditsch, Nils Petter; Christiansen, Lene Siljeholm; Hegre, Håvard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Democracies rarely if ever fight one another, but they participate in wars as frequently as autocracies. They tend to win the wars in which they participate. Democracies frequently build large alliances in wartime, but not only with other democracies. From time to time democracies intervene militarily in ongoing conflicts. The democratic peace may contribute to a normative justification for such interventions, for the purpose of promoting democracy and eventually for the promotion of peace. This is reinforced by an emerging norm of humanitarian intervention. Democracies may have a motivation to intervene in non-democracies, even in the absence of ongoing conflict, for the purpose of regime change. The recent Iraq War may be interpreted in this perspective. A strong version of this type of foreign policy may be interpreted as a democratic crusade. The paper examines the normative and theoretical foundations of democratic interventionism. An empirical investigation of interventions in the period 1960-96 indicates that democracies intervene quite frequently...

The Equitable Theory of Humanitarian Intervention

BURKE, Ciarán
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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This thesis aims at the resolution of a dilemma which has been bothering international lawyers for at least two decades, namely whether armed intervention as a response to gross and massive human rights violations is ever legally justified without the authorization by the Security Council pursuant to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. Thus far, international lawyers may be said to have been caught between giving a negative answer on the basis of the rules in the Charter, and a ‘turn to ethics’, i.e. declaring humanitarian intervention legitimate on moral grounds, while leaving questions of legality to the side. These two camps may be termed ‘positivists’ and ‘moralists’ respectively. In this thesis, a third solution to this dilemma is proposed. The idea is presented that many equitable principles may qualify as ‘general principles of law recognised by civilised nations’ – the third principal source of international law, a conclusion based upon detailed research of both national legal systems and the international legal system itself. These principles, having normative force in international law, are then used to craft an equitable framework for humanitarian intervention. It is argued that the dynamics of their operation allow them to interact with the UN Charter regime and customary international law in order to fill gaps in the existing legal structure and soften the rigours of strict law in extreme circumstances. It is asserted that many of the arguments of the moralists are justified...

The Choice to Protect. Rethinking Responsibility for Humanitarian Intervention

RAO, Neomi
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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This Essay reexamines the responsibility to protect (“R2P”) from the perspective of states called to intervene—explaining the novelty of a third-party duty to help people in other states and the insufficiency of justifications offered for this moral responsibility. The Essay concludes that R2P will ultimately be defined by states contemplating intervention, in part because there are no agreed standards for responsibility and the doctrine has various triggering conditions that must be assessed by states, including the seriousness of the humanitarian crimes and the proportionality of any response. Moreover, domestic bureaucratic competition and conflict may make it difficult for a state to make a decision to intervene on primarily humanitarian grounds.

Making the case for humanitarian intervention: national interest and moral imperative

Benitez, Ryan L.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Complex considerations challenge U.S. political leaders when faced with the possibility of humanitarian intervention by means of military force. Humanitarian intervention is a delicate matter in which decision makers are constrained or compelled by circumstances of national interest and moral imperative. This examination of humanitarian intervention reviews the foreign policy context and debate within the U.S. government across three case studies: Rwanda, Kosovo, and Libya. Each case study reveals the role of national interest and moral imperative in driving policymakers to a tipping point at which they make the final determination to use or refrain from military force. Both national interest and the desire to end human suffering serve as incentives for intervention, and one may be stronger than the other in any given situation.

Square-dancing into the future: the U.S. military/NGO relationship and the CMOC in times of humanitarian intervention�

Seiple, Chris.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 311 p.
EN_US
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This thesis focuses on the U.S. military/Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) relationship in times of humanitarian intervention. Specifically, it examines the Civil Military Operations Center (CMOC), or the variant thereof, and its ability to facilitate collaboration and coordination between the two communities. Accordingly, this work examines the relationship in the following four case studies: (1) Operation Provide Comfort (southeast Turkey, northern Iraq, April 1991); (2) Operation Sea Angel (Bangladesh, May 1991); (3) Operation Restore Hope (Somaliar 1992); and (4) Operation Restore Hope (Rwanda, July 1994). While no case is exactly the same, conceptual themes have emerged. Humanitarian intervention is a political process. There is a continuum of effort. Each community should generally operate according to its comparative advantage. The principle of altruistic self-interest governs the relationship: it must be mutually beneficial in order to succeed. The successful CMOC is not so much a designated spot as much as it is a function of personnel living and working together. It is the military's only institutional means to provide feedback on whether or not the humanitarian mandate is being met. During humanitarian interventions, it should be the focus of the military's effort.; NA; NA; U.S. Marine Corps (U.S.M.C.) author.

Explaining Humanitarian Intervention in Libya and Non-Intervention in Syria

Hasler, Stefan
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The emergence of the revolutionary movements of the 'Arab Spring' in early 2011 surprised the world. For the western democracies the often-violent reaction of the ruling regimes in the concerned countries caused political and moral challenges. Different approaches are discernible when for the Libyan case the west was willing to intervene against the regime but for the Syrian case no decisive action was taken. This thesis examines the importance and influence of humanitarian interventions in comparison to national geo-strategic interests and the influence of domestic politics. The thesis argues that the three examined western states U.S., Germany and France, acknowledge and stress the normative importance of humanitarian interventions but finally prefer geo-strategic interests and domestic politics. Next to own interests the parameters of the respective conflict are of highest importance as shown by the comparison of the political, social and military framework of Syria and Libya. The thesis concludes that normative arguments in international politics are overestimated and dominated by state interests and demands of governments. For western democracies normative reasons are of theoretical importance and part of their own self-awareness but in realpolitik their influence is minuscule.; Outstanding Thesis; Major (GS)...

Operation Allied Force: setting a new precedent for humanitarian intervention

Walsh, Thomas F.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 88 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
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On 24 March 1999, NATO initiated military action against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in response to the crisis in Kosovo. Operation Allied Force was conducted without the explicit authorization of the United Nations Security Council, but was justified by NATO allies as a means to bring peace and stability to Kosovo, and to prevent a greater humanitarian emergency from developing. In the absence of specific U.N.S.C. authorization, was NATO's violation of Yugoslavia's sovereignty through the use of force illegitimate? Or were the potential humanitarian consequences of inaction by NATO so disastrous as to make intervention a moral imperative, despite the stipulations of the U.N. Charter? These questions-still under debate-highlight the dilemma facing the NATO allies on the eve of Operation Allied Force. This thesis examines Operation Allied Force and how the most influential NATO allies (Britain, France, Germany, and the United States) justified the use of force in the Kosovo crisis without relying on an explicit U.N. Security Council mandate for such action. In addition, it considers whether NATO's intervention in the Kosovo conflict established a new precedent whereby U.N. Security Council authorization of the use of force is no longer a prerequisite for forceful humanitarian intervention.; U.S. Marine Corps (U.S.M.C.) author.

Norm emergence and humanitarian intervention

Bartlett, Brendan C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 143 p. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Despite efforts by the UN in the past two decades, the world has seen numerous intrastate conflicts emerge. Immediate worldwide reporting of such atrocities, evoking empathy for the plight of others, has led to an unseen measure of objection to repressive treatment, and the excuse of sovereignty as a defense against inhumane actions is being challenged. The relevance and importance of this topic is reflected in the origins of humanitarian intervention and the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty's 2001 report titled The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and the United Nations' (UN) subsequent adoption of the report at the World Summit in 2005. This thesis uses the constructivist approach to norms and norm development to investigate whether a norm of humanitarian intervention has emerged in the international system that is shaping the behavior of states. It proposes that norms develop in a three-stage life cycle. I suggest that the norm of humanitarian intervention, since the end of the Cold War, has developed in a manner that was initially consistent with the norm-life cycle, but more recently has deviated from the life cycle. This thesis seeks to explain why this is the case and discuss the implications of the norm of humanitarian intervention for international society.; Outstanding Thesis; US Air Force (USAF) author.

An equitable framework for humanitarian intervention

BURKE, Ciarán
Fonte: Hart Publicador: Hart
Tipo: Livro
EN
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(Published version of EUI PhD thesis, 2011.); Can there be a resolution as to whether armed intervention is ever legally justified as a response to gross human rights violations without UN Security Council authorization? Thus far, international lawyers have been caught between giving a negative answer on the basis of the UN Charter's rules ('positivists') and a 'turn to ethics,' declaring intervention legitimate on moral grounds while eschewing legal analysis ('moralists'). In this book, a third solution is proposed. The idea is presented that many equitable principles may qualify as 'general principles of law recognized by civilized nations' - one of the three principal sources of international law (though a category that is often overlooked) - a conclusion based upon detailed research of both national legal systems and international law. These principles, having normative force in international law, are then used to craft an equitable framework for humanitarian intervention. It is argued that the dynamics of their operation allow them to interact with the Charter and customary law in order to fill gaps in the existing legal structure and soften the rigors of strict law in certain circumstances. It is posited that many of the moralists' arguments are justified...

All Talk and No Action: International Norms and the Democratic Republic of Congo

VIBERT, JENNIFER
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 940613 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
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In the decade from 1998 to 2008, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was witness to one of the most brutal violent conflicts in recent history. Crimes against humanity and large-scale violations of human rights occurred on a regular basis, resulting in the death and displacement of millions of people. The international community responded to this crisis with humanitarian efforts such as the donation of billions of dollars in aid and engagement in diplomatic mediations. However, despite the increasing viability of humanitarian intervention as a policy option for international actors, as well as the ‘groundbreaking’ formal adoption of the Responsibility to Protect at the 2005 United Nations World Summit, no intervention was undertaken. This produces a puzzle: why, despite acknowledgement of the severity of the crisis, did the international community respond with humanitarianism, but stop short of intervening? The answer can be found in an examination of the international normative environment at the time of the conflict. Using a three-stage normative life-cycle model developed by Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, this thesis posits that the reason the international community engaged in humanitarian actions was because the norm of humanitarianism is at stage 2 of its life cycle...

Au nom de l'humanité? : histoire, droit, éthique et politique de l'intervention militaire justifiée par des raisons humanitaires

Jeangène Vilmer, Jean-Baptiste
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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L’intervention militaire justifiée par des raisons humanitaires est une constante de l’ordre international, désignée par différentes appellations : intervention d’humanité au XIXe siècle, intervention humanitaire (humanitarian intervention) dans la tradition anglophone, droit ou devoir d’ingérence en France, responsabilité de protéger depuis quelques années. L’objectif de cette thèse interdisciplinaire est de comprendre ce phénomène complexe dans toutes ses dimensions – historique, juridique, éthique et politique – et d’élaborer une théorie réaliste de l’intervention par l’analyse de cinq critères : cause juste, autorité légitime, bonne intention, dernier recours et proportionnalité. Nous montrons que le réalisme n’est pas une conception amorale de la politique étrangère mais une exigence épistémologique d’analyser les relations internationales comme elles sont plutôt que comme l’on voudrait qu’elles soient. Que l’intervention dite humanitaire n’est pas, contrairement à un préjugé répandu, un phénomène récent, ni même hérité du XIXe siècle, mais qu’on peut en retracer la généalogie sur plusieurs millénaires dans plusieurs civilisations. Qu’aucune des terminologies employées n’est satisfaisante. Qu’il faut abandonner le critère de bonne intention car l’Etat intervenant n’est pas...

La responsabilité de protéger et l’intervention humanitaire : de la reconceptualisation de la souveraineté des États à l’individualisme normatif

Vézina, Louis-Philippe
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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La recrudescence des conflits internes dans le contexte post-guerre froide a permis de propulser à l’avant-plan la préoccupation pour les individus. Alors que la paix et la sécurité internationales ont historiquement constitué les piliers du système institutionnel international, une porte s’ouvrait pour rendre effectif un régime de protection des droits de l’homme par-delà les frontières. Pour les humanistes, l’intervention humanitaire représentait un mal nécessaire pour pallier aux souffrances humaines souvent causées par des divergences ethniques et religieuses. Pourtant, cette pratique est encore souvent perçue comme une forme de néo-colonialisme et entre en contradiction avec les plus hautes normes régissant les relations internationales, soit les principes de souveraineté des États et de non-intervention. La problématique du présent mémoire s’inscrit précisément dans cette polémique entre la préséance des droits de l’État et la prédilection pour les droits humains universels, deux fins antinomiques que la Commission internationales pour l’intervention et la souveraineté des États (CIISE) a tenté de concilier en élaborant son concept de responsabilité de protéger. Notre mémoire s’inscrit dans le champ de la science politique en études internationales mais s’articule surtout autour des notions et enjeux propres à la philosophie politique...

Tragic challenges and the moral hazard of humanitarian intervention : how and why ethnic groups provoke genocidal retaliation; How and why ethnic groups provoke genocidal retaliation

Kuperman, Alan J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 406 p.
ENG
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This dissertation explores the causes of, and possible remedies for, extremely violent ethnic conflict. It starts from a robust yet under-explored finding in the literature: Most groups that fall victim to genocidal violence actually trigger their own demise by launching armed secessions or revolutions against state authorities that only then retaliate with genocide or forced migration ("ethnic cleansing"). Accordingly, the dissertation asks why groups that are vulnerable to genocidal retaliation would provoke that very outcome by launching such "tragic challenges." To explain this phenomenon, the dissertation employs three case studies to test three hypotheses drawn from rational deterrence theory. The cases focus on three subordinate groups whose armed challenges provoked genocidal retaliation: Bosnia's Muslims in 1992-95; Rwanda's Tutsi in 1990-94; and Kosovo's Albanians in 1998-99. To gain further insight by adding variation on the theory's dependent variable, the dissertation also examines an earlier period of the third case during which the subordinate group did not launch a violent challenge, despite having substantial grievances, and thereby avoided genocidal violence (Kosovo's Albanians in 1989-97). he three hypotheses are as follows: (1) the group did not expect its armed challenge to provoke genocidal retaliation; (2) the group expected to suffer genocidal violence regardless of whether or not it launched an armed challenge; (3) the group expected its armed challenge to provoke genocidal retaliation but viewed this as an acceptable cost to achieve its goal of secession or revolution. The dissertation confirms the third hypothesis: subordinate groups launch tragic challenges when they expect to prevail and are willing to civilians as the cost of doing so.; (cont.) Most surprisingly...

Soldiers, Civilians, and Multilateral Humanitarian Intervention

Recchia, Stefano
Fonte: Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge Publicador: Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under infinite embargo pending publication of the final version.; Approval from the United Nations or NATO appears to have become a necessary condition for US humanitarian military intervention. Conventional explanations emphasizing the pull of legitimacy norms cannot fully account for this given that US policymakers vary considerably in their attachment to multilateralism. This article argues that America?s military leaders, who are consistently skeptical about humanitarian intervention and tend to emphasize its costs, play a central role in making multilateral approval necessary. As long as the top-ranking generals express strong reservations about intervention and no clear threat to US national security exists, they can veto the use of force. In such circumstances, even heavyweight ?humanitarian hawks? among the civilian leadership, who initially may have wanted to bypass multilateral bodies to maximize US freedom of action, can be expected to recognize the need for UN or NATO approval?if only as a means of mollifying the generals by reassuring them about the prospect of sustained multilateral burden sharing. Two case studies drawing on interviews with senior civilian and military officials illustrate and probe the plausibility of the argument.; Research on this article was supported by a fellowship in foreign policy that the author held at the Brookings Institution in Washington...

Rethinking International Law: Hugo Grotius, Human Rights and Humanitarian Intervention

Troester, Nicholas
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1526865 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN_US
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The dissertation takes up the subject of humanitarian intervention in contemporary international law. It identifies a problem, The Dilemma of Humanitarian Intervention, which underlies almost all contemporary theorizing about the subject. In an attempt to find a more palatable means to address the problem of the violation of human rights, the dissertation turns to the work of Hugo Grotius. Through an analysis of international law and its theoretical and philosophical bases, a thorough critique of the state of contemporary international law is made. Using a close-text reading of Grotius, alternative theories are established concerning human rights and humanitarian intervention. The dissertation finds that when the concept of human rights is attached to other normative concepts like moderation or faith, the pressure to resolve all questions of justice in terms of rights can be lessened. Further, if contemporary theorists recognize that the opposition of sovereignty and intervention is a structural and institutional feature of international law, and not a necessary feature of the concept of sovereignty itself, the Dilemma may be overcome by not forcing policymakers to choose either a defense of sovereignty or a defense of human rights.

; Dissertation

Solidarity and humanitarian intervention: a brazilian action in Haiti as a new legal paradigm of international solidarism; La solidaridad y la intervención humanitaria: la acción brasileña en Haití como nuevo paradigma jurídico del solidarismo internacional; Solidariedade e intervenção humanitária: a atuação brasileira no Haiti como novo paradigma jurídico de solidarismo internacional

Alves, Geovane Machado; Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/08/2008 POR
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Currently, considering the exponential growth of the human knowledge, undeniably due to the proliferation of academic disciplines, any deeper analysis of society becomes more and more impossible, viewing it only from an individualist look and distant from the other branches and dimensions of knowledge. Therefore, the present study aims to formulate new concepts and perspectives, able, in turn, to foster the development of new theoretical nuances and models of observation of reality, and having, as an essential assumption, the examination of the elements necessary for the construction of a new legal paradigm of humanitarian intervention. At first, we will analyze the elements that are part of the concept of solidarity so that, afterwards, we can propose their application to the humanitarian international law, considering, at this point, the specificities surrounding the Brazilian action in Haiti. Thus, this approach on the issue of international humanitarian aid aims at proposing the inauguration of a new kind of international solidarity, which will conceive the international humanitarian intervention not as a mere sending of troops or supplies, but as the necessary moment for the formulation of transnational public policies. Key-words: Solidarity; Humanitarian intervention; Solidarism; Public policy; Haiti; Actualmente...

The Never-Ending Dilemma: is the Unilateral use of Force by States Legal in the Context of Humanitarian Intervention?

Arrocha,Pablo
Fonte: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas Publicador: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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This article upholds the thesis that unilateral humanitarian interventions are illegal. This conclusion is reached after a careful analysis and rebuttal of the arguments that are usually put forward by some scholars to defend this type of actions, namely: that such interventions do not contravene the UN Charter, that there is an emerging rule of customary law that allows them, and that they are legitimate interventions because of the rights they seek to protect hence trumping any legal barriers.

Beyond Good Intentions. The Role of Self-Interest in Humanitarian Interventions. Looking back to the Australian Intervention in East Timor

Prado Pérez,Ruth Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Departamento de Estudios del Pacífico Publicador: Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Departamento de Estudios del Pacífico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
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Humanitarian intervention (HI) became a prominent feature of International Relations (IR) in the aftermath of the Cold War, and it set up the basis of what later developed as the Responsibility to Protect (R2P). From an International Relations perspective, the underlying debate developed around the question of was what provided the humanitarian character of an intervention. In that regard, little attention was paid to the role of self-interest in the decision-making processes leading to such interventions. This paper asks what are the crucial factors that explain when humanitarian emergencies actually lead to humanitarian interventions. It builds upon the frameworks developed by Snyder, Bruck and Sapin (1962), and Rosenau (1966), which categorize five sources of influence in foreign policy decision making -external or global, societal, governmental, individual and role sources- to analyze an emblematic case of HI in the history of international relations, namely, the Australian-led intervention in East Timor. First, the paper looks at the theoretical explanations of HI. Secondly, the debate about the configuration of self-interest is reviewed. Next, the paper identifies the role that different sources played in the process that lead to HI. Finally...