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A influência da mortalidade por causas externas no desenvolvimento humano na faixa de fronteira brasileira; The external causes mortality influence upon human development in the brazilian borderland

Castro, José Marcelo de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/01/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%
A desigualdade sócio-especial é uma característica distinta do Brasil que se expressa em diferentes formas, seja no acesso à educação, à saúde, à política ou à disponibilidade de renda e bens materiais. Estas desigualdades, muitas vezes, são determinantes para limitar as oportunidades dos indivíduos a uma vida longa, saudável e produtiva. No Brasil observa-se um elevado número de óbitos que ocorrem precocemente, reduzindo a expectativa de vida e impactando negativamente no desenvolvimento humano. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o padrão de mortalidade por causas externas na região da faixa de fronteira brasileira entre os anos de 2000 e 2005, abordando o impacto no desenvolvimento humano, em relação aos determinantes geográficos, demográficos, socioeconômicos e temporais. Para a caracterização, a mortalidade foi estratificada por sexo, faixa etária e agregada em regiões e sub-regiões, utilizando o coeficiente de mortalidade geral-CMG, coeficiente de mortalidade específico e a razão de mortalidade proporcional-RPM e Anos potenciais de vida perdidos-APVP e, para a mensuração do impacto da mortalidade por causas externas no desenvolvimento humano, o valor da perda de produção bruta-VPPB e o índice de desenvolvimento humano-IDH. Materiais e Métodos. Este estudo descritivo...

A atenção na constituição do desenvolvimento humano: contribuições da psicologia histórico-cultural; The attention in the constitution of human development: contributions of Historical- Cultural Psychology

Leite, Hilusca Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.79%
A presente pesquisa teve como objeto de estudo o desenvolvimento humano em seu aspecto psicológico, mais especificamente a passagem das funções psicológicas de sua condição primitiva ou reflexa para voluntária ou culturalmente organizada e a reorganização que sofre o córtex cerebral nesta passagem. O objetivo principal consistiu em estudar o desenvolvimento das funções psicologias superiores na sua interfuncionalidade, enfatizando os aspectos do desenvolvimento da atenção no movimento de passagem de sua condição reflexa à voluntária. Como objetivos secundários, pretendeu-se a conhecer como a atenção e seu desenvolvimento são compreendidos no âmbito científico; destacar a importância de um referencial teórico explicativo do desenvolvimento humano que se ancore na discussão das apropriações culturais em detrimento das explicações exclusivamente biológicas; destacar a necessidade dos processos educativos para o desenvolvimento humano, inclusive da atenção voluntária. Para tal, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa de caráter conceitual, alicerçada no referencial teórico interpretativo da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural, que tem entre seus fundadores os autores russos L.S Vigotski (1896-1934), A.R. Luria (1902-1979) e A.N. Leontiev (1903-1977)...

Human development and distance education: how are interactivity and interaction articulated?

Vasconcelos, Ivar Cesar Oliveira de
Fonte: Iated-int Assoc Technology Education A& Development Publicador: Iated-int Assoc Technology Education A& Development
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 2296-2305
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.72%
Currently the achievements of technology have not been enough to overcome the misery, in which are numerous human groups. Relegated to its background, the human being sees those scenarios, which brings out discussions about its formation, in which values are regarded as the scientific and technological aspects. The educational research inspired by this framework involving the theme of human development, update and re-frame concepts related to the linkage between interactivity and interaction, two important features presented in the process of Distance Education (DE). The research inquired about how these features have been articulated. It conducted a field study in which two professors were interviewed. The results showed that the integration between interactivity and interaction, involving aspects such as autonomy, critical awareness, relationships among students, the sharing of values and worldviews, is at the base of the educational processes of the DE. They also showed that, on these processes, there are shortcomings regarding the development of values and having to be thought the tutor training strategies from an interdisciplinary view.

Human Development in Uganda : Meeting Challenges and Finding Solutions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set ambitious targets for economic and social development, earmarking eight broad targets. Uganda appears to be on track to meet four of these goals by 2015: halving the poverty rate, eliminating gender disparities in primary school, halving the number of people without safe drinking water, and reversing the spread of AIDS. The country s performance is off track, however, in achieving substantial reduction in infant, child and maternal mortality, halving the number of people without access to sanitation facilities, eliminating gender disparities in secondary school, and achieving 100 percent primary school enrolment. This report seeks to identify challenges to improvement of human development outcomes, and to suggest ways of dealing with these challenges in order to improve service delivery, and therefore progress in human development indicators. It examines how well Uganda has moved toward achieving its PEAP targets for human development, focusing on three sectors: education...

Strategic Directions for Human Development in Papua New Guinea

Asian Development Bank; Australian Agency for International Development; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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There is an emerging consensus in Papua New Guinea (PNG) -- both at the governmental level and among civil society more generally -- that human development outcomes are far less than satisfactory and that service provision in many parts of the country is collapsing despite the significant level of both government and development partner financing of the human development sectors. In response, the government and the Joint Donors -- the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAid), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), and the World Bank -- embarked on a Human Development Review to suggest options for improving human development outcomes and government expenditure efficiency. In this review of strategy options for health, HIV/AIDS, and education, it is argued that human development sectors are at an important crossroad with a large unfinished agenda and a range of critical challenges.

The Contribution of the Mining Sector to Socioeconomic and Human Development

McMahon, Gary; Moreira, Susana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Many low and middle-income mineral-rich countries have experienced strong growth for a decade or longer, propelled by a rapid expansion of their mineral exports and a rise in prices of these commodities. This sustained strong economic performance goes against the accepted wisdom that even though the mining sector, like other extractive industries, can generate foreign exchange and fiscal revenues, it contributes little to sustained economic growth and, by extension, human development. Through the presentation of trends and patterns of various indicators, this paper shows that in addition to economic growth, countries rich in minerals other than oil have experienced significant improvements in their human development index (HDI) scores that are on average better than those experienced by countries without minerals. In a sample of five low and middle-income countries with relatively long histories of mining, benefits came from foreign direct investment (FDI), export revenues, and fiscal revenues. The overall impact of the mining sector was much stronger if there were infrastructure benefits and strong linkages to other industries...

Human development and inequality in the 20th Century : the Mercosur countries in a comparative perspective

Bértola, Luis; Camou, María; Maubrigades, Silvana; Melgar, Natalia
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; text/plain; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
Publicado em /04/2008 ENG; ENG
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This article is in line with the United Nations attempts to approach human development in wider terms than per capita GDP, and in line with an ever lively debate on the historical standard of living and on the role of inequality in development. We focus on three Mercosur countries (Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay) and we view them in comparison with four core countries (France, Germany, USA and UK) along the 20th Century. The paper makes different attempts to construct diverse indices and to change the weights of their different components in order to better explain human development in different periods. A contribution of the paper, so long limited to Uruguay and the USA, is to adjust the historical human development index by inequality measures for all of its components. The results show that Argentine started to diverge, even in human development, at early stages of the 20th Century; that Uruguay diverged from the mid-century and that Brazil continued to tighten the gap up to 1980, diverging afterwards without being able to come close to the levels of the core countries. Total inequality in Uruguay and USA showed similar levels and trends: it decreased until the 1950s, and increased afterwards to similar levels. While inequality affects human development within both countries...

Human development in Africa : a long-run perspective

Prados de la Escosura, Leandro
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2011 ENG
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Long-run trends in Africa’s well-being are provided on the basis of a new index of human development, alternative to the UNDP’s HDI. A sustained improvement in African human development is found that falls, nonetheless, short of those experienced in other developing regions. Within Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa has fallen steadily behind the North since mid-20th century. Human development improvement is positively associated to being coastal and resource-rich and negatively to politicaleconomy distortions. Contrary to the world experience, in which life expectancy dominated, education has driven progress in African human development during the last half-a-century and, due to the impact of HIV/AIDS on life expectancy and the arresting effect of economic mismanagement and political turmoil on growth, advances in human development since 1990 have depended almost exclusively on education achievements. The large country variance of the recovery during the last decade suggests being cautious about the future’s prospects; European Community's Seventh Framework Program

Improving human development: a long-run view

Prados de la Escosura, Leandro
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
The pessimistic flavour of the Human Development Reports appears to be in contradiction with their own numbers as developing countries fare comparatively better in human development than in per capita GDP terms. This paper attempts to bridge this gap by providing a new, ‘improved’ human development index (IHDI), informed by welfare economics. The IHDI is presented here alongside the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) HDI for the world and its main regions since the late 19th century. Social dimensions in the IHDI are derived, following Kakwani (Journal of Development Economics 41 (1993), pp. 307–336), with a convex achievement function, whereas a geometric average is employed to combine its dimensions (longevity, knowledge and income). Thus, the IHDI does not conceal the gap between rich and poor countries and casts a much less optimistic view than the conventional UNDP index, while it fits with the UNDP concern for international differences. The paper’s findings highlight main weaknesses in human development dimensions of present-day developing countries.; European Community's Seventh Framework Program

Human development policy: Theorizing and modeling

Yonehara, Aki Murakami
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2006; For more than half a century after World War II, a tremendous effort has been made for international development, both financially and intellectually. Some development economists believed that national economic growth would contribute to solving the problems of poverty in developing countries; others believed that improving the productivity of human resources was the critical source of economic growth. These concepts of development have justified educational development as a tool of economic growth. Human development theory questions such concepts of development that have focused exclusively on economic growth, and it considers humans themselves as the end of development, not a tool of economic growth. However, this philosophical theory of human development is not readily transformed into practical policy. What does "human development" mean? What role does educational development have in human development? How is it possible to embody this abstract concept as a policy? To answer these questions, this study sets three main aims: (I) to clarify the meaning of human development; (II) to propose a theoretical model of human development to specify a role of education in human development policy; and (III) to test the theoretical model empirically by applying Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling to Tanzania's survey data. Theoretical analysis of human development finds that "human development" means the process of expanding individuals' constitutive freedom...

From Early Child Development to Human Development : Investing in Our Children's Future

Eming Young, Mary
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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65.81%
Investing in every child at an early age is an investment in human, and economic development for all. Children born in poverty are far more likely to grow undeveloped in both body, and mind. Science tells us that early child development (ECD) is critical, and marks a child for life, and, young children who are well nurtured, do better in school, and develop the skills to compete in a global economy. It is in this context that the Bank hosted a conference to review the state of knowledge on brain development, the link between ECD and human development, the standards of care to improve children's educational outcomes, the qualitative and quantitative measures of effective programs, and elements of quality in ECD programs. This book contains the proceedings of the Conference on Investing in our Children's Future, which brought together leading experts, academicians, and practitioners from nongovernmental organizations, civil society, governments, and international organizations. The conference featured the benefits of investing in young children...

Political Institutions and Human Development : Does Democracy Fulfill its 'Constructive' and 'Instrumental' Role?

Vollmer, Sebastian; Ziegler, Maria
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
Institutions are a major field of interest in the study of development processes. The authors contribute to this discussion concentrating our research on political institutions and their effect on the non-income dimensions of human development. First, they elaborate a theoretical argument why and under what conditions democracies compared to autocratic political systems might perform better with regards to the provision of public goods. Due to higher redistributive concerns matched to the needs of the population democracies should show a higher level of human development. In the following they analyze whether our theoretical expectations are supported by empirical facts. The authors perform a static panel analysis over the period of 1970 to 2003. The model confirms that living in a democratic system positively affects human development measured by life expectancy and literacy rates even controlling for GDP. By analyzing interaction effects they find that the performance of democracy is rather independent of the circumstances. However...

Bhutan Human Development Indicators : Analysis of Current Situation using the BLSS

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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65.76%
This report lays out the challenge of human development in Bhutan. It is based on the first nationally-representative household survey, the Bhutan Living Standard Survey (BLSS), collected between April 2003 and June 2003. The report's primary objective is to inform the Bank of the current situation regarding some human development indicators. The report is partly filling in the knowledge gap on key human development indicators in Bhutan and will hopefully guide future policy directions. Some sections of the report have already been used as an input for the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS). On the demand side, the Ministry of Education in Bhutan had requested World Bank's assistance to help cost the Education Millennium Development Objective (MDG) and other sector objectives. This analysis was competed and delivered in Thimphu in January 2005 (and the analysis of the education sector laid out in the first chapter of this report formed an integral part of this presentation). The Ministry of Health did not express interest in the Bank's assistance in the analysis of the health sector using the BLSS data. However, the RGOB did express interest in Bank input addressing old age security and emerging youth unemployment and the report constitutes an initial step informing the dialogue.

Ethiopia : Enhancing Human Development Outcomes Through Decentralized Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
This report on enhancing human development outcomes through decentralized service delivery in Ethiopia seeks to identify changes in human development outcomes in a period of deepening decentralization and to suggest how the country's decentralized governance structure could be improved to increase access to, as well as the quality of, relevant services. A key message of the report is that the decentralized governance structure helped facilitate improvements in service delivery and human development outcomes, but also, that weaknesses in that structure can derail these gains. The report argues that while policymakers, providers, and citizens must work together to strengthen accountability mechanisms, there is a particular need to strengthen local government and enhance the role of service beneficiaries. The report focuses on key actors and their roles in accelerating progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Ethiopia. It complements rather than duplicates other recent studies. The report is organized as follows. The first chapter reports on trends in human development indicators and government social expenditures in Ethiopia over the past 15 years. Chapter 2 describes the phasing in of Ethiopia's decentralization plan and presents a framework of mechanisms of accountability for providing services. Chapter 3 examines the scope of decentralization in Ethiopia and the use of intergovernmental transfers. Chapter 4 presents some of the data collected for this report on changes in budget allocation behavior at the woreda level before and after decentralization and the effects on allocations for the social sectors. It also examines changes in key service delivery outcomes at the woreda level. Chapter 5 examines some of the constraints to improved service delivery and proposes ways of increasing resources at decentralized levels...

Children and Youth in Crisis : Protecting and Promoting Human Development in Times of Economic Shocks

Lundberg, Mattias; Wuermli, Alice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Motivated by the need to understand how crises affect human development in diverse segments of the population, this book explores how individuals and households cope with the changes and stresses induced by economic crises. It examines how these impacts and coping mechanisms differ across cultural and institutional contexts and looks at how best to protect the most vulnerable from lasting harm and the degradation of human capital. Financial crises, at both the global and the national level, are ubiquitous. Reinhart and Rogoff (2009) provide the invaluable lesson that over the past 800 years a major crisis has happened roughly once every 20 years. This pattern raises concern about the human impacts of crises, especially among more vulnerable people in developing countries. During the most recent global financial crisis, international organizations, bilateral development agencies, and civil society organizations all expressed concern about the ongoing 'human crisis.' The global community has become alarmed that the crisis could reverse recent progress in poverty reduction and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Human development is at the core of economic development. Human capital accumulation at all stages from the antenatal environment through early childhood and adolescence helps facilitate the transition to a healthy and productive adulthood and break the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Shortfalls or setbacks at any stage of the life course may have severe consequences for individual development as well as for the growth and development of successful communities. The work presented in this volume deepens our understanding of how shocks affect children and youth in two ways. First...

Strengthening Country Commitment to Human Development: Lessons from Nutrition

Heaver, Richard
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
Malnutrition persists in most developing countries. It contributes to the deaths of 3.4 million children annually and reduces the intelligence, health, and productivity of those who survive. Nutrition programs-indeed all human development programs-succeed or fail depending in part on the commitment of politicians, bureaucrats, and communities to properly implement them, both initially and over the long term. Technical, economic, and organizational issues get the lion's share of attention in designing nutrition and other human development programs. But the success of such programs often depends on two variables: whether countries back them with adequate financing and whether countries sustain a commitment to high-quality implementation. This book argues that assessing and strengthening country commitment should therefore become a new field of systematic professional practice. This new field requires expertise in political and policy analysis, organizational behavior, and strategic communication. Focusing on a variety of country programs in nutrition-both successful and failed-the book describes practical ways to assess and strengthen commitment and outlines an agenda for learning by doing. In addition to political will...

Human development in an evolutionary perspective; El desarrollo humano en una perspectiva evolucionista

Seidl -de -Moura, Maria Lucia; Donato Oliva, Ângela; Vieira, Mauro Luis
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/06/2010 SPA
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This article presents an evolutionary perspective to the study of human development. Some general assumptions for the study of development are discussed and the principal building blocks of evolutionary psychology are presented. One of them is that there is a universal human nature (which is modulate also by particular conditions of each context) and the cognitive architecture of human beings is the resulted of interactions between genes and environment. Based on those, and other assumptions, directions for the study of child development in an evolutionary stance are discussed, along with the considerations of context and development. Thus, it is assumed there is a relationship between phylogenies and ontogenetic development (the ontogenesis needs to be understood also as a product of evolution), considering the inseparability of biological, socio-cultural, cognitive emotional aspects that constitute this development. It has been concluded that the evolutionary developmental psychology has scientific relevance because it broadens our vision on human development.; Este artículo presenta una perspectiva evolucionista del estudio del desarrollo humano. Se discuten algunas suposiciones generales para el estudio del desarrollo y se presentan las principales bases de la psicología evolucionista. Uno de estos principios es que existe una naturaleza humana universal (la cual es también modulada por condiciones particulares de cada contexto) y que la arquitectura cognoscitiva de los seres humanos es el resultado de las interacciones entre genes y ambiente. Con base en éstas y otras suposiciones...

Human Development and Decent Work: Why some Concepts succeed and others fail to impact the Development Literature

Burchell, Brendan; Sehnbruch, Kirsten; Agloni, Nurjk; Piasna, Agnieszka
Fonte: Wiley on behalf of the Institute of Social Studies Publicador: Wiley on behalf of the Institute of Social Studies
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the accepted manuscript. It's currently embargoed pending publication by Wiley. The final version is available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dech.12149/abstract; This paper examines the impact of the International Labour Office?s (ILO) concept of Decent Work on development thinking and the associated literature. We attempt to answer the question of what makes a development initiative successful by comparing the decent work approach to the United Nation Development Program's (UNDP) human development concept (in conjunction with the human development indicator). We consider that the latter has been one of the most successful development concepts ever to have been launched, while the impact of decent work by comparison has been limited. Our hypothesis relating to the question of what makes a development initiative successful has three fundamental components: first, a solid theoretical foundation has to justify the launch of a development concept. A second vital factor is the availability of sufficient national and internationally comparable data that enables researchers and policymakers alike to apply the concept, preferably by means of a synthetic indicator. Third, the political will and institutional structure of the development institution that launches a concept is a key factor...

THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA

Figueroa, Ana Magdalena; Universidade de São Paulo
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/05/2015 ENG
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This research aims to empirically test the impact of globalization on human development by studying 17 Latin American countries in a range of time from 1995 to 2009, in order to confirm the hypothesis that the effect of globalization on human development of developing countries depends on specific aspects of globalization and human development, as well as the level of state fragility and delinquency. The motivation leading this research is the fact that globalization has not brought improvement in the developmental conditions of the population as a whole. The potential and originality of this study includes the contribution to providing evidence by testing empirically the relationship between globalization and human development in Central and South America in such a way that will allow us to differentiate what kind of globalization is positive or negative in distinct areas of human development. And this is with the purpose of helping policymakers to have a clearer idea of what can be done according to each country’s peculiarities to enhance the human development in a globalized era.       The outcomes from empirical data analysis that employ Panel Corrected Standard Errors (PCSE) modeling reveal that globalization has a conditional correlation with human development in Central and South American countries. That is...

Relationship between human development and drug use. Human development index and drug use

Salazar Silva,Fernando; Villatoro Velazquez,Jorge Ameth; Oliva Robles,Natania Froylan; Hynes,Marya; de Marco,Maria
Fonte: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Publicador: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
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65.78%
Human Development Index is currently considered a reference indicator to account for the social and economic situation experienced by countries. Method This study was conducted using the database from the study "Guiding Elements for Public Policies on Drugs in the Subregion -First Comparative Study on Drug Use and Associated Factors in Population of 15 to 64 years", held in Uruguay, Bolivia, Chile, Perú, Ecuador and Argentina. Target was urban population, from both sexes and of 12 to 65 years. Samples were stratified, three-staged and probabilistic. Sample sizes were theoretical with the inclusion of a non-response rate. Results Prevalence of drug consumption during last year and last month prior to the survey is higher in countries with high HDI compared with medium HDI countries. Lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption is higher in countries with medium HDI compared with those with high HDI. There is less consumption in lifetime prevalence of legal drugs of countries with higher human development index and an equal rate of cigarette consumption. Discussion High development index implies that the inhabitants of a country have a long and healthy life, more access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. Population with a favorable view on these indicators are not only exposed...