O presente trabalho, Contextos Contemporâneos - Homossexuais, Cultura e Mídia, tem por propósito focalizar discussões sociais, com estudos voltados para a área de comunicação e cultura, sobre a percepção dos homossexuais ao segmento de mercado cujo aporte nas mídias de massa aponta para uma inserção cada vez maior no número de personagens homossexuais nas telenovelas. Para o desenvolvimento do tema, escolhemos em nossa abordagem o uso dos termos - homossexual feminino e masculino, assim como lésbica e gay, com destaque para o último em algumas generalizações, dentro do que denominaremos comunidade homossexual. Para tanto, fizemos um levantamento dos estudos sobre sexualidade, pondo em destaque o espaço psicossocial destinado a eles. Com o intento de esclarecer os meandros antecedentes à homossexualidade, sua identidade cultural e a tensão gerada pela educação do homem versus a da mulher, refletimos sobre a repressão do corpo e a relação entre cultura - poder e comunidade. Visto que a sexualidade contemporânea juntamente com as questões do corpo, da moda e identidade está permeada por influências midiáticas, abordamos o consumo de um modo geral e a Indústria Cultural, em específico, sempre questionando como os homossexuais se percebem no mercado direcionado a este segmento dentro das mídias. Como nosso intuito era abordar a percepção dos mesmos sobre esta representação...
Serological markers for hepatitis B virus in male homosexuals demonstrated a high prevalence of past and present infection. Seropositivity of 91% for hepatitis B e antigen or antibody was demonstrated by radioimmunoassay in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive specimens.
Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses.
The mobility patterns of four enzymes using cultured trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were examined by electrophoresis. By this means the stocks of amoebae isolated from male homosexuals were characterised into zymodemes. No amoebic stock isolated corresponded to a pathogenic zymodeme.
A total of 83 male homosexuals were studied to ascertain the carriage of intestinal protozoal cysts. The homosexual group had a significantly (p less than 0.0005) higher prevalence than a control group. One or more types of protozoa were found in 33 homosexuals. The carriage of intestinal protozoal cysts was associated with particular sexual practices and promiscuity, but not with symptomatic bowel disorders. The possible implications of the carriage of these cysts are discussed.
Ten cases of hepatitis B virus infection were identified among asymptomatic male homosexuals. These patients shared a number of characteristics: A subclinical origin and course of infection; Persistence of HGsAg for periods exceeding six to 25 months; Persistent GPT elevation of two to five times upper normal limit; Morphological changes in the liver with portal and parenchymal inflammation (chronic persistent hepatitis, six cases; non-specific reactive hepatitis, 2 cases; cirrhosis and acute hepatitis with signs of chronicity, one case each). HBeAg was found in six cases, anti-HBe in none. These results indicate that screening for hepatitis B should be performed whenever these individuals come under medical attention in order to detect asymptomatic chronic liver diseases and to detect these silent vectors of an infection that presently shows an increased frequency among homosexuals.
Amoebic infection in two male homosexuals is described. The possibility that this infection was acquired through homosexual practices and the implications to clinical and diagnostic services is discussed.
Fifty male patients with proctitis were examined and the clinical, microbiological, serological and proctological features compared with 51 known male homosexuals attending the genitourinary (GU) clinic at the same hospital. The homosexuals had a short history of bowel symptoms, minor sigmoidoscopic and histological changes on rectal biopsy and many positive serological markers of sexually transmitted infection. There was some evidence of sexually transmitted disease in the IBD patients and three were homosexuals. IgG antibodies were positive for chlamydia trachomatis (n = 10) and hepatitis A (n = 7). One had a positive screening test for syphilis. Stool examination and rectal swab cultures were positive in two patients for cryptosporidium and cytomegalovirus respectively. Gastroenterologists must be aware of the possibility of specific infection in IBD patients and a clinical history should include sexual preferences and practices. If homosexuality is admitted, specific infection must be sought and excluded.
The presence and specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies (ALA) was investigated in sera from male homosexuals with AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) as well as healthy homosexuals. Individuals in the healthy homosexual group had no detectable antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibodies reactive with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected by Western blot analysis in sera from both groups of homosexuals. Of those individuals whose sera contained ALA, 71% of ARC patients and 83% of healthy homosexuals had antibodies recognizing a 73 kilodalton (kD) molecule. ALA present in ARC sera reacted with CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes while little reactivity with B cells was observed. Our results indicate that ALA appear in homosexuals prior to HIV infection and are reactive primarily with T lymphocytes. A 73 kD structure associated with the T cell membrane is frequently the target for these antibodies.
The recent introduction of a vaccine against hepatitis B has raised the questions of who should be offered it and what the cost would be of a vaccination programme. An analysis was performed of the financial costs and benefits of such a programme designed to prevent acute hepatitis B in male homosexuals in the United Kingdom. Under various assumptions the total costs of screening and vaccination ranged from 2.2m pounds to 3m pounds for a five year programme and from 3.3m pounds to 4.8m pounds for a 10 year programme. The benefits over the same two periods for the programme, depending on two different assumptions of mortality prevented, ranged 3.9m pounds to 13.7m pounds and from 7m pounds to 24.4m pounds. Thus considerable savings may be made to the national economy by offering vaccination to homosexuals. These savings are obtained after consideration of only the acute aspects of hepatitis B. Had it been possible to determine the costs of the chronic sequelae of this disease the savings, compared with the costs, would have been greatly increased.
In a study of 689 male homosexuals 290 (42%) were found to have antibodies to hepatitis A virus. The 399 men who did not have antibodies were followed up for up to 690 days, and 35 cases of hepatitis A were detected. The attack rate at the end of the study was 14%. The incidence climbed steadily, indicating that the cases of hepatitis A did not occur in clusters. Statistical analysis showed that the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus was significantly correlated with the duration of homosexual activity (p less than 0.006), and this was independent of age. The incidence of hepatitis A was found to be correlated with the number of different sexual partners in the preceding six months. It is concluded that hepatitis A is a sexually transmitted disease among homosexual men in countries with a low rate of exposure to hepatitis A during childhood.
T cell colonies were generated from the peripheral blood and bone marrow of 11 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 17 normal male and female heterosexuals and seven clinically normal male homosexuals. Mononuclear cells were cultured in methylcellulose both in the absence and presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) containing conditioned medium. Clinically normal homosexuals showed a low number of T4+ (P less than 0.01) but not T8+ cells. The number of T cell colony forming cells (T-CFC) from both AIDS patients and homosexuals was significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced compared to T-CFC from normal heterosexuals. In seven and four out of 11 AIDS patients, T-CFC from peripheral blood and bone marrow, respectively, were able to generate colonies in the absence of added growth factors and/or mitogenic stimulation. Pooled spontaneous and induced colonies from AIDS patients as well as induced colonies from normal homosexuals were composed of immature cells bearing the T3+, T4+, T6+ T8+ surface phenotype, unlike colonies from normal heterosexuals which displayed mature cells bearing the T3+ T4+ T6- and T3+ T8+ T6- surface phenotype. Moreover, most T-CFC from primary spontaneous and induced colonies had lost their self-renewal capacity either in the absence or the presence of added growth factors. These results suggest that early impairment of T-CFC may play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of AIDS.
The Darwinian paradox of male homosexuality in humans is examined, i.e. if male homosexuality has a genetic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? In a sample of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives (a total of over 4600 individuals), we found that female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives. The study confirms previous reports, in particular that homosexuals have more maternal than paternal male homosexual relatives, that homosexual males are more often later-born than first-born and that they have more older brothers than older sisters. We discuss the findings and their implications for current research on male homosexuality.
Serial assays of hormones and their metabolites are reported in the urine of three male and four female homosexuals. Urinary testosterone levels were abnormally low in the two men who practised exclusive homosexuality and were within the normal range in the third, who had both homosexual and heterosexual relationships. In the women assays were generally performed throughout one menstrual cycle; in three the pattern of hormone excretion was ovulatory in character, while in the fourth evidence for ovulation was equivocal. Levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (L.H.) were raised in the female homosexuals, while those for oestrogens, particularly oestrone, were below the range for normal heterosexual subjects during their reproductive life; readings of follicle-stimulating hormone (F.S.H.) and pregnanediol were normal in three women. The data reported here are in keeping with the view that abnormalities in endocrine function may occur in both male and female homosexuals.
Altogether 94 patients with perirectal abscesses and/or fistulae in ano were tested for lymphogranuloma venereum in a Washington, D.C., clinic. They included men and women of low socio-economic status, many of the men being overt psycho-sexual hermaphrodites. The findings were compared with those in a control group of similar sex distribution (females, male homosexuals, male heterosexuals). All persons in the study were tested for lymphogranuloma venereum by the complement-fixation and Frei tests. Homosexuals and persons with rectal lesions were also examined by proctoscopy.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a common cancer in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population, and its incidence continues to increase in male homosexuals. Combined chemoradiation with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil was poorly tolerated by severely immunocompromised patients in the early 1990s. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), however, recent data indicate that: (1) most HIV patients with anal cancer can tolerate standard chemotherapy regimens; and (2) this approach is associated with survival rates similar to those of HIV-negative patients. However, HIV-positive patients with SCCA are much younger, more likely to develop local tumor recurrence, and ultimately die from anal cancer than immune competent patients. Taken together, these findings suggest that anal cancer is an often fatal neoplasia in middle-aged HIV-positive male homosexuals. In this population, SCCA is an opportunistic disease resulting in patients with suboptimal immune function from persistent infection and prolonged exposition to oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Large-scale cancer-prevention strategies (routine anuscopy and anal papanicolaou testing) should be implemented in this population. In addition...
This study examined the motivating factors for perpetrators of antigay harassment and violence among 752 college freshmen. Large numbers of lesbians, gay men and bisexuals (LGB) are victimized solely because of their sexual orientation. The physical and psychological harm suffered by many of these individuals is alarming. In particular, victimization at school is correlated with a variety of other health risks for LGB students. In order for prevention efforts to be effectively tailored, it may be helpful for researchers to first identify what motivates the assailants. This study tested variables capturing demographic, psychosocial, and attitudinal factors. This purposive sample was selected because these students represent the age group most likely to become perpetrators. ^ The findings suggest that harassment of gay people is common and, in many cases, not motivated by particularly negative attitudes toward homosexuals. Instead, LGB individuals may be viewed as a socially acceptable target by others to harass out of boredom, anger at someone else, or in an attempt to assert their own threatened heterosexuality. Social norms, along with the variety and weakness of individual predictors for antigay harassment, further suggest that heterosexism is endemic and pervasive in our society. ^ Physical attacks against homosexuals...
The study centers on the power of Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) and Social
Dominance Orientation (SDO) as predictors of prejudice against stereotypical and nonstereotypical
homosexuals under the threat of death and the threat of uncertainty.
Right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) is an individual difference variable that
measures the tendency for individuals to unquestionably follow those perceived to be
authorities. Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) is an individual difference variable that
measures the degree to which an individual prefers inequality among social groups. The
RWA and SDO Scales are considered to be two of the strongest predictors of prejudice, such
as prejudice against homosexuals. The study focuses on the unique predictive power of these
two variables in predicting prejudice against homosexuals.
The study also examines the role of situational threat in prejudice, specifically the
threat of death (mortality salience) and the threat of uncertainty (uncertainty salience).
Competing predictions from theories involving the threat of death (Terror Management
Theory) and the threat of uncertainty (Uncertainty Management Theory) are also tested. The
preference for expected information in the form of stereotypes concerning male homosexuals
O presente trabalho apresenta uma etnografia da vida de homens que se relacionam afetiva e sexualmente com outros homens na cidade de Maputo, Moçambique. A narrativa é baseada em entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas no final do segundo semestre de 2013 e início de 2014. Os temas levantados se baseiam nas informações fornecidas pelos informantes e, de forma geral, apresentam vários aspectos da vida desses indivíduos. As conversas foram realizadas em locais públicos, porém reservados, de modo a garantir o anonimato dos entrevistados. O método utilizado para seleção de informantes foi o denominado "bola de neve", em que um informante apresenta outro ao pesquisador e assim sucessivamente. Nessa pesquisa, utilizei duas redes de informantes, cada uma apresentada por uma amiga que fiz na cidade. Os entrevistados são, na sua maioria, jovens, de formação urbana, de média a alta escolaridade. Em geral, os homens mais velhos que fazem sexo com outros homens não se declaram como homossexuais e não tive acesso a eles. Em resumo, as entrevistas nos revelam que o interesse afetivo-sexual de um homem por outro não é bem visto pelos círculos de relacionamentos dos entrevistados, o que lhes confere uma vida social cheia de manipulação da identidade...
Despite the emergence, in the last decades, of a wide range of studies related to homosexuality, little has been produced on the subject of internalized prejudice. Based on an articulation between social psychology and psychoanalytical concepts, as well as existing literature on the subject, this article investigates internalized prejudice, defined as an acceptance by homosexuals of society’s negative attitudes regarding homosexuality. Such an acceptance, results in negative feelings towards oneself – mainly shame and guilt of being gay or of experiencing same-sex desire. We strive to relate internalized prejudice with its major clinical manifestations, as well as some of the defense mechanisms used by male homosexuals (denial, reactive formation, rationalization and passing). We conclude the article by raising some issues concerning the reduction of internalized prejudice. Keywords: internalized prejudice; male homosexuality; clinical manifestations. ; Apesar do surgimento, nas últimas décadas, de uma vasta gama de estudos relacionados à homossexualidade, pouco foi produzido sobre o tema do preconceito internalizado. Tendo como base uma articulação entre conceitos oriundos da psicologia social e da psicanálise...