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Doenças respiratórias agudas: um estudo das desigualdades em saúde; Acute respiratory diseases: a study on health inequalities

CHIESA, Anna M.; WESTPHAL, Marcia F.; AKERMAN, Marco
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Apresentam-se as desigualdades em saúde valendo-se das doenças respiratórias agudas na infância na área de abrangência de um centro de saúde na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, para subsidiar o planejamento local de ações de promoção da saúde. O trabalho se fundamentou em estudos ecológicos que utilizam a área geográfica como unidade de análise, permitindo a comparação de indicadores de saúde e sócio-econômicos mediante dados censitários. Foram construídos indicadores de "inserção social" e de "qualidade do domicílio", gerando o "índice potencial de exposição" que reflete as condições de risco para o adoecimento por agravos respiratórios. O tratamento estatístico incluiu o agrupamento pela técnica de cluster. Foram identificados quatro grupos sociais homogêneos nas condições de risco para as doenças respiratórias agudas. Os grupos III e IV - com as piores condições sócio-econômicas - mostraram diferenciais importantes em relação aos grupos I e II. Os diferenciais de mortes por pneumonia encontrados, sugerem iniqüidades em saúde. Os resultados permitiram a localização geográfica de maior e menor concentração das carências relativas às condições de vida e a comparação entre os setores censitários para o reconhecimento de necessidades distintas...

Desigualdades sócio-econômicas na saúde: uma análise do Estado de São Paulo e do município de Ribeirão Preto; Socio-economic health inequalities: an analysis of the State of São Paulo and the Municipal District of Ribeirão Preto.

Zoghbi, Ana Carolina Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar possíveis desigualdades sócio-econômicas na saúde no Estado de São Paulo e no Município de Ribeirão Preto. Os dados utilizados para São Paulo são provenientes da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) de 2003, realizada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), e que apresenta características dos indivíduos e do domicílio. A base para Ribeirão Preto consiste em uma coorte desenvolvida pelo departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria de Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da USP no período de junho de 1978 a maio de 1979. Analisou-se a distribuição das variáveis relativas à saúde (doenças crônicas e auto-avaliação) entre quintis de renda. Adicionalmente, foram calculados Índices de Concentração de Saúde, cuja construção é semelhante a do Índice de Gini. Esse índice considera a proporção acumulada de determinada doença e a proporção acumulada da população, ordenada de forma crescente de acordo com a renda. Foram estimados também os impactos de algumas variáveis explicativas sobre a probabilidade de apresentar determinada doença ou de se auto-avaliar de determinada forma. Para o Estado de São Paulo consideraram-se como variáveis explicativas: escolaridade...

Proposta de metodologia para selecionar indicadores de desigualdade em saúde visando definir prioridades de políticas públicas no Brasil; Methodological approach to select indicators of health inequalities to define priorities for social policies in Brazil

Côrtes, Soraya Maria Vargas
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
Promover a saúde com eqüidade é um grande desafio para os gestores públicos. A magnitude das desigualdades sociais em saúde e os recursos escassos impõem que as prioridades para a gestão pública se fundamentem no conhecimento da situação de saúde e do impacto de políticas, programas, projetos e ações sobre a saúde e seus determinantes. Este artigo apresenta a proposta metodológica de construção e seleção de indicadores de desigualdades em saúde utilizada pela Pesquisa Avaliativa de Desigualdades em Saúde no Rio Grande do Sul (PADS-RS) para auxiliar a definição de prioridades para a gestão pública. Os indicadores foram construídos visando avaliar desigualdades em saúde como diferenças na qualidade de vida e capacidades humanas socialmente determinadas. A metodologia baseia-se em princípios de promoção ativa da eqüidade que orientam (1) o Sistema Único de Saúde Brasileiro, (2) as pesquisas avaliativas de desigualdades em saúde realizadas no Reino Unido e (3) o método RAWP (Resources Allocation Working Party) de alocação de recursos financeiros públicos em saúde entre regiões e considera as peculiaridades dos sistemas oficiais de informação no Estado e no Brasil.; Promoting equality in health is a challenge for policy makers. The magnitude of health inequalities and the shortage of resources require policy development supported by health situation analysis and scientific and expert evidence of the impact of policies...

Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure?

Murray, C. J.; Gakidou, E. E.; Frenk, J.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons--between and within countries, and over time--of health inequalities, and perhaps more importantly comparative analyses of their determinants. Such comparative work, however, will be essential to find effective policies for governments to reduce health inequalities. This article addresses the question of whether we should be measuring health inequalities or social group health differences. To help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches, we review some of the major arguments for and against each of them.

Sometimes More Equal Than Others: How Health Inequalities Depend on the Choice of Welfare Indicator

Lindelöw, Magnus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
A large body of empirical work in recent years has focused on measuring and explaining socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes and health service use. In any effort to address these questions, analysts must confront the issue of how to measure socioeconomic status. In developing countries, socioeconomic status has typically been measured by per capita consumption or an asset index. Currently, there is only limited information on how the choice of welfare indicators affects the analysis of health inequalities and the incidence of public spending. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential sensitivity of the analysis of health-related inequalities to how socioeconomic status is measured. Using data from Mozambique, the paper focuses on five key health service indicators and tests whether measured inequality (concentration index) in the five health service variables is different depending on the choice of welfare indicator. The paper shows that, at least in some contexts, the choice of welfare indicator can have a large and significant impact on measured inequality in utilization of health service and on the perceived incidence of public spending. Consequently...

An introduction to oral health inequalities among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations

Mejia, G.; Parker, E.; Jamieson, L.
Fonte: F D I World Dental Press Publicador: F D I World Dental Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
This overview revealed that substantial oral health inequalities exist between Indigenous and non-Indigenous child and adult populations in the United States, Canada, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand, with evidence suggesting that these inequalities are increasing. Despite the marked differences in geography, culture, language and history experienced by these groups, it is notable how similar the oral health inequalities were. A number of reasons are discussed in the paper.; Gloria C. Mejia, Eleanor J. Parker and Lisa M. Jamieson

Global Oral Health Inequalities: Task Group - Implementation and delivery of oral health strategies

Sheiham, A.; Alexander, D.; Cohen, L.; Marinho, V.; Moyses, S.; Petersen, P.; Spencer, A.; Watt, R.; Weyant, R.
Fonte: International and American Associations for Dental Research Publicador: International and American Associations for Dental Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
This paper reviews the shortcomings of present approaches to reduce oral diseases and inequalities, details the importance of social determinants, and links that to research needs and policies on implementation of strategies to reduce oral health inequalities. Inequalities in health are not narrowing. Attention is therefore being directed at determinants of major health conditions and the extent to which those common determinants vary within, between, and among groups, because if inequalities in health vary across groups, then so must underlying causes. Tackling inequalities in health requires strategies tailored to determinants and needs of each group along the social gradient. Approaches focusing mainly on downstream lifestyle and behavioral factors have limited success in reducing health inequalities. They fail to address social determinants, for changing people’s behaviors requires changing their environment. There is a dearth of oral health research on social determinants that cause health-compromising behaviors and on risk factors common to some chronic diseases. The gap between what is known and implemented by other health disciplines and the dental fraternity needs addressing. To re-orient oral health research, practice, and policy toward a ‘social determinants’ model...

Health Inequalities and Active Aging: What Can Social Workers Do?; Desigualdades en salud y Envejecimiento Activo: ¿Qué pueden hacer los trabajadores sociales?

Won Min, Jong
Fonte: Universidad de Murcia Publicador: Universidad de Murcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
The ongoing Eurozone crisis brought Spain harsh austerity measures of higher tax and cuts in medical care and social services. The growing economic hardship may lead to greater economic inequality. Income inequality, in turn, could cause inequitable health differences in population, called “health inequalities.” All of the events pose great challenges and risk to older adults, and threatens their efforts toward achieving healthy and active aging in Spain. This paper provides an overview of health inequalities in Spain and active aging, and discusses the potential roles of social workers in reducing health inequalities while promoting active aging for older adults in Spain. Continued efforts for active aging could prevent health inequalities from adversely affecting older adults during the difficult economic times. Social workers are perfectly positioned to help older adults to achieve the active aging. It concludes with a description of an intervention program in the United States that demonstrates the role of social workers in ensuring successful and active aging for vulnerable old adults; Resumen: La crisis de la eurozona en curso trajo España duras medidas de austeridad de los impuestos más altos y los recortes en la asistencia médica y los servicios sociales. La creciente dificultad económica puede conducir a una mayor desigualdad económica. La desigualdad de ingresos...

Economic and health impacts of narrower health inequalities, Australia

Walker, Agnes
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 592328 bytes; 363 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Objective: to estimate the health and economic impacts of narrower health inequalities in Australia. The health impacts are measured in terms of improved mortality and disability rates, and the economic impacts in terms of lower government expenditures on health care costs and on the disability support pension. Material and methods: this paper reports on an application of a dynamic microsimulation model which accounts – amongst many other variables - for the links between Australians' socioeconomic status and their health. The full model simulates individuals’ life cycles over a 20 to 30 year period. Its base year data was developed using a 1 per cent unit record Census sample of the Australian population. Health is proxied by linked mortality and disability equations, accounting for the fact that healthy people generally live longer than the disabled. For socioeconomic status the analyst can choose from four types of indicators. Results: if a policy was implemented which resulted in the lifting of the health status of all Australians to that of the most affluent 20% in the population, then close to one million fewer Australians are estimated to be disabled, over 180,000 life years could be saved, health care costs would be around A$3 billion lower and the government could save close to A$1 billion on the disability support pension. Conclusion: the narrowing of health inequalities at the national level has the potential to deliver...

Assessing Health Inequalities Using a Dynamic Microsimulation Model

Walker, Agnes
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 358099 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
The paper describes stage 1 of the development of a Health Module to a dynamic microsimulation model which simulates individuals' life cycles. The life cycle approach has been shown in the literature to be important when studying health inequalities. The enhanced model accounts for the links between Australians' socio-economic status and their health. The full model, which is able to project 20 to 30 years into the future, is based on a 1 per cent unit record Census sample of the Australian population.

Health is measured using information on individuals' disability status, which in turn is linked to their life expectancy. Both disability and life expectancy are estimated for each individual as a function of age, gender and socio-economic status. Socio-economic status is measured using the ‘Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage’ (developed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics), and/or an index based on families' incomes and assets (being especially developed for this project).

The paper also touches on proposed further developments of the Health Module and lists a range of studies that could be attempted once that Module is completed. Such studies could for example compare the demographic, labour force, financial and distributional impacts of proposed policies that aim to lower health inequalities – and do that more accurately and at a much greater level of detail than was possible previously.

Políticas de saúde bucal no Brasil e seu impacto sobre as desigualdades em saúde; Dental health policies in Brazil and their impact on health inequalities; Políticas de salud bucal en Brasil y su impacto sobre las desigualdades en salud

ANTUNES, José Leopoldo Ferreira; NARVAI, Paulo Capel
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Sistematiza-se o conhecimento disponível sobre o estágio atual de efetivação das principais políticas de saúde bucal no Brasil e seu impacto sobre as desigualdades em saúde. Embora a fluoretação da água de abastecimento público no Brasil seja uma determinação legal, sua implantação tem sofrido marcantes desigualdades regionais. São apresentados dados sobre o grau de efetivação da medida e são revisados estudos que avaliaram seu impacto sobre a ampliação da desigualdade na experiência de cárie dentária. A oferta de atendimento público odontológico, ampliada consideravelmente após a implantação do Sistema Único de Saúde, também é discutida em relação à provisão do serviço e seu impacto sobre a redução da desigualdade no acesso a tratamento dentário. A discussão do efeito diferencial dessas medidas propiciou a proposição de estratégias focais (direcionar a fluoretação para as áreas com maiores necessidades), visando a reduzir a desigualdade na experiência de cárie no País.; This text systematizes available knowledge about the main dental health policies in Brazil in regards to their current degree of implementation and their impact on health inequalities. Although the fluoridation of publicly distributed water is legally mandated in Brazil...

On the World Health Organisation's measurement of health inequalities

Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann
Fonte: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Publicador: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
Study objective: To review the World Health Organisation's methodological approach for the purpose of measuring health inequalities presented in the WHR 2000 and reference papers. Main findings: Recommending that health inequalities be assessed by measuring interindividual differences, without regard for the distribution of health status among specific population subgroups, the approach taken by WHO does not take into account the socioeconomic dimension, is strongly influenced by the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in the population, and suffers from the health redistribution problem. Apart from the conceptual issues, the estimation procedure also has methodological problems hidden in a sophisticated statistical procedure, which is confusingly explained in one of the referred discussion papers. The results presented in the WHR 2000 are based on Demographic and Health Survey data that refer to more than 10 years ago. Other methodological problems: The WHO's individual differences measure of health inequalities is expressed in units of survival time raised to the power of 2.5. Besides the difficulty of interpretation, the individual differences index is not a relative measure. However, the index of equality of child survival was defined as the complement of the individual differences index...

Health Inequalities Across Socio-economic Groups: Comparing Geographic-area-based and Individual-based Indicators

Walker, Agnes; Becker, Niels
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Publicador: W B Saunders Co
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Objectives: To compare health inequality estimates obtained with different types of indicators of socio-economic status (SES), and study whether some of these are better predictors of health status, as indicated by observed disability data, than others. Methods: Australian data were used to compare the use of the geographically based Socio-economic Index for Areas (SEIFA) in health inequality studies with two individual-based SES indicators able to account for family income and size. Inequalities in disability prevalences by SES were measured using age-standardized rate ratios. Logistic regression was used to determine which type of SES measure is a better predictor of the observed disability prevalences. Results: Estimates of health inequalities obtained with the SEIFA were considerably lower than those obtained with the individual-based SES indicators. With the SEIFA, the proportion of disabled people amongst the most disadvantaged 20% of Australians was estimated to be 82% higher than amongst the most advantaged 20%, compared with over 150% with the individual-based SES measures. Also, the individual-based indicators were considerably better predictors of observed disability status than the SEIFA. Conclusion: An individual-level SES indicator...

Políticas de saúde bucal no Brasil e seu impacto sobre as desigualdades em saúde; Políticas de salud bucal en Brasil y su impacto sobre las desigualdades en salud; Dental health policies in Brazil and their impact on health inequalities

Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Narvai, Paulo Capel
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2010 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Sistematiza-se o conhecimento disponível sobre o estágio atual de efetivação das principais políticas de saúde bucal no Brasil e seu impacto sobre as desigualdades em saúde. Embora a fluoretação da água de abastecimento público no Brasil seja uma determinação legal, sua implantação tem sofrido marcantes desigualdades regionais. São apresentados dados sobre o grau de efetivação da medida e são revisados estudos que avaliaram seu impacto sobre a ampliação da desigualdade na experiência de cárie dentária. A oferta de atendimento público odontológico, ampliada consideravelmente após a implantação do Sistema Único de Saúde, também é discutida em relação à provisão do serviço e seu impacto sobre a redução da desigualdade no acesso a tratamento dentário. A discussão do efeito diferencial dessas medidas propiciou a proposição de estratégias focais (direcionar a fluoretação para as áreas com maiores necessidades), visando a reduzir a desigualdade na experiência de cárie no País.; Se sistematiza el conocimiento disponible sobre la fase actual de efectividad de las principales políticas de salud bucal en Brasil y su impacto sobre las desigualdades en salud. A pesar de que la fluorificación del agua de abastecimiento público en Brasil sea una determinación legal...

Do income gradients in unhealthy behaviours explain patterns of health inequalities?

Costa-i-Font, Joan; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores
Fonte: LSE Health and Social Care, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE Health and Social Care, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
More needs to be known about the origins of health inequalities and their measurement. This paper contributes by examining how the existence of income-related inequalities in unhealthy behaviours and more specifically, obesity (as a proxy for excessive food intake), alcohol intake and smoking might explain the persistence of health inequalities. We empirically examine data from two countries, England and Spain, which exhibit rising obesity levels, as well as smoking and alcohol use, drawing from unique health survey data. Furthermore, we carry out a sensitivity analysis of the influence of different robustness checks, including primarily, the definition of variables across national surveys, reporting bias associated with self-reported measures of lifestyle and the measurement of income related inequalities in lifestyle factors across countries. The results document the persistence of income inequalities in obesity and tobacco use, which disproportionately concentrate among the relatively poor. However, we find that inequalities in alcohol consumption over time tend to concentrate among relatively richer individuals in both countries examined.

Health inequalities and the health of the poor: What do we know? What can we do?

Gwatkin,D.R
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
The contents of this theme section of the Bulletin of the World Health Organization on "Inequalities in health" have two objectives: to present the initial findings from a new generation of research that has been undertaken in response to renewed concern for health inequalities; and to stimulate movement for action in order to correct the problems identified by this research. The research findings are presented in the five articles which follow. This Critical Reflection proposes two initial steps for the action needed to alleviate the problem; other suggestions are given by the participants in a Round Table discussion which is published after these articles. The theme section concludes with extracts from the classic writings of the nineteenth-century public health pioneer, William Farr, who is widely credited as one of the founders of the scientific study of health inequalities, together with a commentary. This Critical Reflection contributes to the discussion of the action needed by proposing two initial steps for action. • That professionals who give very high priority to the distinct but related objectives of poverty alleviation, inequality reduction, and equity enhancement recognize that their shared concern for the distributional aspects of health policy is far more important than any differences that may divide them. • That health policy goals...

Social class, health inequalities, and health-related behaviors of working people in Chile

Rocha,Kátia Bones; Muntaner,Carles; González Rodríguez,María José; Baksai,Pamela Bernales; Vallebuona,Clelia; Borrell,Carme; Solar,Orielle
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze links between social class and health-related indicators and behaviors in Chilean workers, from a neo-Marxian perspective. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Health, and Quality of Life of Workers in Chile, done in 2009-2010 (n = 9 503). Dependent variables were self-perceived health status and mental health, examined using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Health-related behavior variables included tobacco use and physical activity. The independent variable was neo-Marxian social class. Descriptive analyses of prevalence were performed and odds ratio (OR) models and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. RESULTS: Medium employers (between 2 and 10 employees) reported a lower prevalence of poor health (21.6% [OR 0.68; 95%CI 0.46-0.99]). Unskilled managers had the lowest mental health risk (OR 0.43; 95%CI 0.21-0.88), with differences between men and women. Large employers (more than 10 employees) reported smoking the least, while large employers, expert supervisors, and semi-skilled workers engaged in significantly more physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Large employers and expert managers have the best health-related indicators and behaviors. Formal proletarians...

Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda

Restrepo-Méndez,María Clara; Barros,Aluísio J. D.; Requejo,Jennifer; Durán,Pablo; Serpa,Luis Andrés de Francisco; França,Giovanny V. A.; Wehrmeister,Fernando C.; Victora,Cesar G.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
OBJECTIVE: To expand the "Countdown to 2015" analyses of health inequalities beyond the 75 countries being monitored worldwide to include all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) that have adequate data available. METHODS: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were used to monitor progress in health intervention coverage and inequalities in 13 LAC countries, five of which are included in the Countdown (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, and Peru) and eight that are not (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Suriname). The outcomes included neonatal and under-5 year mortality rates, child stunting prevalence, and the composite coverage index-a weighted average of eight indicators of coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. The slope index of inequality and concentration index were used to assess absolute and relative inequalities. RESULTS: The composite coverage index showed monotonic patterns over wealth quintiles, with lowest levels in the poorest quintile. Under-5 and neonatal mortality as well as stunting prevalence were highest among the poor. In most countries, intervention coverage increased, while under-5 mortality and stunting prevalence fell most rapidly among the poor...

Disaggregating health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2002-2010, by applying an urban health inequality index

Bortz,Martin; Kano,Megumi; Ramroth,Heribert; Barcellos,Christovam; Weaver,Scott R.; Rothenberg,Richard; Magalhães,Monica
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
Abstract An urban health index (UHI) was used to quantify health inequalities within Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the years 2002-2010. Eight main health indicators were generated at the ward level using mortality data. The indicators were combined to form the index. The distribution of the rank ordered UHI-values provides information on inequality among wards, using the ratio of the extremes and the gradient of the middle values. Over the decade the ratio of extremes in 2010 declined relative to 2002 (1.57 vs. 1.32) as did the slope of the middle values (0.23 vs. 0.16). A spatial division between the affluent south and the deprived north and east is still visible. The UHI correlated on an ecological ward-level with socioeconomic and urban environment indicators like square meter price of apartments (0.54, p < 0.01), low education of mother (-0.61, p < 0.01), low income (-0.62, p < 0.01) and proportion of black ethnicity (-0.55, p < 0.01). The results suggest that population health and equity have improved in Rio de Janeiro in the last decade though some familiar patterns of spatial inequality remain.

Inequalities in health in Latin America and the Caribbean: descriptive and exploratory results for self-reported health problems and health care in twelve countries

Dachs,J. Norberto W.; Ferrer,Marcela; Florez,Carmen Elisa; Barros,Aluisio J. D.; Narváez,Rory; Valdivia,Martín
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
Objective. To explore and describe inequalities in health and use of health care as revealed by self-report in 12 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. A descriptive and exploratory study was performed based on the responses to questions on health and health care utilization that were included in general purpose household surveys. Inequalities are described by quintile of household expenditures (or income) per capita, sex, age group (children, adults, and older adults), and place of residence (urban vs. rural area). For those who sought health care, median polishing was performed by economic status and sex, for the three age groups. Results. Although the study is exploratory and descriptive, its findings show large economic gradients in health care utilization in these countries, with generally small differences between males and females and higher percentages of women seeking health care than men, although there were some exceptions among the lower economic strata in urban areas. Conclusions. Inequalities in self-reported health problems among the different economic strata were small, and such problems were usually more common among women than men. The presence of small inequalities may be due to cultural and social differences in the perception of health. However...