Página 1 dos resultados de 618 itens digitais encontrados em 0.131 segundos

Funding Infectious Disease Research: A Systematic Analysis of UK Research Investments by Funders 1997–2010

Fitchett, Joseph R.; Head, Michael G.; Cooke, Mary K.; Wurie, Fatima B.; Atun, Rifat
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.44%
Background: Research investments are essential to address the burden of disease, however allocation of limited resources is poorly documented. We systematically reviewed the investments awarded by funding organisations to UK institutions and their global partners for infectious disease research. Methodology/Principal Findings Public and philanthropic investments for the period 1997 to 2010 were included. We categorised studies by infectious disease, cross-cutting theme, and by research and development value chain, reflecting the type of science. We identified 6165 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK £2.6 billion. Public organisations provided £1.4 billion (54.0%) of investments compared with £1.1 billion (42.4%) by philanthropic organisations. Global health studies represented an investment of £928 million (35.7%). The Wellcome Trust was the leading investor with £688 million (26.5%), closely followed by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) with £673 million (25.9%). Funding over time was volatile, ranging from ∼£40 million to ∼£160 million per year for philanthropic organisations and ∼£30 million to ∼£230 million for public funders. Conclusions/Significance: Infectious disease research funding requires global coordination and strategic long-term vision. Our analysis demonstrates the diversity and inconsistent patterns in investment...

Message from the President of the United States, transmitting copies of a letter from the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to the Secretary of State, with the answer of the latter

United States. Dept. of State.; Great Britain. Foreign Office.; United States. President (1809-1817 : Madison); United States. Congress. House.; United States. 13th Congress, 2nd Session, 1813-1814. House. Document
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.53%
January 6, 1814. Ordered to lie on the table. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- At head of title: [22]. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13th Congress, 2nd Session, House. Doc. 22. Printed by Roger C. Weightman

Latin America - Determinants of Regional Welfare Disparities within Latin American Countries : Country Case Studies

Skoufias, Emmanuel; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
This study analyzes the complicated and dynamic nature of welfare differences across space. The objectives are two-fold. First, the study seeks to provide a methodological framework useful for investigating the determinants of the observed differences in the standards of living between two regions at a given point in time. Second, it aims to provide empirical evidence on regional welfare differences to inform the policy debate surrounding regional inequalities within countries. Chapter two sets the stage by presenting the poverty profiles within and between regions in each of the eight countries in study. Chapter three reviews the methodology, based on the Oaxaca-Blinder (1973) decomposition method used to asses the relative size of the concentration and geography effect in welfare differences across regions/areas. Chapter four reports the findings from various comparisons conducted between urban and rural areas within regions, and urban vs. urban (or rural vs. rural) areas between regions. Chapter five focuses on the role of internal migration within Latin America (LAC) countries. Chapter six summarizes the available empirical evidence regarding the poverty and welfare impacts of the two most distinct types interventions associated with the concentration and the geography views: conditional cash transfers; and territorial development strategies. Chapter seven summarizes findings and discusses some of their main policy implications.

What Determines the Extent of Fiscal Decentralization? The Russian Paradox

Freinkman, Lev; Plekhanov, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.68%
The paper provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of fiscal decentralization within Russian regions in 1994-2001. The conventional view that more decentralized governments are found in regions and countries with higher income, higher ethnolinguistic fractionalization, and higher levels of democracy is not supported by the data. This motivates a more refined analysis of the determinants of decentralization that points to the link between decentralization and the structure of regional government revenue: access to windfall revenues leads to a more centralized governance structure. The degree of decentralization also depends positively on the level of urbanization and regional size and negatively on income and general regional development indicators such as the education level.

A Guide to Government in Afghanistan

Evans, Anne; Manning, Nick; Osmani, Yasin; Tully, Anne; Wilder, Andrew
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.67%
This guide has three objectives: First and foremost, it seeks to provide newcomers to the Administrative and political scene in Afghanistan with a basic guide to the structures and processes of government. Second and related, it intends to provide reformers with some understanding of how to work "with the grain" of the existing institutional arrangements. Third, this report seeks to pay tribute to the remarkable people who have kept the system running and who are now reforming it. In pursuing these objectives, this guide attempts to set out these underlying strengths of the public sector, describing the evolution of the Afghan state, the current political context, and the administrative and organizational components of the government. It sets out the legal basis and organizational responsibilities for key fiscal tasks including revenue collection, budget preparation and execution, and accounting and audit. It also describes the organizational structures in the provinces, the way in which the staffing establishment is determined...

Who Participates : The Supply of Volunteer Labor and the Distribution of Government Programs in Rural Peru

Schady, Norbert R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
Numerous analysts have linked volunteering and participation to positive economic and political outcomes. The author uses the 1994 Peru Living Standards Measurement Survey to analyze volunteering patterns in rural Peru. He finds that volunteers in rural Peru have a high opportunity cost of time. They are more educated and more likely to hold a job. Other household characteristics, such as gender, marital status, length of residence, and ethnicity, are also important predictors of the probability of volunteering. Controlling for household characteristics, communities differ widely in aggregate volunteer levels. These differences seem unrelated to differences in patterns of government expenditures. Volunteering may have important benefits in building social capital and encouraging greater ownership of development projects. For example, many public programs in rural Peru and elsewhere ask that the intended beneficiaries "participate" as a means of building trust and social capital, increasing the sustainability of investments and helping self-target investments to the poor. But the author finds that encouraging participation by potential beneficiaries is unlikely to be an effective form of self-targeting...

The Permanent Input Hypothesis : The Case of Textbooks and (No) Student Learning in Sierra Leone

Sabarwal, Shwetlena; Evans, David K.; Marshak, Anastasia
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.7%
A textbook provision program in Sierra Leone demonstrates how volatility in the flow of government-provided learning inputs to schools can induce storage of these inputs by school administrators to smooth future consumption. This process in turn leads to low current utilization of inputs for student learning. A randomized trial of a public program providing textbooks to primary schools had modest positive impacts on teacher behavior but no impacts on student performance. In many treatment schools, student access to textbooks did not actually increase because a large majority of the books were stored rather than distributed to students. At the same time, the propensity to save books was positively correlated with uncertainty on the part of head teachers regarding government transfers of books. The evidence suggests that schools that have high uncertainty with respect to future transfers are more likely to store a high proportion of current transfers. These results show that reducing uncertainty in school input flows could result in higher current input use for student learning. For effective program design...

Report on tribal government

United States -- American Indian Policy Review Commission. -- Task Force Two, Tribal Government
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: xi, 365 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Publicado em //1976 ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.61%
(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.; At head of title: Committee print.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 J892-2; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.; (Statement of Responsibility) Task Force Two, tribal government .

Policies and procedures of the Renegotiation Board

United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Banking, Currency and Housing. -- Subcommittee on General Oversight and Renegotiation
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: v, 57 p. : ; 24 cm.
Publicado em //1976 ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.44%
At head of title: Committee print.; Issued Oct. 1976.; (Statement of Responsibility) by the staff of the Subcommittee on General Oversight and Renegotiation ; submitted to the Committee on Banking, Currency, and Housing, House of Representatives, 94th Congress, second session.

Distribution of Federal surplus property to State and local organizations : source book : amendments to the Federal property and administrative services act of 1949 made by Public Law 94-519 (with regulations and statutes)

United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Government Operations
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: v, 181 p. : ; 24 cm.
Publicado em //1976 ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
(Additional Physical Form) Also available in electronic format.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 H402-1; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.; Issued Dec. 1976.; At head of title: Committee print. 94th Congress, 2d session. House of Representatives.; (Statement of Responsibility) Committee on Government Operations, U.S. House of Representatives.

Government in the sunshine act, S. 5 (Public Law 94-409)

Relyea, Harold; United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Government Operations; United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Government Operations
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: viii, 832 p. : ; 23 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; (Additional Physical Form) Also available in electronic format.; (Statement of Responsibility) Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate and the Committee on Government Operations, U.S. House of Representatives.; At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Joint committee print.; Prepared by Harold C. Relyea.; Issued Dec. 1976.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 S402-15

Handbook of United States grades for grain sorghums

United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Fonte: Government Printing Office; Government Printing Office ( Washington, D.C ) Publicador: Government Printing Office; Government Printing Office ( Washington, D.C )
Tipo: mixed material Formato: 8 p. : ; 15 cm.
Publicado em //1924 ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.53%
Cover title.; At head of title: U.S.G.S.A.--G.I.--Form No. 142 ; Issued March, 1924 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.; (Statement of Responsibility) Recommended by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.

The politics of bank bailouts

REINKE, Raphael
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
In this thesis, I show that governments bail out banks because banks are critical to capitalist democracies. Banks enjoy a public safety net. Governments, however, can make banks pay for this protection. Two of this dissertation’s conclusions stand out. The first is that the influence of business through lobbying and other channels of instrumental power is exaggerated. Banks cannot secure sweetheart deals by pointing to their track record of campaign contributions. Bailouts are not for sale. During crises, governments can use banks’ dependence on the domestic market to force them to bear the bailout costs. Only highly international banks, can parry this threat by using their structural power strategically. The second conclusion is that financial crises remove veto points. They create a large threat and leave little time for deliberation, which prompts lawmakers defer to the executive branch. Thus, financial crises shift power from legislatures—even strong ones, like the US Congress—to the head of government.; Defence date: 24 November 2014; Examining Board: Professor Pepper D. Culpepper, European University Institute (Supervisor); Professor Mark Hallerberg, Hertie School of Governance; Professor Ellen M. Immergut, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Professor Hanspeter Kriesi...

Speeches on Australian federation by the premiers of Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Tasmania, and Western Australia / [edited by] Mr. Deakin and Lord Brassey.

Deakin, Alfred, 1856-1919.; Brassey, Thomas Brassey, Earl, 1836-1918.
Fonte: Melbourne, Vic. : G. Robertson & Co. : Echo Publishing, 1899. Publicador: Melbourne, Vic. : G. Robertson & Co. : Echo Publishing, 1899.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1899 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
These speeches were delivered at a luncheon in celebration of Foundation Day in Melbourne. The South Australian Premier, Charles Cameron Kingston, opposed the holding of a further Federal Convention to accommodate Queensland, arguing that the Premiers already had a 'difficult, delicate, and dangerous task before them' to obtain approval for the draft constitution. Kingston (1850-1908) had been a member of the House of Assembly since 1881 and head of government from 1893, during which time many reforms and much progressive legislation were introduced. He made a significant contribution to the Federation movement, representing South Australia at the 1889 Hobart Federal Council session, was a member of the 1891 National Australasian Convention (where he assisted in the preparation of the original Commonwealth bill), and heading the poll of elected delegates from South Australia to the 1897-98 convention. After Federation he was elected to the House of Representatives on a protectionist programme and took the trade and customs portfolio in the Barton government.; Scanned from the original held in Rare Books & Special Collections, Barr Smith Library.

Bangladesh : The Experience and Perceptions of Public Officials

Mukherjee, Ranjana; Gokcekus, Omer; Manning, Nick; Landell-Mills, Pierre
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
This report summarizes the responses of Bangladeshi Class I (highest level) public sector officials to a survey seeking opinions on a number of civil service issues, from personnel management practices to rewards and disciplinary actions, and from employees' sources of income to the budget environment and procurement processes. Survey results show instances in Bangladesh's civil service where professional conduct is perceived to be sacrificed at the expense of personal and political concerns. Surveyed officials express a concern over patronage appointments in the recruitment of Class III and IV staff and unfavorable postings and transfers at the higher level. Corruption, insufficient budgetary allocation, and unpredictable budgets are identified as key impediments to achieving organizational objectives. The report utilizes the survey data to test prior assertions against the survey data. Data is analyzed to establish that institutions do matter for accountability; to explore an empirical association between elements of institutional environment and accountability; and to generate potential accountability payoffs for certain reform interventions. The analyzes show that reduced interference by politicians from outside and within the organizations...

Devolution in Pakistan : Annex 1. Recent History

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Institutional and Governance Review (IGR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.69%
The Devolved Service Delivery Study (DSD) is the product of an agreement between the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the Department for International Development (the United Kingdom), in response to a request from the Government of Pakistan that the agencies review progress toward improving service delivery through decentralization. Pakistan's far-reaching devolution initiative has been designed with three broad and inter-related objectives in mind: To inject new blood into a political system considered to be the domain of historically entrenched interests; to provide positive measures enabling marginalized citizens--women, workers, peasants-to access formal politics; and to introduce a measure of stability into a turbulent political scene by creating a stronger line of accountability between new politicians and local electorates. Underpinning the political strategy were other technical objectives: improved delivery of social services; better determination and enforcement of property and labor rights and regulation of economic activities; and access to justice in the form of improved performance by local administrations...

Cambio y l??mites en Marruecos: propuesta de reforma constitucional sobre el Gobierno

Parejo Fern??ndez, Mar??a Angustias
Fonte: Fundaci??n CIDOB Publicador: Fundaci??n CIDOB
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.63%
Una de las novedades m??s destacadas de la nueva arquitectura pol??tico-constitucional en Marruecos es el nuevo estatuto del Gobierno. En el presente art??culo se analizan las propuestas de reforma constitucional sobre el Gobierno que realizaron los partidos de la antigua oposici??n y del Partido de la Justicia y el Desarrollo en 2011. Los objetivos son, por un lado, desvelar el proceso de redefinici??n del campo del consenso y valorar la fuerza o debilidad de los partidos de la oposici??n institucional para incidir en un nuevo pacto pol??tico m??s democr??tico; por el otro, evaluar el alcance de la autonom??a pol??tico-constitucional de este nuevo modelo del Gobierno y su contribuci??n a la democratizaci??n del r??gimen pol??tico marroqu??.; One of the stand-out novelties of the new politico-constitutional architecture in Morocco is the new government statute. This article analyses the proposals for constitutional reform of the government made in 2011 by the parties of the former opposition and the Party of Justice and Development. The paper???s objectives are, on the one hand, to reveal the process of redefinition in the field of consensus and to assess the strength or weakness of the institutional opposition parties in influencing a new...

Messersmith, G.S., Berlin. Despatch No. 1305 to Secretary of State [Cordell Hull], Washington.

Messersmith, George S. (George Strausser), 1883-1960.
Fonte: Special Collections, University of Delaware Library Publicador: Special Collections, University of Delaware Library
Tipo: Outros Formato: Typed Document Copy, 11 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
Foreign minister appointed Hans Draeger to study anti-German propaganda in foreign countries; Hitler announced establishment of foundation to provide funds to families of workers who lost lives in pursuance of their duties; called on public for contributions; Goebbels had planned to go to Chicago ostensibly for opening of Chicago Fair, but real reason to make propaganda speeches in U.S.; no mention of the trip in newspapers recently; may have been advised not to go, for of all members of present government he would be least likely to get sympathetic hearing in U.S.; burning of Jewish and Marxist books carried out as planned by university students; well-known Jews removed from positions - Professor Borchardt, director of Surgical Division of Moabit Hospital, Dr. [Fritz] Haber, head of Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Nobel Prize winner, Oskar von Miller, head of Deutsches Museum in Munich, Max Liebermann, dean of German painters and honorary president of Prussian Academy of Fine Arts, and many leading authors from the Academy of Writers; many suicides among Jews; concentration camps for political prisoners increasing as arrests increase, and add further drain of government funds; Dr. Robert Ley has organized the "Deutsche Arbeitsfront...

Do heads of government age more quickly? Observational study comparing mortality between elected leaders and runners-up in national elections of 17 countries

Olenski, Andrew R; Abola, Matthew V; Jena, Anupam B
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 14/12/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.54%
Objectives To determine whether being elected to head of government is associated with accelerated mortality by studying survival differences between people elected to office and unelected runner-up candidates who never served.

Sir Gus O’Donnell’s coming departure as cabinet secretary and head of the civil service marks a reconfiguration at the centre of Whitehall that will enhance collective responsibility at the heart of government

Blick, Andrew; Jones, George W.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/11/2011 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
The departure of the UK’s top civil servant and the subsequent re-shuffling of the centre of Whitehall will have a great influence on the way central government is organised. Andrew Blick and George Jones argue that the upcoming changes might increase chances for more collegial decision-making at the heart of government.