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Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia and clivus fracture following head injury: case report

Bonilha,Leonardo; Fernandes,Yvens Barbosa; Mattos,João Paulo de Vasconcelos; Borges,Wilson Adriano Abraão; Borges,Guilherme
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a remarkable finding, particularly in patients victims of head injury. The medial longitudinal fasciculus, which is believed to be lesioned in cases of internuclear ophthalmoplegia, has an unique brain stem position and the mechanism involved in brain stem contusions implies a maximal intensity of shearing forces on the skull base. We describe a very rare association of bilateral ophthalmoplegia and clivus fracture following head injury, without further neurological signs. The patient history, his physical examination and the image investigation provide additional evidence to some of the mechanisms of injury proposed to explain post-traumatic internuclear ophthalmoplegia.

Measurement of S-100B for risk classification of victims sustaining minor head injury: first pilot study in Brazil

Poli-de-Figueiredo,Luiz F; Biberthaler,Peter; Simao Filho,Charles; Hauser,Christopher; Mutschler,Wolf; Jochum,Marianne
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
BACKGROUND: Release of the neuronal protein S-100B into the circulation has been suggested as a specific indication of neuronal damage. The hypothesis that S-100B is a useful and cost-effective screening tool for the management of minor head injuries was tested. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients sustaining isolated minor head injury were prospectively evaluated in the emergency room of a Brazilian hospital by routine cranial computed tomography scan. Venous blood samples (processed to serum) were assssayed for S-100B using a newly developed immunoassay test kit. Twenty-one normal healthy individuals served as negative controls. Data are presented as median and 25 to 75 percentiles. RESULTS: Patients reached the emergency room an average of 45 minutes (range: 30-62 minutes) after minor head injury. Six of 50 patients (12%) showed relevant posttraumatic lesions in the initial cranial computed tomography scan and were counted as positive. The median systemic concentration of S-100B in those patients was 0.75 µg/L (range: 0.66-6.5 µg/L), which was significantly different (U-test, P < .05) from the median concentration of 0.26 µg/L (range: 0.12-0.65 µg/L), of patients without posttraumatic lesions as counted by the cranial computed tomography. A sensitivity of 100%...

Electrophysiological and behavioural correlates of facial identity and expression perception deficits following a closed head injury /

Santamaria, Belinda.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
A large variety of social signals, such as facial expression and body language, are conveyed in everyday interactions and an accurate perception and interpretation of these social cues is necessary in order for reciprocal social interactions to take place successfully and efficiently. The present study was conducted to determine whether impairments in social functioning that are commonly observed following a closed head injury, could at least be partially attributable to disruption in the ability to appreciate social cues. More specifically, an attempt was made to determine whether face processing deficits following a closed head injury (CHI) coincide with changes in electrophysiological responsivity to the presentation of facial stimuli. A number of event-related potentials (ERPs) that have been linked specifically to various aspects of visual processing were examined. These included the N170, an index of structural encoding ability, the N400, an index of the ability to detect differences in serially presented stimuli, and the Late Positivity (LP), an index of the sensitivity to affective content in visually-presented stimuli. Electrophysiological responses were recorded while participants with and without a closed head injury were presented with pairs of faces delivered in a rapid sequence and asked to compare them on the basis of whether they matched with respect to identity or emotion. Other behavioural measures of identity and emotion recognition were also employed...

Investigating the effects of arousal state on cognitive performance in individuals with and without mild head injury

St. Cyr-Baker, Julie.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
We examined the cognitive and emotional sequelae following mild head injury (MHI; e.g., concussion) in high-functioning individuals and whether persons with MHI pre~ent, both physiologically and via self-report, in a manner different from (i.e., underaroused) that of persons who have no history of head injury. We also investigated the effect arousal state ~as on the cognitive performance of this population. Using a quasiexperimental research design (N = 91), we examined changes in attention, working memory, and cognitive flexibility (subtests ofthe WAIS-III, 1997,WMS-III, 1997, & DKEFS, 2002) as a function of manipulated arousal (i.e., induced psychosocial stress/activation; reduced activation/relaxation). In addition to self-reported arousal and state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Speilberger, 1983a) measures, physiological indices of arousal state (i.e., electrodermal responsivity, heart rate, and respiration activity) were recorded (via Polygraph Professional Suite, 2008) across a 2.5 hour interval while completing various cognitive tasks. Students also completed the Post-concussive Symptom Checklist (Gouvier et aI., 1992). The results demonstrate that university students who report a history ofMHI (i.e....

Indices and Implications of Emotional Underarousal for Persons with a History of Head Trauma

Baker, Julie
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
We examined the role of altered emotional functioning across the spectrum of injury severity (mild head injury [MHI], moderate/severe traumatic brain injury [TBI]), its implications for social behaviours, and the effect of modifying arousal and its relation to cognitive performance. In the first study (N = 230), students with self-reported MHI endorsed engaging in socially unacceptable and erratic behaviours significantly more often than did those with no MHI. We did not find significant differences between the groups in the measure of emotional intelligence (EI); however, for students who reported a MHI, scores on the EI measure significantly predicted reports of socially unacceptable behaviours such that lower scores predicted poorer social functioning, accounting for approximately 20% of the variance. Also, the experience of postconcussive symptoms was found to be significantly greater for students with MHI relative to their peers. In the second study (N = 85), we further examined emotional underarousal in terms of physiological (i.e., electrodermal activation [EDA]) and self-reported responsivity to emotionally-evocative picture stimuli. Although the valence ratings of the stimuli did not differ between students with and without MHI as we had expected...

Social competence following mild head injury and moderate traumatic brain injury: Investigating the neuropsychological relationships between arousal, social decision-making and depression

Robb, Sean
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
Client-directed long-term rehabilitative goals and life satisfaction following head injury emphasize the importance of social inclusion, rather than cognitive or physical, outcomes. However, very little research has explored the socio-emotional factors that pose as barriers to social reintegration following injury. This study investigates social barriers following head injury (i.e., decision-making - Iowa Gambling Task [IGT] and mood – depression) and possible amelioration of those challenges (through treatment) in both highly functioning university students with and without mild head injury (MHI) and in individuals with moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). An arousal manipulation using emotionally evocative stimuli was introduced to manipulate the subject’s physiological arousal state. Seventy-five university students (37.6% reporting a MHI) and 11 patients with documented moderate TBI were recruited to participate in this quasi-experimental study. Those with head injury were found to be physiologically underaroused (on measures of electrodermal activation [EDA] and pulse) and were less sensitive to the negative effects of punishment (i.e., losses) in the gambling task than those without head injury, with greater impairment being observed for the moderate TBI group. The arousal manipulation...

Cerebral oxygenation monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy is not clinically useful in patients with severe closed-head injury: a comparison with jugular venous bulb oximetry

Lewis, S.; Myburgh, J.; Thornton, E.; Reilly, P.
Fonte: Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
OBJECTIVE: To compare continuous jugular venous bulb oximetry and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with severe closed head injury. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: Intensive care unit of a major teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Adults (n = 10) with severe closed-head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score of < or = 8). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Jugular venous bulb oximetry, cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, and cerebral perfusion pressure were measured continuously. A total of 3,691 paired measurements of near-infrared spectroscopy and jugular venous bulb oximetry were analyzed. Poor correlation (r2 = .04) between paired measurements and wide limits of agreement (-13% to +21%) were demonstrated. The mean difference between measurements was +/- 4% and the standard deviation of the mean difference was +/- 8.69%. The data were subsequently grouped according to three clinically significant subgroups of jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation reflecting low ( < 55%), normal (55% to 75%) and high ( > 75%) saturation values. Poor correlation and wide limits of agreement between the two methods of measurement were observed in all groups. Values recorded by near-infrared spectroscopy did not significantly change between the groups...

Pedestrian subsystem head impact results reflect the severity of pedestrian head injuries

Anderson, R.; Streeter, L.; Ponte, G.; van de Griend, M.; Lindsay, V.; McLean, A.
Fonte: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd Publicador: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Ten head impacts between pedestrians and cars were reconstructed to compare the head injuries sustained by pedestrians with the results of reconstruction tests using the headform impactors designated by the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) Working Group 10 for assessing pedestrian head protection. The methodology of this study included at-scene accident investigation, computer simulation, and physical reconstruction in a laboratory of the head impacts that occurred in the accident cases that were investigated. The main finding was that the results from using the EEVC headform impactors test correlate well with the severity of any head injury, as measured by the Abbreviated Injury Scale, in actual pedestrian accidents. Head impacts that exceeded a HIC value of 1000 were positively associated with head injuries that were AIS3 or above.; Robert Anderson, Luke Streeter, Giulio Ponte, Marleen Van de Griend, Tori Lindsay, Jack McLean; Copyright © 2003 Inderscience Enterprises Limited. All rights reserved.

A head impact model of early axonal injury in the sheep

Lewis, S.; Finnie, J.; Blumbergs, P.; Scott, G.; Manavis, J.; Brown, C.; Reilly, P.; Jones, N.; McLean, J.
Fonte: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC PUBL Publicador: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC PUBL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
Axonal injury (AI), one of the principal determinants of clinical outcome after head injury, may evolve over several hours after injury, raising the future possibility of therapeutic intervention during this period. A new head impact model of AI in sheep was developed to examine pathological and physiological changes in the brain resulting from a graded traumatic insult. In this preliminary study 10 anesthetized and ventilated Merino ewes were used. Head injury was produced by impact from a humane stunner to the temporal region of an unrestrained head. Eight sheep were studied for 1, 2, 4, or 6 h after impact. Two sham animals (no impact, 6 h survival) were also examined. Arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure, and cerebral blood flow were monitored continuously. A physiological index of injury severity was calculated by weighting the percentage shift from preinjury values for each monitored parameter over the first hour after injury. Immunostaining with amyloid precursor protein (APP) was used as a marker of axonal damage and the distribution of APP positive axons was recorded according to a sector scoring method (APPS). Widespread AI was identified in 7 of the 8 impacted animals, around cerebral contusions and in hemispheric white matter...

A study on the biomechanics of axonal injury

Anderson, Robert William Gerard
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1205749 bytes; 9041541 bytes; 8391638 bytes; 5496340 bytes; 6644084 bytes; 129294 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
The current focus of research efforts in the area of the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury is the development of numerical (finite element) models of the human head. A validated numerical model of the human head may lead to better head injury criteria than those used currently in crashworthiness studies. A critical step in constructing a validated finite element model of the head is determining the mechanical threshold, should it exist, for various types of injury to brain tissue. This thesis describes a biomechanical study of axonal injury in the anaesthetised sheep. The study used the measurements of the mechanics of an impact to the living sheep, and a finite element model of the sheep skull and brain, to investigate the mechanics of the resulting axonal injury. Sheep were subjected to an impact to the left lateral region of the skull and were allowed to survive for four hours after the impact. The experiments were designed specifically with the numerical model in mind; sufficient data were collected to allow the mechanics of the impact to be faithfully reproduced in the numerical model. The axonal injury was identified using immunohistological methods and the injury was mapped and quantified. Axonal injury was produced consistently in all animals. Commonly injured regions included the sub-cortical and deep white matter...

Hospitalized head injuries among older people in Australia, 1998/1999 to 2004/2005

Jamieson, L.; Roberts-Thomson, K.
Fonte: B M J Publishing Group Publicador: B M J Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
Objective: To explore rates of hospitalized head injury among older Australians by a range of risk indicators. Design: Head injury data for 60+-year-olds were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Hospital Morbidity Database from 1998/1999 to 2004/2005. Poisson regression modeling was used to examine head injury rates in relation to age, sex, Indigenous status, location, and injury type. Results: Rates of hospitalized head injury among the older population increased 1.4-fold between 1998/1999 (582.8 per 100 000) and 2004/2005 (844.3 per 100 000) (p<0.001). Those aged 85+ years had 10.8 times the rate of their 60–64-year-old counterparts (95% CI 10.6 to 11.0) after adjustment for other covariates. Men had 1.1 times the rate of women (95% CI 1.1 to 1.2), and those living in rural/remote areas had 3.1 times the rate of their metropolitan-dwelling counterparts (95% CI 3.0 to 3.1). Those identifying themselves as Indigenous had 1.7 times the rate of non-Indigenous persons (95% CI 1.6 to 1.8). The most prevalent injuries were open wounds of the head (38.0%), followed by superficial injuries (24.7%) and intracranial trauma (18.3%). Falls accounted for 81.4% of all head injury admissions. Conclusions: The oldest old were disproportionately represented among those sustaining hospitalized head injuries...

Neuropathological changes in a lamb model of non-accidental head injury (the shaken baby syndrome)

Finnie, J.; Blumbergs, P.; Manavis, J.; Turner, R.; Helps, S.; Vink, R.; Byard, R.; Chidlow, G.; Sandoz, B.; Dutschke, J.; Anderson, R.
Fonte: Churchill Livingstone Publicador: Churchill Livingstone
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
Non-accidental head injury (NAHI), also termed the "shaken baby syndrome", is a major cause of death and severe neurological dysfunction in children under three years of age, but it is debated whether shaking alone is sufficient to produce brain injury and mortality or whether an additional head impact is required. In an attempt to resolve this question, we used a lamb model of NAHI since these animals have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling those of a human infant. Three anaesthetised lambs of lower body weight than others in the experimental group died unexpectedly after being shaken, proving that shaking alone can be lethal. In these lambs, axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction, and of much greater magnitude than in higher body weight lambs which did not die. Moreover, in the eyes of these shaken lambs, there was damage to retinal inner nuclear layer neurons, mild, patchy ganglion cell axonal injury, widespread Muller glial reaction, and uveal albumin extravasation. This study proved that shaking of a subset of lambs can result in death, without an additional head impact being required.; J.W. Finnie...

Head and traumatic brain injuries among Australian youth and young adults, July 2000-June 2006

Harrison, J.; Berry, J.; Jamieson, L.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
OBJECTIVES: To describe rates of hospitalization for head and traumatic brain injury (TBI) among Australian adults aged 15-24 years. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Hospital Morbidity Database, using data from 1 July 2000 to 30 June 2006. RESULTS: The rate of hospitalization for head injury was 618.5 per 100 000, with 148.1 per 100 000 being high threat to life injuries. In multivariate analysis, males had 3.2-times the rate of females. Youth and young adults living in remote and very remote areas had a 2.6-3.2-fold greater rate of head injury than city-dwellers and a 2.3-2.7-fold greater rate of injuries that were high threat to life. The rate of TBI was 169.3 per 100 000, with 87.1 per 100 000 being high threat to life injuries. In multivariate analysis, males had 3.2-times the rate of females. Youth and young adults living in very remote and remote areas had a 2.5-3.0-fold greater rate of TBI than city-dwellers and a 2.1-2.3-fold greater rate of high threat to life TBI. CONCLUSIONS: Males and youth and young adults living remotely were disproportionately represented among those sustaining head injuries. A quarter of hospitalized head injuries were coded as having TBI.; James E. Harrison...

Dependence of the head injury criterion and maximum acceleration on headform mass and initial velocity in tests simulating pedestrian impacts with vehicles

Hutchinson, T.
Fonte: ASME-Amer Soc Mechanical Eng Publicador: ASME-Amer Soc Mechanical Eng
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Impact testing of pedestrian headforms is usually conducted at one velocity and with one mass of headform, but real impacts occur at a range of velocities and masses. A method is proposed to predict the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and similar quantities at other velocities from their values observed under test conditions. A specific assumption is made about acceleration during the impact as related to displacement, its differential (instantaneous velocity), mass of headform, and initial velocity: namely, that it is the product of a power function of displacement (representing a possibly nonlinear spring) and a term that includes a type of damping. This equation is not solved, but some properties of the solution are obtained: HIC, maximum acceleration, and maximum displacement are found to be power functions of mass of headform and initial velocity. Expressions for the exponents are obtained in terms of the nonlinearity parameter of the spring. Simple formulae are obtained for the dependence of HIC, maximum acceleration, and maximum displacement on velocity and mass. These are relevant to many types of impact.; T. P. Hutchinson

Pattern of cerebrospinal immediate early gene c-fos expression in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury

Finnie, J.; Blumbergs, P.; Manavis, J.; Vink, R.
Fonte: Churchill Livingstone Publicador: Churchill Livingstone
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, was examined in a large animal model of non-accidental head injury ("shaken baby syndrome"). Lambs were used because they have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling a human infant. Neonatal lambs were manually shaken in a manner similar to that believed to occur with most abused human infants, but there was no head impact. The most striking c-fos expression was in meningothelial cells of the cranial cervical spinal cord and, to a lesser degree, in hemispheric, cerebellar, and brainstem meninges. Vascular endothelial cells also frequently showed c-fos immunopositivity in the meninges and hemispheric white matter. It was hypothesised that this c-fos immunoreactivity was due to mechanical stress induced by shaking, with differential movement of different craniospinal components.; J.W. Finnie, P.C. Blumbergs, J. Manavis, R. Vink

Medida da proteína S-100B sérica para classificação de risco no trauma craniano leve: estudo piloto no Brasil; Measurement of S-100B for risk classification of victims sustaining minor head injury: first pilot study in Brazil

Poli-de-Figueiredo, Luiz F; Biberthaler, Peter; Simao Filho, Charles; Hauser, Christopher; Mutschler, Wolf; Jochum, Marianne
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
INTRODUÇÃO: A liberação da proteína neuronal S-100B na circulação tem sido sugerida como indicadora de dano neuronal. Foi testada a hipótese de que a S-100B é um marcador útil e custo efetivo para a triagem de pacientes com trauma craniano leve. MÉTODO: Cinqüenta pacientes consecutivos com trauma craniano isolado foram prospectivamente avaliados na sala de emergência de um Centro de Trauma brasileiro pela tomografia computadorizada de crânio e por amostras de sangue venoso, para a medida no soro da proteína S-100B utilizando um teste recentemente desenvolvido; 21 pessoas normais foram utilizadas como controles negativos. Os resultados são apresentados como mediana e percentis 25-75. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes chegaram ao Centro de Trauma em média 45 min (30-62) após o trauma craniano leve. Seis dos 50 pacientes tiveram lesões pós-traumáticas relevantes segundo a tomografia computadorizada de crânio inicial (12%) e foram considerados como positivos. A concentração mediana de S-100B nestes pacientes foi de 0,75µg/L (0,66-6,5), significativamente maior (U-teste, p; BACKGROUND: Release of the neuronal protein S-100B into the circulation has been suggested as a specific indication of neuronal damage. The hypothesis that S-100B is a useful and cost-effective screening tool for the management of minor head injuries was tested. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients sustaining isolated minor head injury were prospectively evaluated in the emergency room of a Brazilian hospital by routine cranial computed tomography scan. Venous blood samples (processed to serum) were assssayed for S-100B using a newly developed immunoassay test kit. Twenty-one normal healthy individuals served as negative controls. Data are presented as median and 25 to 75 percentiles. RESULTS: Patients reached the emergency room an average of 45 minutes (range: 30-62 minutes) after minor head injury. Six of 50 patients (12%) showed relevant posttraumatic lesions in the initial cranial computed tomography scan and were counted as positive. The median systemic concentration of S-100B in those patients was 0.75 µg/L (range: 0.66-6.5 µg/L)...

Studies of the Human Head from Neonate to Adult: An Inertial, Geometrical and Structural Analysis with Comparisons to the ATD Head

Loyd, Andre Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%

Child head injury is a very costly problem, both in terms of morbidity/mortality and direct medical costs. In fact, it is the leading cause of death and disability for those in the United States under age 18-years-old. Currently, head injury in children ages newborn to 19-years-old is responsible for 7500 deaths per year--30% of all childhood deaths in the United States. Given its importance and effect on the population, the study of pediatric head injury is greatly hindered by the lack of available pediatric post mortem human specimen (PMHS) data. As a substitute for PMHS testing, anthropometric test devices (ATDs) and finite element models (FEMs) have been developed to model the head. However, there is a dearth of data for the design and validation of these models.

The goal of this study was to use pediatric PMHSs to both advance the study of pediatric head injury and to provide validation data for ATD and finite element head models. 14 pediatric heads, 8 adult heads, and 6 ATD heads were studied to obtain geometrical, inertial, structural stiffness, and impact properties. The computational tomography (CT) method was used on pediatric heads to get inertial properties, and clinical CT scans were used to develop average head and skull contours for 12 different age groups. To obtain impact properties...

A community survey demonstrated cohort differences in the lifetime prevalance of self- reportrd head injury

Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin; Jorm, Anthony F; Rodgers, Bryan
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
Objective The objective of the study was to assess the lifetime prevalence and validity of self-reported head injury. Study design and setting Analysis of a cross-sectional community survey, stratified by birth cohort. Seven thousand four hundred eighty-eight residents of Canberra and Queanbeyan, 3,678 males and 3,810 females, representing three cohorts aged in their 20s, 40s and 60s at the time of the survey, were randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll. Results The lifetime prevalence of head injury with at least 15 min loss of consciousness ranged from 5.6 to 6.0% across the three cohorts. Self-reported head injury was associated with symptoms of traumatic brain injury or postconcussion syndrome. Reported head injury did not differ across the birth cohorts, contrary to expectations that prevalence rates would increase with age. Analysis of age at first head injury showed significant differences between cohorts in the reported prevalence at age 20, with estimates considerably higher for the youngest cohort. Conclusion Although the data may reflect real increases in the risk of head injury, it may be that self-reported measures of lifetime prevalence of head injury underestimate prevalence in older cohorts.

Avaliação da gravidade do traumatismo crânio-encefálico por índices anatômicos e fisiológicos; Evaluation of head injury severity reported by physiologic and anatomic indexes

Imai, Maria de Fátima Paiva; Koizumi, Maria Sumie
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/1996 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.47%
Este estudo analisou prospectivamente a gravidade do Traumatismo Crânio-Encefálico (TCE) a partir de índices anatômicos e fisiológicos em pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Teve por objetivo caracterizar a população quanto a idade, sexo, tempo de permanência na UTI e causa externa. Caracterizar a gravidade das lesões pela Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), do trauma pelo Injury Severity Score (ISS) e do TCE pela Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), além de verificar a possível associação entre os índices. Os resultados apontam a predominância de adultos jovens e do sexo masculino com causa externa mais freqüente em acidentes de trânsito de veículo a motor e média de permanência na UTI de 6,28 dias. Quanto a gravidade das lesões constatou-se que os pacientes apresentaram lesões graves, que não ameaçam a vida (AIS3) e lesões graves, que ameaçam a vida (AIS4) e que a região corpórea mais atingida foi a cabeça e pescoço. Em relação a gravidade do trauma constatou-se que a maioria dos pacientes obteve ISS 3 16. Pela gravidade do TCE, a maioria dos pacientes apresentou TCE grave ou ECGl de 3 a 8. Através da associação entre os índices analisados por grupos de gravidade constatou-se que há associação estatisticamente significativa entre a ECGl-1 e a AIS da região cabeça...

Predicting mortality from head injury: experience of Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba

Rodríguez,Miguel
Fonte: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Publicador: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
INTRODUCTION: Better prognostic classification of patients who are severely injured or in critical condition has been associated with reduced case fatality from traumatic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: Determine the value of admission results (clinical, laboratory and imaging) and severity scales, for predicting mortality in traumatic brain injury patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of traumatic brain injury patients was conducted at the Sancti Spíritus Provincial General Teaching Hospital in 2009 and 2010; the study population included all 16 traumatic brain injury patients who died during the period, plus 31 who survived to discharge. The following independent variables were used: Glasgow Coma Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale motor score, pupil reaction to light, blood glucose, respiratory distress, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, and lesions detectable on cranial computed tomography. Associations between independent and dependent variables (death or survival to discharge) were analyzed using the chi-square test and, for cells with expected values of <5, the Fisher exact test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: Of 47 patients, 20 (42.6%) were aged >60 years and 32 (68.1%) were male. Parameters associated with higher mortality identified were: Glasgow Coma Scale score <8 (OR 47.25...