Página 1 dos resultados de 1857 itens digitais encontrados em 0.012 segundos

Household size and the cost of nutritionally equivalent diets.

Morgan, K J; Johnson, S R; Burt, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Economy of scale factors were developed in 1975 and have since been utilized as household size adjustment factors in estimating household costs of US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food plans. As such, these adjustment factors have a direct impact on the Food Stamp Program coupon allotments. In the present study, the stability of these factors over time was assessed, and the impact of diet quality measures in determining the adjustment factors was investigated. The reported household scale factors, estimated using regression analyses and the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Survey of Food Consumption in Low-Income Households, 1977-78, varied somewhat from former estimates and were found to be highly dependent on the diet quality measures incorporated in the analysis. Incorporation of several diet quality variables as well as partition specific means are recommended for determining household size adjustment factors to be used in estimating household costs of USDA food plans.

Fact or Artefact : The Impact of Measurement Errors on the Farm Size - Productivity Relationship

Carletto, Calogero; Savastano, Sara; Zezza, Alberto
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
This paper revisits the role of land measurement error in the inverse farm size and productivity relationship. By making use of data from a nationally representative household survey from Uganda, in which self-reported land size information is complemented by plot measurements collected using Global Position System devices, the authors reject the hypothesis that the inverse relationship may just be a statistical artifact linked to problems with land measurement error. In particular, the paper explores: (i) the determinants of the bias in land measurement, (ii) how this bias varies systematically with plot size and landholding, and (iii) the extent to which land measurement error affects the relative advantage of smallholders implied by the inverse relationship. The findings indicate that using an improved measure of land size strengthens the evidence in support of the existence of the inverse relationship.

Methods of Household Consumption Measurement Through Surveys : Experimental Results from Tanzania

Beegle, Kathleen; De Weerdt, Joachim; Friedman, Jed; Gibson, John
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Consumption expenditure has long been the preferred measure of household living standards. However, accurate measurement is a challenge and household expenditure surveys vary widely across many dimensions, including the level of reporting, the length of the reference period, and the degree of commodity detail. These variations occur both across countries and also over time within countries. There is little current understanding of the implications of such changes for spatially and temporally consistent measurement of household consumption and poverty. A field experiment in Tanzania tests eight alternative methods to measure household consumption on a sample of 4,000 households. There are significant differences between consumption reported by the benchmark personal diary and other diary and recall formats. Under-reporting is particularly relevant in illiterate households and for urban respondents completing household diaries; recall modules measure lower consumption than a personal diary, with larger gaps among poorer households and households with more adult members. Variations in reporting accuracy by household characteristics are also discussed and differences in measured poverty as a result of survey design are explored. The study concludes with recommendations for methods of survey based consumption measurement in low-income countries.

Distributional Impact Analysis of Past Climate Variability in Rural Indonesia

Korkeala, Outi; Newhouse, David; Duarte, Mafalda
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
In rural Indonesia, around 60 percent of workers engage in agriculture and face regular climatic shocks that may threaten their crop production, household income, and human capital investments. Little is known about households ability to maintain consumption in response to these shocks. This paper uses both longitudinal and repeated cross-sectional data to examine the extent to which farm profits and household consumption are reduced by delayed monsoon onset, an important determinant of rice production in Indonesia. It also investigates whether poor households are more vulnerable to delayed onset. Overall, delayed onset has minor effects on rural households profit and consumption. For poor households, defined as those with average per capita consumption in the lowest quintile, delayed onset the previous year is associated with a 13 percent decline in per capita consumption. Most of this decline is due to an increase in household size, however, and delayed onset two years ago is positively correlated with consumption. The findings suggest that poor households experience greater volatility but no lasting reduction in consumption following delayed monsoon onset.

Making Poor Haitians Count : Poverty in Rural and Urban Haiti Based on the First Household Survey for Haiti

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
This paper analyzes poverty in Haiti based on the first Living Conditions Survey of 7,186 households covering the whole country and representative at the regional level. Using a USD1 a day extreme poverty line, the analysis reveals that 49 percent of Haitian households live in absolute poverty. Twenty, 56, and 58 percent of households in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, are poor. At the regional level, poverty is especially extensive in the northeastern and northwestern regions. Access to assets such as education and infrastructure services is highly unequal and strongly correlated with poverty. Moreover, children in indigent households attain less education than children in nonpoor households. Controlling for individual and household characteristics, location, and region, living in a rural area does not by itself affect the probability of being poor. But in rural areas female headed households are more likely to experience poverty than male headed households. Domestic migration and education are both key factors that reduce the likelihood of falling into poverty. Employment is essential to improve livelihoods and both the farm and nonfarm sector play a key role.

Labor Markets in Rural and Urban Haiti : Based on the First Household Survey for Haiti

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
This paper addresses labor markets in Haiti, including farm and nonfarm employment and income generation. The analyses are based on the first Living Conditions Survey of 7,186 households covering the whole country and representative at the regional level. The findings suggest that four key determinants of employment and productivity in nonfarm activities are education, gender, location, and migration status. This is emphasized when nonfarm activities are divided into low-return and high-return activities. The wage and producer income analyses reveal that education is key to earning higher wages and incomes. Moreover, producer incomes increase with farm size, land title, and access to tools, electricity, roads, irrigation, and other farm inputs.

Burkina Faso : Reducing Poverty Through Sustained Equitable Growth, Poverty Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Linking growth and poverty is a crucial element for evaluating the effectiveness of government policies under the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process. Burkina Faso has benefited from more than 3 percent growth in per-capita incomes since the devaluation in 1994, while the steady increase in incomes, albeit from a very low level, should over time have lifted some Burkinabe above the poverty line, and led to a reduction in poverty rates. Growth during 1998-2003 was driven by a large expansion of the primary sector, following the 1997-98 drought. This study uses household data from 1998 and 2003 data to a) consider the measurement of poverty over time; b) study the links between growth and poverty in 1998-2003, and under possible future growth paths; c) examine the relationship between poverty and social services; and, d) illustrate equity considerations in the execution of fiscal policy choices. Using a comparable poverty measure, it was found that poverty headcount declined by about 8 percentage points between 1998 and 2003. The poverty decline was stronger in rural, than in urban areas, and, inequality remained largely unchanged on the national level between 1998 and 2003. The conclusion that poverty declined between 1998 and 2003...

Development of a Transport Module for Multi-topic Household Surveys

Baker, Judy L.; Denning, William
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
This paper is aimed at providing guidance on transport issues for those involved in designing multi-topic household surveys such as the Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS) surveys. The inclusion of a few key questions can provide critical information for better designing transport programs and policies aimed at improving access, affordability and quality services. Questions on transport access, quality, mode, distance, time, and cost can help to understand the constraints that the population may face in accessing jobs, markets, schools, health clinics and other social services. All of this can be broken down by subgroups such as income, geographic area, gender, employment, etc. further strengthening the relevance of the analysis and contribution to policy decisions. The paper covers background on transport and multi-topic household surveys, key transport policy concerns and data needs, approaches to analysis, issues of survey design, and prototype questions that could be included in existing surveys.

Non-Farm Enterprises in Rural Africa : New Empirical Evidence

Nagler, Paula; Naude, Wim
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Although non-farm enterprises are ubiquitous in rural Sub-Saharan Africa, little is yet known about them. The motivation for households to operate enterprises, how productive they are, and why they exit the market are neglected questions. Drawing on the Living Standards Measurement Study -- Integrated Surveys on Agriculture and using discrete choice, selection model and panel data estimators, this paper provide answers using data from Ethiopia, Niger, Nigeria, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. The necessity to cope following shocks, seasonality in agriculture, and household size can push rural households into operating a non-farm enterprise. Households are also pulled into entrepreneurship to exploit opportunities. Access to credit and markets, household wealth, and the education and age of the household head are positively associated with the likelihood of operating an enterprise. The characteristics are also associated with the type of business activity a household operates. Rural and female-headed enterprises and enterprises with young enterprise owners are less productive than urban and male-owned enterprises and enterprises with older owners. Shocks have a negative association with enterprise operation and productivity and a large share of rural enterprises does not operate continuously over a year. Enterprises cease operations because of low profits...

Attrition in Longitudinal Household Survey Data : Some Tests for Three Developing-Country Samples

Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Maluccio, John A.; Cotts Watkins, Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
For capturing dynamic demographic relationships, longitudinal household data can have considerable advantages over more widely used cross-sectional data. But because the collection of longitudinal data may be difficult and expensive, analysts must assess the magnitudes of the problems, specific to longitudinal, but not to cross-sectional data. One problem that concerns many analysts is that sample attrition may make the interpretation of estimates problematic. Such attrition may be especially severe where there is considerable migration between rural, and urban areas. And attrition is likely to be selective on such characteristics as schooling, so high attrition is likely to bias estimates. The authors consider the extent, and implications of attrition for three longitudinal household surveys from Bolivia, Kenya, and South Africa that report very high annual attrition rates between survey rounds. Their estimates indicate that: 1) the means for a number of critical outcome, and family background variables differ significantly between those who are lost to follow-up, and those who are re-interviewed. 2) A number of family background variables are significant predictors of attrition. 3) Nevertheless, the coefficient estimates for standard family background variables in regressions...

Impact of household size and family composition on poverty in rural India

Meenakshi, J. V; Ray, Ranjan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 136908 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This paper utilises micro data on consumption, family composition and land ownership of nearly 70,000 rural Indian households to analyse poverty in rural India. The study, conducted at the disaggregated level of individual States, examines the impact of household size and composition, caste, gender of household head, and size of land ownership on a household’s poverty status. The introduction of consumption economies of household size and of adult/child consumption relativities affect the poverty estimates but not the State poverty rankings. Scheduled castes/tribes are more vulnerable to poverty than others. In contrast, female headed households display, in many States, higher poverty only in the presence of size economies and adult/child relativities. However, the latter result is not always yes. On this and in several other respects, the study finds sharp differences between the constituent States of the Indian Union.; yes

The influence of demographics and household specific price indices on consumption based inequality and welfare : a comparison of Spain and the United States

Garner, Thesia I.; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier; Sastre, Mercedes
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2002 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Previous research suggests that income inequality is lower in Spain than in the U.S. This paper studies whether this ranking remains the same when household consumption expenditures are used as a proxy for household welfare. Both inequality and social welfare, as components of economic well-being, are examined. Total household expenditures from each country’s 1990-91 consumer expenditure survey are used as the basis for the analysis. For tractability, equivalence scales depend only on the number of people in the household and not any other demographic characteristic. Household specific price indices are used to express the 1990-91 expenditure distributions at winter of 1981 and winter of 1991 prices. Decomposable measurement instruments are used both for the inequality and social welfare analyses. Bootstrap methods are used to produce confidence intervals for all estimates. When consumption expenditures are substituted for income as the measure of economic well-being, the ranking of Spain and the U.S. varies as both household size and the equivalence scale adjustment change. When focusing on household size alone, inequality and welfare comparisons are drastically different for smaller and larger households. The income inequality ranking can only be maintained for expenditure distributions when economies of scale are assumed to be small or non-existent. However...

The influence of demographic and household specific price indices on expenditure based inequality and welfare: a comparison of Spain and the United States

Garner, Thesia I.; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier; Sastre, Mercedes
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/1999 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The purpose of this research is to examine the role of household size and household specific price indices on inequality and welfare measurement in Spain and the O.S. Total household expenditures from each countries' 1990-91 consumer expenditure surveys, with adjustments to reflect more accurately households' current consumption, are used as the basis for the analysis. Household size scale factors are used to produce adjusted expenditures. Household specific price indices are used to expresss the 1990-91 expenditure distribution at winter of 1981 and winter of 1991 prices. Decomposable measurement instruments are used both for the inequality and social welfare analyses. Our results show that wide differences in household size can be very important in international comparisons. Inequality and welfare comparisons are drastically different for smaller and larger households. For both countries we find that from the point of view of winter 1981, the amount of expenditures that we would need to give to richer households to compensate them for inflation, over the 1981 to 1991 period, would be greater than the amount that we would need to give to poorer households for them to be able to acquire the same bundle of goods. Our inequality comparisons are robust to the choice of the reference price vector.

Household Welfare, the Labor Market, and Social Programs in Albania

Rashid, Mansoora; Dorabawila, Vajeera; Adams, Richard
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
The paper provides an overview of household welfare, labor markets, and social programs in Albania, outside of its capital, in 1996. At the time, Albania was in a cross roads, from a period of phenomenal growth, to a series of economic crisis, though still ranking as the poorest country in the Central and Eastern Europe Region. The main findings suggest that the majority of the poor are rural, self-employed in agriculture, a result of Albania's large rural population that is mainly employed in subsistence agriculture. These households also have the highest poverty incidence, followed by out of labor force individuals, and the unemployed. Not surprising, the highest poverty incidence is in the rural north, requiring subsidized wheat, and cash transfers to survive difficult winters. Interestingly, migration is a major coping strategy in Albania: households with no migrants, were poorer than those where a family member was working abroad. The study raises concern about the education system, and safety nets, considering there are high drop out rates in basic...

Sources of Welfare Disparities Across and Within Regions of Brazil : Evidence from the 2002-03 Household Budget Survey

Skoufias, Emmanuel; Katayama, Roy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Brazil's inequalities in welfare and poverty across and within regions can be accounted for by differences in household attributes and returns to those attributes. This paper uses Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions at the mean as well as at different quantiles of welfare distributions on regionally representative household survey data (2002-03 Household Budget Survey). The analysis finds that household attributes account for most of the welfare differences between urban and rural areas within regions. However, comparing the lagging Northeast region with the leading Southeast region, differences in returns to attributes account for a large part of the welfare disparities, in particular in metropolitan areas, supporting the presence of agglomeration effects in booming areas.

Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty and Social Exclusion in Post-Crisis Russia

Lokshin, Michael M.; Yemtsov, Ruslan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
What strategies have Russian households used, to cope with economic hardship in the wake of recent financial crisis? Which coping strategies have been most effective in reducing poverty for different groups of households? And how have people been able to adapt to the dramatic drop in formal cash incomes? The authors look at these questions using subjective evaluations of coping strategies used by household survey respondents to mitigate the effects of the Russian financial crisis on their welfare. The data come from two rounds (1996 and 1998) of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The results of their analysis show that a household's choice of survival strategy, strongly depends on its human capital: the higher its level of human capital, the more likely it is to choose an active strategy (such as finding a supplementary job, or increasing home production). Households with low levels of human capital, those headed by pensioners, and those whose members have low levels of education, are more likely to suffer social exclusion. To prevent poverty from becoming entrenched...

The Decision to Invest in Child Quality over Quantity : Household Size and Household Investment in Education in Vietnam

Dang, Hai-Anh; Rogers, F. Halsey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
During Vietnam's two decades of rapid economic growth, its fertility rate has fallen sharply at the same time that its educational attainment has risen rapidly -- macro trends that are consistent with the hypothesis of a quantity-quality tradeoff in child-rearing. This paper investigates whether the micro-level evidence supports the hypothesis that Vietnamese parents are in fact making a tradeoff between quantity and quality of children. The paper presents new measures of household investment in private tutoring, together with traditional measures of household investments in education. It analyzes data from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys and instruments for family size using the distance to the nearest family planning center. The estimation results show that families do indeed invest less in the education of school-age children who have larger numbers of siblings. This effect holds for several indicators of educational investment -- including general education expenditure and various measures of private tutoring investment -- and is robust to various definitions of family size and model specifications that control for community characteristics as well as the distance to the city center. Finally...

Labor Markets and Income Generation in Rural Argentina

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
This paper addresses three areas of the rural labor market-employment, labor wages, and agriculture producer incomes. Findings show that the poor allocate a lower share of their labor to farm sectors than the nonpoor do, but still around 70 percent work in agriculture, and the vast majority of rural workers are engaged in the informal sector. When examining nonfarm employment in rural Argentina, findings suggest that key determinants of access to employment and productivity in nonfarm activities are education, skills, land access, location, and gender. Employment analyses show that women have higher probability than men to participate in rural nonfarm activities and they are not confined to low-return employment. Moreover, workers living in poorer regions with land access are less likely to be employed in the nonfarm sector. There is strong evidence that educated people have better prospects in both the farm and nonfarm sectors, and that education is an important determinant of employment in the better-paid nonfarm activities. Labor wage analyses reveal that labor markets pay lower returns to poorer than to richer women and returns to education are increasing with increased level of completed education and income level. And nonfarm income and employment are highly correlated with gender...

Kyrgyz Republic - Profile and Dynamics of Poverty and Inequality, 2009

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Poverty reduction is an important goal for governments of many developing countries. This goal is synonymous with economic development and achieving a higher quality of life for all population groups. Thus, monitoring the dynamics of poverty and inequality is implicit in the monitoring of progress in societal development. As the vast literature shows, development progress to a large extent depends on economic and social policies and economic growth. Thus, identifying the relationship between relevant economic variables and poverty and inequality indicators may provide policy guidance on what has furthered the country's progress. The report consists of two main parts. The first part discusses poverty and inequality for 2009 and, thus, from a static perceptive. So, the first section describes and discusses the main features and correlates of the poor. The goal is to provide a brief overview of poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic and describe the characteristics of households and the poor. This is achieved by considering the poverty incidence among households and individuals differentiated by such characteristics as age...

Making the Poor Count Takes More than Counting the Poor: A Quick Poverty Assessment of the State of Bahia, Brazil

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The state of Bahia, Brazil has made progress in reducing poverty and improving social indicators in the past decade. Despite this progress, Bahia's poverty is among the highest and its social indicators are among the lowest in Brazil. Currently, 41 percent of Bahia's population live in households below the poverty level, a drop of 14 percentage points since 1993. Moreover, poverty is less deep than in 1993, but deeper than in 1981. The fall in Bahia's social indicators, such as infant mortality and adult illiteracy, corroborate the improvement in measured income poverty. Part of the reason why the poverty indicators of Bahia are worse than in other countries with similar per-capita income is because of income inequality. In 2000 the Gini coefficient for Bahia was 0.61. The National Household Survey Data, PNAD, from 1981-2001 reveal that living in Bahia does not by itself affect the probability of falling below the poverty line in Brazil. Hence, other characteristics are more important for poverty reduction than geographical location. The strongest poverty correlates are education...