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Temporal pattern of africanization in a feral honeybee population from Texas inferred from mitochondrial DNA

Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Coulson, Robert N.; Patton, John C.; Johnston, J. Spencer
Fonte: Wiley, The Society for the Study of Evolution Publicador: Wiley, The Society for the Study of Evolution
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The invasion of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Americas provides a window of opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of subspecies of bees that evolved in allopatry in ecologically distinctive habitats of the Old World. We report here the results of an 11-year mitochondrial DNA survey of a feral honeybee population from southern United States (Texas). The mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) frequencies changed radically during the 11-year study period. Prior to immigration of Africanized honeybees, the resident population was essentially of eastern and western European maternal ancestry. Three years after detection of the first Africanized swarm there was a mitotype turnover in the population from predominantly eastern European to predominantly A. m. scutellata (ancestor of Africanized honeybees). This remarkable change in the mitotype composition coincided with arrival of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, which was likely responsible for severe losses experienced by colonies of European ancestry. From 1997 onward the population stabilized with most colonies of A. m. scutellata maternal origin.

Composition and antibacterial activity of the lipophilic fraction of honeybee pollen from native species of Montesinho Natural Park

Barbosa, Sandra; Silvestre, Armando; Simões, Mário; Estevinho, Leticia M.
Fonte: Academic Journals Publicador: Academic Journals
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The lipophilic composition of honeybee pollen from Cistus ladanifer, Castanea sativa and Rubus sp. was analysed by GC-MS. The extracts are mainly composed by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, long chain aliphatic alcohols, alkanes and alkenes. The profiles of chemical composition allow the chemical differentiation of pollen species. The biological activity of the lipophilic fractions against several Gram positive bacteria was demonstrated and related to the resistance of beehives to certain diseases when feed with such pollens.

Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extract of monofloral honeybee-collected pollen from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora, Leguminosae)

Almaraz-Abarca, Norma; Campos, Maria da Graça; Ávila-Reyes, José Antonio; Naranjo-Jiménez, Nestor; Herrera Corral, Jesús; González-Valdez, Laura Silvia
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
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The antioxidant capacity related to the phenolic composition of monospecific honeybee-collected pollen extract from the mesquite tree (Prosopis juliflora) from Durango, Mexico, was evaluated in an in vitro-biological system (as inhibitor of lipid peroxidation on mouse hepatic microsomal preparations) and in an in vivo system (on homogenized liver of bromobenzene-intoxicated mice) by quantification of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The comparison of results obtained from these two different systems was also made. The results obtained suggest that pollen of P. juliflora is an important source of flavonoids, which can be considered as natural antioxidants. Mesquite pollen extracts showed antioxidant activity related to the flavonol concentration in both the in vitro-biological system and the in vivo system with a lower activity in the latter of these systems. Under in vivo conditions and in those in which a state of oxidation in not induced, a high concentration of flavonols in the extract of mesquite pollen can have a pro-oxidant effect.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WJH-4M7VB2N-2/1/eb76172de84abb91a436acbdfa193841

Análise proteônica de venenos de Apis mellifera baseada em espectrometria de massas: abordagem quantitativa label-free e identificação de fosforilação; Mass Spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of honeybee venoms: label-free quantification and phosphorylation identification

Resende, Virginia Maria Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2013 PT
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Há muito tempo os venenos de abelhas se tornaram objeto de interesse de muitos cientistas, principalmente os venenos daquelas linhagens do gênero Apis, chamadas abelhas europeias e as conhecidas abelhas africanizadas. O foco no desenvolvimento de terapias eficazes que pudessem prevenir ou frear as reações desencadeadas pelas toxinas dos venenos desses insetos foi o principal estimulador do surgimento dessa grande área da pesquisa, uma vez que esses animais causam um grande número de acidentes em animais e seres humanos e os acidentes podem desencadear graves consequências, inclusive óbito. Sendo assim, desenvolvemos o presente trabalho baseado na caracterização da composição proteica dos venenos de abelhas europeias e africanizadas, na análise quantitativa diferencial entre os venenos e, na investigação de fosforilações e a possível relação das mesmas com as funções biológicas. Reunindo todos os elementos que estavam ao nosso alcance para compor o melhor conjunto de etapas para a realização do estudo proteômico de venenos de abelhas, nós atingimos todos os objetivos propostos. Utilizando uma abordagem baseada em espectrometria de massas, consistindo de análise shotgun seguida de LC-MS/MS realizada em um dos mais modernos espectrômetros de massas...

Morphological alterations induced by boric acid and fipronil in the midgut of worker honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae

Cruz, Aline da Silva; da Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C. M.; Bueno, Odair C.; Malaspina, Osmar
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 165-176
ENG
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Morphological alterations, by means of histological and ultrastructural analysis, have been used to determine the effects of boric acid and fipronil on midgut tissues of honeybee worker, Apis mellifera L. larvae. In order to observe possible morphological alterations in the midgut, two groups of bioassays were performed. In the first one, the larvae were chronically treated with different concentrations of boric acid added to the food (1.0, 2.5 and 7.5 mg/g). In the second group, the larvae were fed with diets containing different concentrations of fipronil (0.1 and 1 mu g/g) and compared with control groups without these chemical compounds. In the first bioassay, the larvae were collected on day 3 and in the second bioassay on day 4, when the mortality rate obtained in the toxicological bioassay was not very high. The larval midguts were removed and processed for morphological analyses using a light and transmission electron microscopy. We observed cytoplasmic vacuolizations, with the absence of autophagic vacuoles, and chromatinic compacting in most of the cells in the groups treated with pesticides. The morphological alterations were far greater in the larvae treated with boric acid than in the larvae treated with fipronil. Our data suggest that the midgut cell death observed was in response to boric acid and fipronil action. This study significantly improves the understanding of the toxicological effect of these insecticides from the ecotoxicological perspective.

Three-Dimensional Modelling of Honeybee Venom Allergenic Proteases: Relation to Allergenicity

Georgieva, Dessislava; Greunke, Kerstin; Arni, Raghuvir K.; Betzel, Christian
Fonte: Verlag Z Naturforsch Publicador: Verlag Z Naturforsch
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 305-312
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Api SI and Api SIT are serine proteases of the honeybee venom containing allergenic determinants. Each protease consists of two structural modules: an N-terminal CUB (Api SI) or a clip domain (Api SII) and a C-terminal serine protease-like (SPL) domain. Both domains are connected with a linker peptide. The knowledge about the structure and function of Api SI and Api SII is limited mainly to their amino acid sequences. We constructed 3-D models of the two proteases using their amino acid sequences and crystallographic coordinates of related proteins. The models of the SPL domains were built using the structure of the prophenoloxidase-activating factor (PPAF)-II as a template. For modelling of the Api SI CUB domain the coordinates of porcine spermadhesin PSP-I were used. The models revealed the catalytic and substrate-binding sites and the negatively charged residue responsible for the trypsin-like activity. IgE-binding and antigenic sites in the two allergens were predicted using the models and programs based on the structure of known epitopes. Api SI and Api SII show structural and functional similarity to the members of the PPAF-II family. Most probably, they are part of the defence system of Apis mellifera.

Proteome and phosphoproteome of Africanized and European honeybee venoms

Resende, Virgínia Maria Ferreira; Vasilj, Andrej; Santos, Keity Souza; Palma, Mario Sergio; Shevchenko, Andrej
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2638-2648
ENG
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Honey bee venom toxins trigger immunological, physiological, and neurological responses within victims. The high occurrence of bee attacks involving potentially fatal toxic and allergic reactions in humans and the prospect of developing novel pharmaceuticals make honey bee venom an attractive target for proteomic studies. Using label-free quantification, we compared the proteome and phosphoproteome of the venom of Africanized honeybees with that of two European subspecies, namely Apis mellifera ligustica and A. m. carnica. From the total of 51 proteins, 42 were common to all three subspecies. Remarkably, the toxins melittin and icarapin were phosphorylated. In all venoms, icarapin was phosphorylated at the 205Ser residue, which is located in close proximity to its known antigenic site. Melittin, the major toxin of honeybee venoms, was phosphorylated in all venoms at the 10Thr and 18Ser residues. 18Ser phosphorylated melittin-the major of its two phosphorylated forms-was less toxic compared to the native peptide. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

MALDI Imaging Analysis of Neuropeptides in the Africanized Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Brain: Effect of Ontogeny

Pratavieira, Marcel; Silva Menegasso, Anally Ribeiro da; Caviquioli Garcia, Ana Maria; Santos, Diego Simoes dos; Gomes, Paulo Cesar; Malaspina, Osmar; Palma, Mario Sergio
Fonte: Amer Chemical Soc Publicador: Amer Chemical Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 3054-3064
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 11/51684-1; The occurrence and spatial distribution of the neuropeptides AmTRP-5 and AST-1 in the honeybee brain were monitored via MALDI spectral imaging according to the ontogeny of Africanized Apis mellifera. The levels of these peptides increased in the brains of 0-15 day old honeybees, and this increase was accompanied by an increase in the number of in-hive activities performed by the nurse bees, followed by a decrease in the period from 15 to 25 days of age, in which the workers began to perform activities outside the nest (guarding and foraging). The results obtained in the present investigation suggest that AmTRP-5 acts in the upper region of both pedunculi of young workers, possibly regulating the cell cleaning and brood capping activities. Meanwhile, the localized occurrence of AmTRP-5 and AST-1 in the antennal lobes, subesophageal ganglion, upper region of the medulla, both lobula, and alpha- and beta-lobes of both brain hemispheres in 20 to 25 day old workers suggest that the action of both neuropeptides in these regions may be related to their localized actions in these regions, regulating foraging and guarding activities. Thus, these neuropeptides appear to have some functions in the honeybee brain that are specifically related to the age-related division of labor.

Hyperalgesic and edematogenic effects of Secapin-2, a peptide isolated from Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom

Mourelle, D.; Brigatte, P.; Bringanti, L. D. B.; De Souza, B. M.; Arcuri, H. A.; Gomes, P. C.; Baptista-Saidemberg, N. B.; Ruggiero Neto, J.; Palma, M. S.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 42-52
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 04/07942-2; Processo FAPESP: 11/51684-1; Honeybee stings are a severe public health problem. Bee venom contains a series of active components, including enzymes, peptides, and biogenic amines. The local reactions observed after envenoming include a typical inflammatory response and pain. Honeybee venom contains some well-known polycationic peptides, such as Melittin, Apamin, MCD peptide, Cardiopep, and Tertiapin. Secapin in honeybee venom was described 38 years ago, yet almost nothing is known about its action. A novel, variant form of this peptide was isolated from the venom of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera). This novel peptide, named Secapin-2, is 25 amino acid residues long. Conformational analyses using circular dichroism and molecular dynamics simulations revealed a secondary structure rich in strands and turns, stabilized by an intramolecular disulfide bridge. Biological assays indicated that Secapin-2 did not induce hemolysis, mast cell degranulation or chemotactic activities. However, Secapin-2 caused potent dose-related hyperalgesic and edematogenic responses in experimental animals. To evaluate the roles of prostanoids and lipid mediators in the hyperalgesia and edema induced by this peptide...

RADIOPROTECTION: MECHANISMS AND RADIOPROTECTIVE AGENTS INCLUDING HONEYBEE VENOM

VARANDA,E. A.; TAVARES,D. C.
Fonte: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP Publicador: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 EN
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Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules, formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom.

Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test

Andere,Cecilia; Palacio,M.A.; Rodriguez,E.M.; Figini,E.; Dominguez,M.T.; Bedascarrasbure,E.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
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Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L). In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin...

Morphometric measurements of Africanized honeybee queens kept in an incubator or in queen banking

Metorima,Flávia Nakayama; Costa-Maia,Fabiana Martins; Halak,André Luiz; Parpinelli,Rejane Stubs; Toledo,Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
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This study aimed to estimate live weight, the length and the width of wing and abdomen and the length, the width and the height of thorax in newly emerged Africanized honeybee queens up to 192 hours and their influence on final quality regarding appropriate storage techniques in queen banking or incubator and to verify the possibility of using these parameters as selection criteria in honeybee breeding programs. Queen honeybees were produced in summer, autumn and winter. The queen production method used throughout the experiments was adapted from Doolittle, and 68 the queens were weighed at emergence. Data were analyzed in R software by regression analysis of queen weight at emergence according to life time after emergence, in two types of storage. The weight of queens emerged in queen banking and incubator was significantly different (p < 0.05), with mean values of 165.61 and 157.04 mg, respectively. Queens kept in an incubator and in queen banking showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in wing length, abdomen length and thorax height. The weight of queen at emergence can be used as a selection criterion in honeybee breeding programs.

Studies in the mode of action of royal jelly in honeybee development : III. The effect of experimental variation in diet on growth and metabolism of honeybee larvae

Dixon, S.E.; Shuel, R.W.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
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Norms were established for respiration, growth, and tissue composition of 0- to 72-hour-old female honeybee larvae reared in the laboratory on natural royal jelly and worker jelly diets. The worker jelly diet was then altered experimentally in the direction of royal jelly through additions of sugar and certain water-soluble acids of unknown structure extracted from royal jelly, but present in the natural diets of larvae of both female castes. In general, developmental norms were shifted in the direction of the norms of larvae fed royal jelly, but the changes were not fully co-ordinated. The added acids were strongly growth inhibitory. A high inverse association between the total water-soluble acid content of the diet and larval weight suggested that the acids may represent a nutritional growth-regulating mechanism. The evidence indicates that nutrient balance is significant in the early development of the dichotomy between female castes, and that no single constituent determines the ultimate development of either caste.

Studies in the mode of action of royal jelly in honeybee development : IV. Development within the brain and retrocerebral complex of female honeybee larvae

Canetti, Sylvia J.; Shuel, R.W.; Dixon, S.E.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
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Histological evidence is presented for a caste difference in endocrine activity during the critical period of determination in the larval honeybee. Until the Last larval instar, neurosecretory cells in the brain of the honeybee larva remain undifferentiated. During this undifferentiated period there is a quantitative difference in apparent activity, as evidenced by the frequency of occurrence of cytoplasmic particles in certain large neuroblasts. Whereas the histological criteria for neurosecretory cells cannot be fulfilled, the brain is presumably exercising a regulatory role in growth and development. These large neuroblasts with phloxinophil inclusions are the likely candidate cells. Between the ages of 40 and 80 hours there is considerably more activity in the queen larva than in the worker. At this time the corpora cardiaca are non-existent as discrete organs. Changes in size and histological appearance of the corpora allata indicate a progressive increase in activity during the first 3 days. In the queen, nuclear degeneration with an apparent cessation of activity occurs in the third and fourth instars. In the late larval and propupal stages a reorganization occurs. This reorganization is characterized by the reappearance of a discrete nuclear membrane and well-defined nuclei. The presence of intercellular spaces...

The action of the proventriculus of the worker honeybee, Apis mellifera L.

Bailey, L.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
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1. The proventriculus of the worker honeybee is an organ which effects a highly efficient separation of pollen grains from the medium in which they are suspended. 2. The pollen grains are packed tightly together by the proventriculus and are passed as a bolus down to the ventriculus. 3. The boluses pass quite quickly towards the posterior end of the ventriculus (5-20 min.), depending on the concentration and amount of pollen suspension which is fed. 4. The peritrophic membranes do not move down the ventriculus with these packages but pass down at a slower rate. 5. At the posterior end of the ventriculus the pollen may be held up for a considerable time. In the brood-rearing bee it stays there for many hours (up to 12 or more). In the forager it begins to pass down the hindgut to the rectum after 3 hr. or less. 6. The volume of fluid within the honey stomach, the size of particles in suspension and their concentration have significant effects on the rate and efficiency of filtration by the proventriculus. 7. Some reflexions are made on the possible physiological significance of the mechanism of the proventriculus to the worker honeybee.

Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations of the number of pollen-foragers in a single honeybee colony

Moriya, Kiyoki
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
JA; ENGLISH
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According to the previous studies, the pollen income to the honeybee colony varies seasonally and increases parallel to the upswing of brood rearing. This fact suggests that some regulative functions act to increase the number of pollen-foragers. As the first step to analyse such probable regulation, the diurnal and seasonal variations of the number of pollen-foragers were observed correspondent to the population growth of a single honeybee colony. The counts were made about weekly from late April to mid September on the days of favorable weather conditions in 1959. The number of homing bees and pollen-foragers among them were counted at the hive entrance from 8 : 00 to 17 : 00 for 10 minutes at intervals of an hour. The population growth was estimated by BODENHEIMER' smethod and corrected by NICKEL-ARMBRUSTER's death rate. The results are summarized as follows : 1) Except under unfavorable weather condition, the pollen-foragers were always more abundant in the forenoon than in the afternoon, while other homing bees were often more abundant in the afternoon than in the afternoon. 2) From the records taken during 10 : 00 to 10 : 10 a.m., the fluctuation of the number of homing bees was more conspicuous than that of the pollen-foragers. The number of homing bees corresponded in general to that of more than 10 days old bees (potential foragers) but the number of pollen-foragers showed no such correlation. 3) The ratio of the pollen-foragers to the homing bees was high during early spring...

The preferences of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) for different visual cues during the learning process

Horridge, George Adrian
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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By working with very simple images, a number of different visual cues used by the honeybee have been described over the past decades. In most of the work, the bees had no control over the choice of the images, and it was not clear whether they learned the

Visual discriminations of spokes, sectors and circles by the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

Horridge, George Adrian
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A new cue for visual discrimination by the honeybee has been demonstrated. Bees detected the position of the centre of symmetry of radial patterns of spokes, sectors, and circles relative to their point of choice in the learning process, irrespective of t

Pharmacological interference with glutamate re-uptake impairs long-term memory in the honeybee Apis mellifera

Maleszka, Ryszard; Helliwell, Paul; Kucharski, Robert
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The role of glutamate in the central nervous system of invertebrates is poorly understood. In the present study we examined the effects of a glutamate transporter inhibitor, L-trans-2,4-pyrrolidine dicarboxylate (L-trans-2,4-PDC), on memory formation in the honeybee following a three-trial classical conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER). Pre-training injections of the drug have no effect on acquisition and short-term (1 h) memory, but impair long-term (24 h), associative olfactory memory in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is transient and the amnesiac individuals can be re-trained successfully 48 h after injections. Our results suggest that glutamatergic neurons in the honeybee brain, in particular those found in the mushroom bodies (MBs), may be part of the circuitry involved in processing of long-term olfactory memory. Such a role for this neurotransmitter is consistent with our previous results showing that glutamate and glutamate transporter(s) are localised in regions of the honeybee brain implicated in higher order processing. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Spatial and temporal distribution of honeybee foragers in a cantaloupe field with different colony densities

Reyes-Carrillo,José Luis; Cano-Rios,Pedro; Eischen,Frank A.; Rodríguez-Martínez,Rafael; Nava-Camberos,Urbano
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 EN
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A field trial was carried out in "La Laguna", a region in northern Mexico during the summer of 2003. The objective of this work was to determine the temporal and spatial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) distribution in a commercial cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) field with different colony densities. Starting in the second week after the onset of blooming, honeybee colony densities were increased by adding from one to five colonies per hectare one day before every observation day. Honeybee colonies were uniformly distributed adjacents to a cantaloupe field. In five randomly selected rows, transects 10 m long were marked at 25, 50, 75 and 100 m from the center of the apiary. Foraging bees were counted every 30 min from 7:30 to 19:30 h. Significant differences (p<0.001) in the number of pollinating honeybees were found among the evaluated distances, with the highest density at 50 m from the apiary (7.2a), intermediate number at 25 (6.6ab) and 75 m (6.7ab), and the lowest at 100 m (5.3c). The number of foraging honeybees varied temporally (p<0.0001), observing the highest density from 10:00 to 15:00 h, with a peak at 11:00 h. The number of colonies per hectare influenced honeybee density (p<0.0001). The maximum bee number per transect (6.08a) was observed with three colonies per hectare; therefore...