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Effect of fixed-time embryo transfer on reproductive efficiency in high-producing repeat-breeder Holstein cows

RODRIGUES, C. A; TEIXEIRA, A. A; FERREIRA, R. M; AYRES, Henderson; MANCILHA, R. F; SOUZA, A. H; BARUSELLI, Pietro Sampaio
Fonte: Amsterdam Publicador: Amsterdam
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.98%
The aim of the present study was to compare a synchronization of time of ovulation protocol for fixed-timed embryo transfer (FTET) with the usual administration of a single dose of prostaglandin associated with detection of estrus. Also, the effect of the presence of CL at the beginning of FTET protocol was evaluated. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 651) with three previous artificial inseminations were classified according to presence or absence of a corpus luteum (CL). Cows with a CL were randomly assigned to two additional treatments and submitted to embryo transfer after detection of estrus (PGF-Estrus) or FTET (FTET-CL). Cows without CL were allocated to the FTET-NoCL treatment. On a random day of the estrous cycle (Day 0), cows in the PGF-Estrus treatment (n = 229) were treated with 150 ?g d-cloprostenol (PGF) i.m. followed by detection of estrus from Day 1 through Day 5 after PGF. Embryos were transferred 6-8 days after estrus detection. Cows in the FTET-CL (n = 208; presence of CL) and FTET-NoCL (n = 214; absence of CL) treatments received a norgestomet ear implant plus 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) and 50 mg progesterone i.m. on Day 0. On Day 8, the implant was removed and 400 IU eCG, 150 ?g d-cloprostenol and 1 mg estradiol cypionate i.m. were administered. No detection of estrus was performed and Day 10 was arbitrarily considered as the estrus day. Ultrasonographic exams were performed in all recipients and only cows with a single CL 15 mm or multiple CL received a fresh or frozen/thawed embryo on Day 17. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 30 and 60 days of pregnancy. When FTET and PGF-Estrus were compared...

Differences in thermoregulatory ability between slick-haired and wild-type lactating Holstein cows in response to acute heat stress

DIKMEN, S.; ALAVA, E.; PONTES, E.; FEAR, J. M.; DIKMEN, B. Y.; OLSON, T. A.; HANSEN, P. J.
Fonte: AMER DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOC Publicador: AMER DAIRY SCIENCE ASSOC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.05%
Animals inheriting the slick hair gene have a short, sleek, and sometimes glossy coat. The objective of the present study was to determine whether slick-haired Holstein cows regulate body temperature more effectively than wild-type Holstein cows when exposed to an acute increase in heat stress. Lactating slick cows (n = 10) and wild-type cows (n = 10) were placed for 10 h in an indoor environment with a solid roof, fans, and evaporative cooling or in an outdoor environment with shade cloth and no fans or evaporative cooling. Cows were exposed to both environments in a single reversal design. Vaginal temperature, respiration rate, surface temperature, and sweating rate were measured at 1200, 1500, 1800, and 2100 h (replicate 1) or 1200 and 1500 h (replicate 2), and blood samples were collected for plasma cortisol concentration. Cows in the outdoor environment had higher vaginal and surface temperatures, respiration rates, and sweating rates than cows in the indoor environment. In both environments, slick-haired cows had lower vaginal temperatures (indoor: 39.0 vs. 39.4 degrees C; outdoor 39.6 vs. 40.2 degrees C; SEM = 0.07) and respiration rate (indoor: 67 vs. 79 breaths/min; outdoor 97 vs. 107 breaths/min; SEM = 5.5) than wild-type cows and greater sweating rates in unclipped areas of skin (indoor: 57 vs. 43 g.h(-1)/m(2); outdoor 82 vs. 61 g.h(-1)/m(2); SEM = 8). Clipping the hair at the site of sweating measurement eliminated the difference between slick-haired and wild-type cows. Results indicate that slick-haired Holstein cows can regulate body temperature more effectively than wild-type cows during heat stress. One reason slick-haired animals are better able to regulate body temperature is increased sweating rate.; TUBITAK-BIDEB Ankara...

Hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir, Gir x Holstein, and Holstein cows

NEGRAO, J. A.
Fonte: AMER SOC ANIMAL SCIENCE Publicador: AMER SOC ANIMAL SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.03%
There are several different milking management systems in Latin America, because Gir cattle are reputed to be easily stressed and not well adapted to machine-milking. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir cows and their crossbred offspring. Several experiments were performed to study oxytocin release during exclusive suckling or exclusive hand- and machine-milking, oxytocin, and prolactin release during a mixed suckling-milking system and oxytocin release after weaning. Cortisol concentrations and behavior were also examined. Concentration of oxytocin, released during suckling, and both types of milking were high, but the maximum concentration measured during suckling was significantly greater than that observed during exclusive milking. In the mixed suckling-milking system, the greatest oxytocin and prolactin releases were measured during suckling. Cortisol concentrations measured before, during, and after milking demonstrated that Gir x Holstein and Holstein cows were not stressed. On the other hand, although Gir had greater concentrations of cortisol, the percentage of residual milk for Gir cows was less than for dairy cows exposed to different stressful situations. In general...

Processo de secagem da glândula mamária de bovinos da raça holandesa: avaliação física da involução da mama e das características físico-químicas, celulares e microbiológicas da secreção láctea durante o período seco; The involution of the mammary gland in Holstein cows: clinical evaluation of the udder and physicochemical, cellular and microbiological characteristics of the lacteal secretion in the dry period

Birgel, Daniela Becker
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.77%
Com o objetivo de avaliar o processo de secagem da glândula mamária de vacas da raça Holandesa foram examinadas 44 mamas na fase final da lactação, durante a evolução do processo de secagem (dia da última ordenha; 1º, 3º, 5º, 7º, 10º, 15º, 30º e 45º dia do período seco), assim como no retorno à lactação. Antes da colheita das amostras, a glândula mamária era submetida a minucioso exame clínico por inspeção e palpação, sendo complementado pela avaliação do aspecto da secreção láctea. Após os primeiros jatos da secreção terem sido desprezados, procedia-se a sua colheita asséptica, para ser utilizada no exame microbiológico, seguida da colheita das amostras destinadas à avaliação das seguintes características físico-químicas e celulares: pH, eletrocondutividade, cloretos, lactose, gordura, proteína, sólidos totais, cálculo do índice cloreto/lactose, California Mastitis Test - CMT e do número de células somáticas. O processo de secagem determinou alterações na consistência da mama, pois no retorno da lactação a freqüência de glândulas classificadas como sendo do Tipo III (firme) foi maior do que a observada antes do início da secagem e no 45ºdia do período seco, e, favoreceu a recuperação dos tetos nos quais era perceptível a presença de prolapso de pequena severidade do orifício do teto...

Inseminação artificial em tempo fixo em vacas holandesas de alta produção; Timed artificial insemination in high producing holstein cows

Souza, Alexandre Henryli de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.91%
A presente tese foi dividida em 5 Experimentos. Os objetivos do Experimento 1 foram avaliar a utilização da gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG) e/ou do cipionato de estradiol (ECP) na dinâmica folicular e taxa de concepção de vacas holandesas submetidas a inseminação em tempo fixo (IATF). No D0, todos os animais (n = 782) receberam 2 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE) e um dispositivo intravaginal de progesterona (CIDR). Oito dias depois, o CIDR foi retirado e todos os animais receberam PGF2?. Simultaneamente, os animais foram divididos em 4 grupos: G1) eCG + ECP no Dia 8; G2) eCG no Dia 8 + GnRH após 48h; G3) ECP no Dia 8; G4) GnRH após 48h. Amostras de sangue e exames utlra-sonográficos foram realizados frequentemente em um subgrupo de animais (n = 96). As análises estatísticas de todos os experimentos foram efetuadas com o proc GLIMMIX e proc MIXED do SAS. O uso de eCG e o escore de condição corporal (ECC) dos animais afetaram as concentrações circulantes de progesterona no diestro. Os animais do G2 apresentaram maior taxa de concepção que os do G4 (33,8% vs. 28,9%). Além disso, para animais de menor ECC, ficou evidente o benefício da aplicação de eCG (G2 = 44,4% vs. G4 = 6,1%). No Experimento 2 (n = 26), o objetivo foi comparar o efeito da administração da eCG no dia da remoção do CIDR em animais de menor (2...

Impacto da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo na eficiência reprodutiva de vacas de leite de alta produção; Impact of fixed time artificial insemination on reproductive efficiency of high-producing dairy cows

Teixeira, Alessandra Ambrósio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.78%
O presente experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o impacto da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF) na eficiência reprodutiva de vacas de leite de alta produção inseminadas no período pós-parto. Vacas Holandesas com média de 50 dias pós-parto foram distribuídas homogeneamente em um de dois grupos experimentais, levando em consideração a presença ou ausência de corpo lúteo (CL), o escore de condição corporal e a produção de leite. No grupo Controle (G-Controle; n = 490), as vacas foram submetidas à observação do comportamento de aceitação de monta (duas vezes ao dia por uma hora) e inseminadas 12 horas após a primeira detecção. No grupo IATF (G-IATF; n = 495), as vacas receberam um implante auricular de norgestomet, mantido por oito dias, e 2 mg de benzoato de estradiol IM no dia 0 (D0; dia aleatório do ciclo estral). No momento da retirada do implante (D8) foram administrados 150 µg de prostaglandina F2α, 400 UI de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina e 1 mg de cipionato de estradiol. A IATF foi realizada de 54 a 56 h após a retirada do implante auricular, concomitante à administração de 100 µg de gonadorelina. Após a IATF, as vacas foram submetidas à observação de cio com subseqüente inseminação...

O uso de FSH exógeno estimula o crescimento folicular final e a função luteínica de vacas Holandesas em lactação sincronizadas para Inseminação Artificial em Tempo Fixo?; Does exogenous FSH increase the final follicular growth and lutea function for TAI in lactating Holstein cows?

Ayres, Henderson
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.8%
Vacas leiteira de alta produção têm apresentado declínio da eficiência reprodutiva. Essa redução é devido a causas multifatoriais, entre elas a baixa concentração de estradiol (E2) no proestro e a baixa concentração de progesterona (P4) no ciclo estral subsequentente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o uso de gonadotrofina exógena na dinâmica folicular e na taxa de prenhez de vacas submetidas ao protocolo Ovsynch (Experimento 1) ou a protocolos utilizando P4 e E2 (Experimento 2). No Experimento 1, animais de primeiro serviço foram pré-sincronizados com dois protocolos (Presynch ou Double-Ovsynch). Já os animais de segundo ou mais serviços foram resincronizados com o protocolo Resynch. Os animais receberam GnRH (1º GnRH), seguido 7 dias depois pela adiministração de prostaglandina F2α (PGF2α). Nesse momento os animais foram divididos homogeneamente por paridade e número de inseminação em um de dois tratamentos: sem FSH (Ovsynch, n = 561) ou com FSH (Ovsynch + FSH, n = 571). O segundo GnRH (2º GnRH) foi administrado 56 horas após a PGF2α e a inseminação em tempo fixo foi realizada 16 horas após. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas no 1º e no 2º GnRH, na PGF2α e 6 e 13 dias após o 2º GnRH para dosagem de P4. Ainda...

Efeito da progesterona injetável de longa ação na função luteínica e na taxa de concepção de vacas Holandesas de alta produção submetidas à IATF; Effect of long-acting injectable progesterone in luteal function and conception rate of high producing Holstein cows submitted to TAI

Souza, Evandro Davanço Ferreira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/04/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.99%
A progesterona (P4) apresenta papel fundamental nos processos de estabelecimento e manutenção da gestação em fêmeas bovinas. A manipulação deste esteroide em momentos estratégicos durante programas de sincronização da ovulação pode aumentar o sucesso gestacional, especialmente em vacas leiteiras de alta produção devido a alta metabolização hepática de esteroides. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a administração de P4 injetável de longa ação (P4LA), associado ou não ao tratamento com hCG, sobre a função luteínica e taxa de concepção de vacas leiteiras de alta produção. Para tanto, três experimentos foram realizados. Experimento 1, 12 dias após a ovulação sincronizada (-24 h), 29 vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação (fêmeas com P4 plasmática inferior a 1ng/mL) receberam um implante auricular de norgestomet e 500µg Cloprostenol Sódico (i.m.). Após 24h (0h), as fêmeas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em um de quatro grupos experimentais: Controle (n=8), fêmeas sem tratamento adicional; e P4LA-300 (n=7), P4LA-600 (n=7) e P4LA-900 (n=7), fêmeas tratadas com 300, 600 e 900 mg de P4LA i.m., respectivamente. A P4 plasmática foi determinada a cada 24h totalizando 216 h. Verificou-se interação entre tratamento e tempo (P=0...

Utilização dos polinômios de Legendre e da função de Wilmink em avaliações genéticas para persistência na lactação de animais da raça Holandesa; Use of Legendre polynomials and Wilmink function in genetic evaluations for persistency of lactation in Holstein cows

Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; Costa, Claudio Napolis; Teixeira, Nilson Milagres; Freitas, Ary Ferreira de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.71%
Os registros de produção de leite de 11.023 primeiras lactações de vacas da raça Holandesa pertencentes a 251 rebanhos distribuídos no estado de Minas Gerais foram usados para comparar os polinômios de Legendre e a função Wilmink em modelos de regressão aleatória (MRA) quanto aos seus efeitos na estimação de parâmetros genéticos e predição de valores genéticos para nove medidas de persistência na lactação e produção de leite até 305 dias. Os modelos de regressão aleatória ajustados aos controles leiteiros entre o sexto e o 305ọ dia de lactação incluíram o efeito de rebanho-ano-mês do controle, os parâmetros dos polinômios de Legendre de ordens 3 a 5 ou da função de Wilmink, para modelar as curvas fixas da regressão dentro das subclasses de idade-estação de parto da vaca e os parâmetros dos polinômios de Legendre de ordens 3 a 5, para modelar os efeitos aleatórios genético-aditivo e permanente de ambiente. Os testes do critério de informação de Akaike e Bayesiano indicaram o modelo com maior número de parâmetros como o que melhor se ajustou aos dados de produção de leite. Observaram-se grandes variações nas estimativas de herdabilidade para a maioria das medidas de persistência na lactação...

Environmental and genetic variation of the effective radiative properties of the coat of Holstein cows under tropical conditions

Maia, ASC; da Silva, R. G.; Bertipaglia, ECA
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 307-315
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.71%
Morphological characteristics, coat effective radiative properties, and the percentage of white colour were measured in the coats of 973 Holstein cows, and estimates of the genetic parameters were obtained for these traits, except morphological characteristics. The results showed that white coats are more dense with long, thin hairs, while the black coats are less dense with short, thick hairs. Effective transmissivity is greater in the less-dense coats with short, thin hairs, independently of coat colour. Effective reflectivity depends more on the variation in the radiative properties of the coat and skin surface rather than on the morphological characteristics of the coat. Effective absorptivity is greater in black and dense coats with long, thick hairs, than in the white and less-dense coat with short, thin hairs. All heritability estimates were of low magnitude, except for the percentage of white coat colour. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sensible and latent heat loss from the body surface of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

Maia, ASC; daSilva, R. G.; Loureiro, CMB
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 17-22
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.84%
The general principles of the mechanisms of heat transfer are well known, but knowledge of the transition between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss by Holstein cows in field conditions must be improved, especially for low-latitude environments. With this aim 15 Holstein cows managed in open pasture were observed in a tropical region. The latent heat loss from the body surface of the animals was measured by means of a ventilated capsule, while convective heat transfer was estimated by the theory of convection from a horizontal cylinder and by the long-wave radiation exchange based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. When the air temperature was between 10 and 36 degrees C the sensible heat transfer varied from 160 to -30 W m(-2), while the latent heat loss by cutaneous evaporation increased from 30 to 350 W m(-2). Heat loss by cutaneous evaporation accounted for 20-30% of the total heat loss when air temperatures ranged from 10 to 20 degrees C. At air temperatures > 30 degrees C cutaneous evaporation becomes the main avenue of heat loss, accounting for approximately 85% of the total heat loss, while the rest is lost by respiratory evaporation.

Estimation of genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in Holstein cows using a random regression model

Cobuci,Jaime Araujo; Euclydes,Ricardo Frederico; Lopes,Paulo Sávio; Costa,Claudio Napolis; Torres,Robledo de Almeida; Pereira,Carmen Silva
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.71%
Test-day milk yield records of 11,023 first-parity Holstein cows were used to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield during different lactation periods. (Co)variance components were estimated using two random regression models, RRM1 and RRM2, and the restricted maximum likelihood method, compared by the likelihood ratio test. Additive genetic variances determined by RRM1 and additive genetic and permanent environmental variances estimated by RRM2 were described, using the Wilmink function. Residual variance was constant throughout lactation for the two models. The heritability estimates obtained by RRM1 (0.34 to 0.56) were higher than those obtained by RRM2 (0.15 to 0.31). Due to the high heritability estimates for milk yield throughout lactation and the negative genetic correlation between test-day yields during different lactation periods, the RRM1 model did not fit the data. Overall, genetic correlations between individual test days tended to decrease at the extremes of the lactation trajectory, showing values close to unity for adjacent test days. The inclusion of random regression coefficients to describe permanent environmental effects led to a more precise estimation of genetic and non-genetic effects that influence milk yield.

Latent heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment: a prediction model

Maia,Alex Sandro Campos; Silva,Roberto Gomes da; Loureiro,Cintia Maria Battiston
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.81%
Nine lactating Holstein cows with average 526 ± 5 kg of BW, five predominantly black and four predominantly white, bred in a tropical region and managed in open pasture were observed to measure cutaneous and respiratory evaporation rates under different environmental conditions. Cows were separated in three weight class: 1 (<450 kg), 2 (450-500 kg) and 3 (>500 kg). Latent heat loss from cutaneous surface was measured using a ventilated capsule; evaporation in the respiratory system was measured using a facial mask. The results showed that heaviest cows (2 and 3 classes) presented the least evaporation rates. When air temperature increased from 10 to 36ºC the relative humidity decreased from 90 to 30%. In these conditions the heat loss by respiratory evaporation increased from 5 to 57 Wm-2, while the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation increased from 30 to 350 Wm-2. The results confirm that latent heat loss was the main way of thermal energy elimination under high air temperatures (>30ºC); cutaneous evaporation was the main mechanism of heat loss, responding for about 85% of the heat loss. A model was presented for the prediction of the latent heat loss that was based on physiological and environmental variables and could be used to estimate the contribution of evaporation to thermoregulation; a second...

Effective thermal conductivity of the hair coat of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

Maia,Alex Sandro Campos; Silva,Roberto Gomes da; Souza Junior,João Batista Freire de; Silva,Rosiane Batista da; Domingos,Hérica Girlane Tertulino
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.71%
The objective of the present study was to assess the effective thermal conductivity of the hair coat (k ef, mW.m-1.K-1) of Holstein cows in a tropical environment, as related to conduction and radiation in the absence of free convection. The average k ef was 49.72 mW.m-1.K-1, about twice the conductivity of the air (26 mW.m-1.K-1) and much less than that of the hair fibres (260 mW.m-1.K-1). The low k ef values were attributed mainly to the small cross area of individual hairs, ρef/ρf (17.2% and 21.3% for black and white hairs, respectively). White coats were denser, with longer hairs and significantly higher k ef (53.15 mW.m-1.K-1) than that of the black hairs (49.25 mW.m-1.K-1). The heritability coefficient of the effective thermal conductivity was calculated as h²=0.18 the possibility was discussed of selecting cattle for increased heat transfer through the hair coat.

Evaporative cooling and cutaneous surface temperature of Holstein cows in tropical conditions

Silva,Roberto Gomes da; Maia,Alex Sandro Campos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
The effects of skin temperature (T S) on the rate of heat loss by cutaneous evaporation (E S) in Holstein cows chronically exposed to sun, considering hair coat colour were studied. Sixteen purebred cows were measured for E S and T S at 01:00 p.m. after 6 hours of exposure to sun, on three body regions (flank, neck and gluteus) and considering dark and white spots separately. Sweating rate (S) and E S were measured by means of a ventilated capsule. Black skin areas presented mean S (138.9 ± 8.5 gm-2 h-1), E S (93.3 ± 5.7 Wm-2), and T S (33.1 ± 0.2°C) higher than those in the white areas (109.5 ± 9.7 gm-2h-1), 73.6 ± 6.5 Wm-2 and 32.6 ± 0.2°C, respectively). There is an exponential relationship among cutaneous temperature and cutaneous evaporation, which can be represented by the equation: E S = 31.5 + exp{(T S - 27.9)/2.19115}, with coefficient of determination r² = 0.68. Cutaneous evaporative heat loss remains almost constant around 48 Wm-2 until T S reaches nearly 31°C.

Winter environmental effects on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows; Efeitos ambientais de inverno sobre o consumo de matéria seca por vacas holandesas estabuladas e vacas holandesas desabrigadas

Fagundes, Antonio Cesar Alves; Muller, Pedro Bernardo; Moretti, Anibal de Sant’Anna
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1995 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.04%
The purpose of this study was to verify the association of environment and feed intake and also to measure the variation on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows, as a function of temperature decrease, during the winter in humid subtropical climate. The experiment was developed in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during July and August, 1986. There were used 12 Holstein cows with ration based on corn silage fed for "ad libitum" consumption, distributed in two sets: stabled cows and cows maintened in padlots. The experimental design was completely randomized. The daily dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows (0.095 ± 0.006 kg/kg0.75), was significantly different (P< 0.01) from the stabled ones (0.077 ± 0.005 kg/kg0.75). There was significant correlation (P < 0.05) among dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows and environmental temperature, air humidity, wind velocity and precipitation, with coefficients varying from -0.58 to 0.51 while the feed intake of stabled cows was only correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with the environmental temperature at 7 a.m. with coefficient of -0.27. These results show that feed intake of Holstein cows kept in padlots was higher than in stabled cows, due to lower environmental temperatures...

Variação genética das características do pelame e da produção de leite em vacas Holandesas manejadas à sombra em ambiente tropical; Genetic variation of the hair coat properties and the milk yield of Holstein cows managed under shade in a tropical environment

Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Silva, Roberto Gomes da; Bertipaglia, Elaine Cristina Abaker; Muñoz, Mario Cerón
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.84%
O presente estudo realizou uma avaliação genética e ambiental dos efeitos da cor e das características físicas do pelame sobre a produção de leite na primeira lactação de vacas Holandesas manejadas sobre sombra. Os dados são pertencentes a 449 vacas Holandesas e foram analisados pelo método de quadrados mínimos. O método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita (REML) foi utilizada para estimar os componentes de variância e covariância sob o modelo Animal. Os resultados mostraram que vacas Holandesas predominantemente brancas tendem a apresentar maior produção de leite do que aquelas predominantemente negras em um ambiente tropical, quando manejadas em free-stall providos de ventilação e aspersão. As características físicas do pelame apresentaram uma associação negativa com a produção de leite, exceto o diâmetro dos pêlos. Essa associação favorece a transferencia de calor através do pelame e, é amplamente favorável em ambientes quentes. As altas estimativas de herdabilidade juntamente com as altas correlações genéticas da produção de leite com aquelas propriedades físicas do pelame é uma evidencia da possibilidade de realizar uma seleção genética para aumento da produção de leite juntamente com uma seleção na direção de um pelame menos denso com pêlos grossos...

Evaluating IgY recovery in rumen fluid and its potential role in performance and neutrophil function in lactating Holstein cows

Barnard, Amanda Michelle
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.87%
Gressley, Tanya F.; A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of a spray dried egg (SDE) product from chickens vaccinated against mammalian enteric pathogens on in vitro disappearance of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) from rumen fluid and on performance of cows fed the product. In two separate in vitro experiments we incubated rumen fluid with SDE, an extract of SDE, or starch-encapsulated SDE for different amounts of time and used ELISA to measure IgY disappearance. The objectives of Experiment 1 were to determine IgY recovery from a SDE extract and SDE encapsulated with 50% starch following 6 h of incubation in rumen fluid. We also wanted to determine if recovery was influenced by the addition of total mixed ration (TMR) to the in vitro system. Recovery of IgY from the extract was 26% at 6 h, however, with the addition of TMR, 52% of IgY was recovered at 6 h. Recovery of IgY from starch-encapsulated SDE did not differ from recovery of IgY from the extract. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine IgY recovery from SDE incubated for up to 24 h in rumen fluid with TMR. Recovery of IgY decreased from 47% at 6 h to 25% at 12 h with numeric decreases to 15% and 14% at 18 h and 24 h, respectively. Based on this recovery data we predicted that approximately 50% of IgY from SDE should escape digestion in the rumen and be available to bind with intestinal pathogens. We elected to evaluate the efficacy of this product on performance and neutrophil function of dairy cows. Thirty lactating Holstein cows (6 primiparous...

Non-genetic factors affecting fertility traits in South African Holstein cows

Muller,C.J.C.; Potgieter,J.P.; Cloete,S.W.P.; Dzama,K.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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56.79%
Profitable milk production and genetic improvement in dairy herds depend largely on fertile cows calving annually to initiate a new lactation period. Over the last 30 years, several studies have indicated a decline in the reproductive performance of dairy cows. From the perspectives of many farmers and veterinarians, the reproductive performance of cows is related to the calving interval (CI) and services per conception (SPC). Using these traits as cow fertility indicators is problematic as CI is dependent on subsequent calving dates, while SPC is strongly linked to inseminator proficiency. Cow fertility refers to the ability of cows to come into oestrus soon after calving, to conceive from a minimum number of services, and to stay pregnant until the next calving. In this paper, non-genetic factors affecting fertility traits other than CI in Holstein cows are discussed. Service records (n = 69 181) and pregnancy check results of 9 046 cows in 14 herds were available. Six fertility traits were derived. Means (± sd) for the interval traits, namely calving to first insemination (CFS) and the interval from calving to conception (days open (DO)) were 77 ± 30 and 134 ± 74 days, respectively, while the number of SPC was 2.55 ± 1.79. The proportion of first services occurring within 80 days post partum (FS80d) and the proportion of cows being confirmed pregnant within 100 days (PD100d) and 200 days post partum (PD200d) were 0.64 ± 0.48...

Effect of magnesium oxide (MgO) addition in diets for lactating holstein cows

Montaño-Gómez,Martín F; Salinas-Chavira,Jaime; Calderón-Cortés,José F; Manríquez-Núñez,Olga M; González Vizcarra,Víctor M; Ruiz-Barrera,Oscar
Fonte: UNIVERSIDAD DEL ZULIA Publicador: UNIVERSIDAD DEL ZULIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.91%
It was evaluated the effect of magnesium oxide (MgO) addition in diets for Holstein cows on milk production and quality. Nineteen Holstein cows in second third of lactation were assigned to two treatments (T), with 9 and 10 animals. Both treatments were similar for days in lactation and milk yield. Cows were assigned at random to two treatments (T) groups: T1 received 0.2% and T2 received 0.4% of MgO. The MgO (alkalinizing agent) was mixed with a commercial concentrate and offered in feed bunk with total diet, which consisted of 9 kg/d of concentrate plus alfalfa hay fed ad libitum. Total diet was offered three times a day (0600; 1200 and 1700 h). The experimental period was of 30 d, with other 30 for adaptation. Milk production (kg/d) and milk quality (fat, protein, and total solids) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using the statistical package SAS through of a randomized block design. Animals on T2 (0.40% MgO) produced 2.85 kg/d more milk (P<0.50) than those on T1 (0.20% MgO). The fat, protein and total solids content in milk were higher (P<0.05) in T1 than in T2. It is concluded that the addition of 0.4% MgO in diets for lactating dairy cows resulted in milk production increased, although there was a small reduction in milk quality...