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Hive products effect against fermentativ spoilage yeasts

Rogão, Mónica; Moreira, Leadro; Pereira, Ana Paula; Morais, Margarida; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.68%
Hive products have recently being in the centre of the international scientific community attention, due to its biological properties.Honey is a sweet aliment produced by honey bees and derived from the nectar of flowers. Propolis is prepared by bees througt the collection of resins from trees and flowers. Bee pollen is the male seed of flowers that is collected by honey bees and mixed with bee secretions. The antimicrobial activity of hive products has been studied namely using pathogenic yeasts, regarding their use on traditional medicine. On the other hand, in literature are not reported studies concerning theis bioactivity against fermentative spoilage yeast, however its significance in food spoilage is increasing, essentially due the new food products development. The main objctive of this study was evaluated the effect of three hive products (honey, propolis and pollen - collected in the Northeast of Portugal) against the fermentative spoilge yeast. For this purpose was used fermentative spoilage yeast-Zygosaccharomyces bailli isolated from wine, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces melli isolatrd from honey, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as control. Broth diluition was performed in order to evaluted the antifungal activity of these products. The impact of the different hive products on the survival of fermentative spoilage yeasts was analyzed by calculating the percentge of each product...

The sound field generated by tethered stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris): inferences on its potential as a recruitment mechanism inside the hive

HRNCIR, Michael; SCHORKOPF, Dirk Louis P.; SCHMIDT, Veronika M.; ZUCCHI, Ronaldo; BARTH, Friedrich G.
Fonte: COMPANY OF BIOLOGISTS LTD Publicador: COMPANY OF BIOLOGISTS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
In stingless bees, recruitment of hive bees to food sources involves thoracic vibrations by foragers during trophallaxis. The temporal pattern of these vibrations correlates with the sugar concentration of the collected food. One possible pathway for transfering such information to nestmates is through airborne sound. In the present study, we investigated the transformation of thoracic vibrations into air particle velocity, sound pressure, and jet airflows in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Whereas particle velocity and sound pressure were found all around and above vibrating individuals, there was no evidence for a jet airflow as with honey bees. The largest particle velocities were measured 5 mm above the wings (16.0 +/- 4.8 mm s(-1)). Around a vibrating individual, we found maximum particle velocities of 8.6 +/- 3.0 mm s(-1) (horizontal particle velocity) in front of the bee`s head and of 6.0 +/- 2.1 mm s(-1) (vertical particle velocity) behind its wings. Wing oscillations, which are mainly responsible for air particle movements in honey bees, significantly contributed to vertically oriented particle oscillations only close to the abdomen in M. scutellaris(distances <= 5 mm). Almost 80% of the hive bees attending trophallactic food transfers stayed within a range of 5 mm from the vibrating foragers. It remains to be shown...

Le fonctionnement de la miellée de châtaignier en Pyrénées Atlantiques

Vale, Ana Luís dos Santos
Fonte: ISA/UTL Publicador: ISA/UTL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 FRA
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27.37%
Mestrado em Engenharia Florestal e dos Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; Chestnut honey is an important revenue for beekeepers in Aquitaine. This study aims to understand the influence of different factors: weather, the condition of the colonies, flowering, and the state of the stands of chestnut. The optimum flowering is reached in early July, but these dates seem to vary gretly from one year to another. Two hives were followed with a continuous system register of the weight and weather conditions (temperature, humidity and rainfall). The locations of the two hives have an abundant forest cover, but often older and abandoned. The Gelos hive had a superior production. Within 1500 m, the two apiaries were located in a heavily forested area, dominant chestnut, 65% and 42% of forest land, for Gelos and Ordiarp respectively. Honey production is concentrated in about 8-10 days (late July). This pattern was maintained in two years and in two apiaries. During this period the colonies increased by about 15kg. The period of weight gain corresponds to the flowering chestnut. This is evidence that these two sites chestnut is the main source of nectar. From the peak of flowering, the colonies begin to lose or maintain weight...

Social learning of floral odours inside the honeybee hive

Farina, Walter M; Grüter, Christoph; Díaz, Paula C
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
A honeybee hive serves as an information centre in which communication among bees allows the colony to exploit the most profitable resources in a continuously changing environment. The best-studied communication behaviour in this context is the waggle dance performed by returning foragers, which encodes information about the distance and direction to the food source. It has been suggested that another information cue, floral scents transferred within the hive, is also important for recruitment to food sources, as bee recruits are more strongly attracted to odours previously brought back by foragers in both honeybees and bumble-bees. These observations suggested that honeybees learn the odour from successful foragers before leaving the hive. However, this has never been shown directly and the mechanisms and properties of the learning process remain obscure. We tested the learning and memory of recruited bees in the laboratory using the proboscis extension response (PER) paradigm, and show that recruits indeed learn the nectar odours brought back by foragers by associative learning and retrieve this memory in the PER paradigm. The associative nature of this learning reveals that information was gained during mouth-to-mouth contacts among bees (trophallaxis). Results further suggest that the information is transferred to long-term memory. Associative learning of food odours in a social context may help recruits to find a particular food source faster.

Rho-mediated regulation of tight junctions during monocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier in HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE)

Persidsky, Yuri; Heilman, David; Haorah, James; Zelivyanskaya, Marina; Persidsky, Raisa; Weber, Gregory A.; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Ikezu, Tsuneya
Fonte: The American Society of Hematology Publicador: The American Society of Hematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised during progressive HIV-1 infection, but how this occurs is incompletely understood. We studied the integrity of tight junctions (TJs) of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) in an in vitro BBB system and in human brain tissues with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). A downregulation of TJ proteins, claudin-5 and occludin, paralleled monocyte migration into the brain during HIVE. Because small G proteins (such as Rho) can play a role in BMVEC TJ assembly, an artificial BBB system explored the relationship among TJs, Rho/Rho kinase (RhoK) activation, and transendothelial monocyte migration. Coculture of monocytes with endothelial cells led to Rho activation and phosphorylation of TJ proteins. Rho and RhoK inhibitors blocked migration of infected and uninfected monocytes. The RhoK inhibitor protected BBB integrity and reversed occludin/claudin-5 phosphorylation associated with monocyte migration. BMVEC transfection with a constitutively active mutant of RhoK led to dislocation of occludin from the membrane and loss of BMVEC cell contacts. When dominant-negative RhoK-transfected BMVECs were used in BBB constructs, monocyte migration was reduced by 84%. Thus, loss of TJ integrity was associated with Rho activation caused by monocyte brain migration...

NOVEL DELIVERY SYSTEM ENHANCES EFFICACY OF ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY IN ANIMAL MODEL FOR HIV-1 ENCEPHALITIS (HIVE)

Spitzenberger, Timothy J.; Heilman, David; Diekmann, Casey; Batrakova, Elena; Kabanov, Alexander; Gendelman, Howard E.; Elmquist, William F.; Persidsky, Yuri
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.2%
Most potent anti-retroviral drugs (e.g., HIV-1 protease inhibitors) poorly penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Brain distribution can be limited by the efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The ability of a novel drug delivery system (block co-polymer P85) that inhibits P-gp, to increase the efficacy of anti-retroviral drugs in brain was examined using a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). SCID mice inoculated with HIV-1 infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) into the basal ganglia were treated with P85, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) [zidovudine, lamivudine and nelfinavir, (NEL)], or P85 and ART. Mice were sacrificed on days 7 and 14, and brains were evaluated for levels of viral infection. Anti-viral effects of NEL, P85 or their combination were evaluated in vitro using HIV-1 infected MDM and demonstrated anti-retroviral effects of P85 alone. In SCID mice injected with virus-infected MDM the combination of ART-P85 and ART alone showed a significant decrease of HIV-1 p24 expressing MDM (25% and 33% of controls, respectively) at day 7 while P85 alone group was not different from control. At day 14, all treatment groups showed a significant decrease in percentage of HIV-1 infected MDM as compared to control. P85 alone and combined ART-P85 groups showed the most significant reduction in percentage of HIV-1 p24 expressing MDM (8–22% of control) that were superior to the ART alone group (38% of control). Our findings indicate major anti-retroviral effects of P85 and enhanced in vivo efficacy of antiretroviral drugs when combined with P85 in a SCID mouse model of HIVE.

Age-dependent molecular alterations in the autophagy pathway in HIVE patients and in a gp120 tg mouse model: reversal with beclin-1 gene transfer

Fields, Jerel; Dumaop, Wilmar; Rockenstein, Edward; Mante, Michael; Spencer, Brian; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ron; Letendre, Scott; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Masliah, Eliezer
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.63%
Aged (>50 years old) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients are the fastest-growing segment of the HIV-infected population in the USA and despite antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) prevalence has increased or remained the same among this group. Autophagy is an intracellular clearance pathway for aggregated proteins and aged organelles; dysregulation of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and HAND. Here, we hypothesized that dysregulated autophagy may contribute to aging-related neuropathology in HIV-infected individuals. To explore this possibility, we surveyed autophagy marker levels in postmortem brain samples from a cohort of well-characterized <50 years old (young) and >50 years old (aged) HIV+ and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) patients. Detailed clinical and neuropathological data showed the young and aged HIVE patients had higher viral load, increased neuroinflammation and elevated neurodegeneration; however, aged HIVE postmortem brain tissues showed the most severe neurodegenerative pathology. Interestingly, young HIVE patients displayed an increase in beclin-1, cathepsin-D and light chain (LC)3, but these autophagy markers were reduced in aged HIVE cases compared to age-matched HIV+ donors. Similar alterations in autophagy markers were observed in aged gp120 transgenic (tg) mice; beclin-1 and LC3 were decreased in aged gp120 tg mice while mTor levels were increased. Lentivirus-mediated beclin-1 gene transfer...

Field-Level Sublethal Effects of Approved Bee Hive Chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L)

Berry, Jennifer A.; Hood, W. Michael; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Delaplane, Keith S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/10/2013 EN
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27.37%
In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population...

Microbial Ecology of the Hive and Pollination Landscape: Bacterial Associates from Floral Nectar, the Alimentary Tract and Stored Food of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

Anderson, Kirk E.; Sheehan, Timothy H.; Mott, Brendon M.; Maes, Patrick; Snyder, Lucy; Schwan, Melissa R.; Walton, Alexander; Jones, Beryl M.; Corby-Harris, Vanessa
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.2%
Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or “beebread”). We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop), midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar...

High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis

Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.63%
The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a high-throughput cloud-based infrastructure developed for the storage and analysis of genomic and associated biological data. HIVE consists of a web-accessible interface for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, share, annotate, compute and visualize Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) data in a scalable and highly efficient fashion. The platform contains a distributed storage library and a distributed computational powerhouse linked seamlessly. Resources available through the interface include algorithms, tools and applications developed exclusively for the HIVE platform, as well as commonly used external tools adapted to operate within the parallel architecture of the system. HIVE is composed of a flexible infrastructure, which allows for simple implementation of new algorithms and tools. Currently, available HIVE tools include sequence alignment and nucleotide variation profiling tools, metagenomic analyzers, phylogenetic tree-building tools using NGS data, clone discovery algorithms, and recombination analysis algorithms. In addition to tools, HIVE also provides knowledgebases that can be used in conjunction with the tools for NGS sequence and metadata analysis.

Hive-stored pollen of honey bees: many lines of evidence are consistent with pollen preservation, not nutrient conversion

Anderson, Kirk E; Carroll, Mark J; Sheehan, Tim; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Corby-Harris, Vanessa
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.48%
Honey bee hives are filled with stored pollen, honey, plant resins and wax, all antimicrobial to differing degrees. Stored pollen is the nutritionally rich currency used for colony growth and consists of 40–50% simple sugars. Many studies speculate that prior to consumption by bees, stored pollen undergoes long-term nutrient conversion, becoming more nutritious ‘bee bread’ as microbes predigest the pollen. We quantified both structural and functional aspects associated with this hypothesis using behavioural assays, bacterial plate counts, microscopy and 454 amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both newly collected and hive-stored pollen. We found that bees preferentially consume fresh pollen stored for <3 days. Newly collected pollen contained few bacteria, values which decreased significantly as pollen were stored >96 h. The estimated microbe to pollen grain surface area ratio was 1:1 000 000 indicating a negligible effect of microbial metabolism on hive-stored pollen. Consistent with these findings, hive-stored pollen grains did not appear compromised according to microscopy. Based on year round 454 amplicon sequencing, bacterial communities of newly collected and hive-stored pollen did not differ, indicating the lack of an emergent microbial community co-evolved to digest stored pollen. In accord with previous culturing and 16S cloning...

Unique Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Hive Component-Based Communities as Detected by a Hybrid of Phospholipid Fatty-Acid and Fatty-Acid Methyl Ester Analyses

Grubbs, Kirk J.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Budsberg, Kevin J.; Read, Harry; Balser, Teri C.; Currie, Cameron R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.63%
Microbial communities (microbiomes) are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey...

Comparative Resistance of Russian and Italian Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to Small Hive Beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

Frake, Amanda M.; De Guzman, Lilia I.; Rinderer, Thomas E.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.75%
To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 ± 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 ± 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 ± 1.35; Russian, 5.21 ± 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (r2 = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock...

Synergistic Interactions Between In-Hive Miticides in Apis mellifera

Johnson, Reed M.; Pollock, Henry S.; Berenbaum, May R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.48%
The varroa mite, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, is a devastating pest of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., that has been primarily controlled over the last 15 yr with two in-hive miticides: the organophosphate coumaphos (Checkmite+), and the pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate (Apistan). Both coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate are lipophilic compounds that are absorbed by the wax component of the hive, where they are stable and have the potential to build up over repeated treatments such that bees could be exposed to both compounds simultaneously. Although these compounds were chosen as in-hive miticides due to their low toxicity to honey bees, that low toxicity depends, at least in part, on rapid detoxification mediated by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes (P450s). In this laboratory study, we observed a large increase in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate to 3-d-old bees that had been treated previously with coumaphos, and a moderate increase in the toxicity of coumpahos in bees treated previously with tau-fluvalinate. The observed synergism may result from competition between miticides for access to detoxicative P450s. These results suggest that honey bee mortality may occur with the application of otherwise sublethal doses of miticide when tau-fluvalinate and coumaphos are simultaneously present in the hive.

The amounts of hive-space needed by colonies of european Apis Mellifera

Simpson, J.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.2%
The maximum sizes of 83 colonies varied greatly, the biggest colony being five times the size of the smallest. Many of the colonies that failed to grow big stopped growing quite early in the summer without losing their laying queens. This suggests that selective breeding might be more profitably directed towards uniformity than towards increase in colony size. Twenty-three colonies kept with more hive space than they could occupy had an average of about 1100 bees per British comb (1400 per Langstroth comb) on the combs they were occupying. From this, and several published estimates of colony sizes, it was deduced that an average colony needs about 34 British Il-comb boxes or 3 Langstroth lO-comb boxes to accommodate its adult bees.

The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS): a situation report for the HIVE Project

Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2008 ENG
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El presente informe realiza un análisis exhaustivo de la situación en cuanto a la aplicación de SKOS. El estudio incluye una detallada revisión de literatura científica y recursos web sobre el modelo, una selección de los proyectos, iniciativas, herramientas, grupos de investigación claves y cualquier otro tipo de información que pudiera ser de relevancia para el logro de los objetivos del proyecto HIVE. Asimismo, se analiza la importancia de SKOS para el logro de la interoperabilidad semántica y se elaboran un conjunto de recomendaciones para los miembros del proyecto HIVE.; HIVE (Helping Interdisciplinary Vocabularies Engineering) es un proyecto financiado por el IMLS (Institute of Museums and Library Services), e indirectamente, en Dryad, ambos proyectos en colaboración del Metadata Research Center y el National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) in Durham, North Carolina. Con el desarrollo de HIVE se pretende resolver esta problemática mediante una propuesta de generación automática de metadatos que permita la integración dinámica de vocabularios controlados específicos. Para asistir la integración de vocabularios se seleccionó SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organisation System), un estándar del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) para la representación de sistemas de organización del conocimiento o vocabularios...

The behaviour of worker honeybees at the hive entrance; Comportement des ouvrières d'abeilles domestiques à l'entrée de la ruche

Butler, C.G.; Free, J.B.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
EN; ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.63%
1. Observations at hive entrances have been made to ascertain the relative importance of scent and behaviour in enabling a guard bee to recognise members of her own colony and to distinguish them from intruders from other colonies. 2. Guard bees are not present at the hive entrance unless the colony has been alerted. 3. Alerting of colonies is brought about by the presence of robber bees or by numbers of bees that have strayed from other colonies. 4. Guard bees attempt to intercept and inspect other bees on the alighting-board of the hive. Bees of various ages undertake guard duties. 5. Guard bees recognise members of their own colony by scent. 6. Robber bees are recognised by behaviour when attempting to enter the hive, but all other intruders are recognised by scent. 7. After recognition intruders, other than robbers, assume either a dominant or a submissive attitude. 8. A dominant intruder, usually a laden forager, enters the hive without hesitation or difficulty. 9. On interception a submissive intruder stops moving towards the hive entrance and allows herself to be subjected to extensive examination or mauling. 10. Whilst being extensively examined or mauled the submissive intruder offers food to the guards and on their refusal of it 'strops' her tongue. It is suggested that this is a displacement activity. 11. A submissive bee that is being mauled sometimes passes into a state of thanatosis. 12. Very young bees are recognised as intruders and mauled just as readily as older bees. 13. As long as an intruder remains submissive she is not stung by the guards. Intruders...

DualTable: A Hybrid Storage Model for Update Optimization in Hive

Hu, Songlin; Liu, Wantao; Rabl, Tilmann; Huang, Shuo; Liang, Ying; Xiao, Zheng; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno; Pei, Xubin; Wang, Jiye
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.75%
Hive is the most mature and prevalent data warehouse tool providing SQL-like interface in the Hadoop ecosystem. It is successfully used in many Internet companies and shows its value for big data processing in traditional industries. However, enterprise big data processing systems as in Smart Grid applications usually require complicated business logics and involve many data manipulation operations like updates and deletes. Hive cannot offer sufficient support for these while preserving high query performance. Hive using the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) for storage cannot implement data manipulation efficiently and Hive on HBase suffers from poor query performance even though it can support faster data manipulation.There is a project based on Hive issue Hive-5317 to support update operations, but it has not been finished in Hive's latest version. Since this ACID compliant extension adopts same data storage format on HDFS, the update performance problem is not solved. In this paper, we propose a hybrid storage model called DualTable, which combines the efficient streaming reads of HDFS and the random write capability of HBase. Hive on DualTable provides better data manipulation support and preserves query performance at the same time. Experiments on a TPC-H data set and on a real smart grid data set show that Hive on DualTable is up to 10 times faster than Hive when executing update and delete operations.; Comment: accepted by industry session of ICDE2015

DGFIndex for Smart Grid: Enhancing Hive with a Cost-Effective Multidimensional Range Index

Liu, Yue; Hu, Songlin; Rabl, Tilmann; Liu, Wantao; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno; Wu, Kaifeng; Chen, Jian; Li, Jintao
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.63%
In Smart Grid applications, as the number of deployed electric smart meters increases, massive amounts of valuable meter data is generated and collected every day. To enable reliable data collection and make business decisions fast, high throughput storage and high-performance analysis of massive meter data become crucial for grid companies. Considering the advantage of high efficiency, fault tolerance, and price-performance of Hadoop and Hive systems, they are frequently deployed as underlying platform for big data processing. However, in real business use cases, these data analysis applications typically involve multidimensional range queries (MDRQ) as well as batch reading and statistics on the meter data. While Hive is high-performance at complex data batch reading and analysis, it lacks efficient indexing techniques for MDRQ. In this paper, we propose DGFIndex, an index structure for Hive that efficiently supports MDRQ for massive meter data. DGFIndex divides the data space into cubes using the grid file technique. Unlike the existing indexes in Hive, which stores all combinations of multiple dimensions, DGFIndex only stores the information of cubes. This leads to smaller index size and faster query processing. Furthermore, with pre-computing user-defined aggregations of each cube...

Exploring Non-Homogeneity and Dynamicity of High Scale Cloud through Hive and Pig

Shakil, Kashish Ara; Alam, Mansaf; Sethi, Shuchi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/03/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
Cloud computing deals with heterogeneity and dynamicity at all levels and therefore there is a need to manage resources in such an environment and properly allocate them. Resource planning and scheduling requires a proper understanding of arrival patterns and scheduling of resources. Study of workloads can aid in proper understanding of their associated environment. Google has released its latest version of cluster trace, trace version 2.1 in November 2014.The trace consists of cell information of about 29 days spanning across 700k jobs. This paper deals with statistical analysis of this cluster trace. Since the size of trace is very large, Hive which is a Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) based platform for querying and analysis of Big data, has been used. Hive was accessed through its Beeswax interface. The data was imported into HDFS through HCatalog. Apart from Hive, Pig which is a scripting language and provides abstraction on top of Hadoop was used. To the best of our knowledge the analytical method adopted by us is novel and has helped in gaining several useful insights. Clustering of jobs and arrival time has been done in this paper using K-means++ clustering followed by analysis of distribution of arrival time of jobs which revealed weibull distribution while resource usage was close to zip-f like distribution and process runtimes revealed heavy tailed distribution.