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The division of labor, coordination, and the demand for information processing

Michaels, Guy
Fonte: Centre for Economic Policy Research Publicador: Centre for Economic Policy Research
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.99%
The Division of Labour, Coordination, and the Demand for Information Processing* Since Adam Smith's time, the division of labour in production has increased significantly, while information processing has become an important part of work. This paper examines whether the need to coordinate an increasingly complex division of labour has raised the demand for clerical office workers, who process information that is used to coordinate production. In order to examine this question empirically, I introduce a measure of the complexity of an industry's division of labour that uses the Herfindahl index of occupations it employs, excluding clerks and managers. Using US data I find that throughout the 20th century more complex industries employed relatively more clerks, and recent Mexican data shows a similar relationship. The relative complexity of industries is persistent over time and correlated across these two countries. I further document the relationship between complexity and the employment of clerks using an early information technology (IT) revolution that took place around 1900, when telephones, typewriters, and improved filing techniques were introduced. This IT revolution raised the demand for clerks in all manufacturing industries...

Labor market institutions around the world

Freeman, Richard B.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2008 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
This paper documents the large cross-country differences in labor institutions that make them a candidate explanatory factor for the divergent economic performance of countries and reviews what economists have learned about the effects of these institutions on economic outcomes. It identifies three ways in which institutions affect economic performance: by altering incentives, by facilitating efficient bargaining, and by increasing information, communication, and trust. The evidence shows that labor institutions reduce the dispersion of earnings and income inequality, which alters incentives, but finds equivocal effects on other aggregate outcomes, such as employment and unemployment. Given weaknesses in the crosscountry data on which most studies focus, the paper argues for increased use of micro-data, simulations, and experiments to illuminate how labor institutions operate and affect outcomes.

Labor search and matching in macroeconomics

Yashiv, Eran
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.95%
The labor search and matching model plays a growing role in macroeconomic analysis. This paper provides a critical, selective survey of the literature. Four fundamental questions are explored: how are unemployment, job vacancies, and employment determined as equilibrium phenomena? What determines worker flows and transition rates from one labor market state to another? How are wages determined? What role do labor market dynamics play in explaining business cycles and growth? The survey describes the basic model, reviews its theoretical extensions, and discusses its empirical applications in macroeconomics. The model has developed against the background of difficulties with the use of the neoclassical, frictionless model of the labor market in macroeconomics. Its success includes the modelling of labor market outcomes as equilibrium phenomena, the reasonable fit of the data, and — when inserted into business cycle models — improved performance of more general macroeconomic models. At the same time, there is evidence against the Nash solution used for wage setting and an active debate as to the ability of the model to account for some of the cyclical facts.

Exploring the detailed location patterns of UK manufacturing industries using microgeographic data

Duranton, Gilles; Overman, Henry G.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Sciences Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Sciences
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2006 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
We use a point-pattern methodology to explore the detailed location patterns of UK manufacturing industries. In particular, we consider the location of entrants and exiters vs. continuing establishments, domestic- vs. foreign-owned, large vs. small, and affiliated vs. independent. We also examine co-localisation between vertically linked industries. Our analysis provides a set of new stylised facts and confirmation for others.

Labor and the market value of the firm

Merz, Monika; Yashiv, Eran
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2005 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
What role does labor play in a firm’s market value? We explore this question using a production-based asset pricing model with frictions in the adjustment of both capital and labor. We posit that hiring of labor is akin to investment in capital and that the two interact, with the interaction being a crucial determinant of the time series behavior of market value. We use aggregate U.S. corporate sector data to estimate firms' optimal hiring and investment decisions and the consequences for firms' value. The model generates a good fit of the data. We decompose the estimated market value, thereby quantifying the link between firms' value and gross hiring flows, employment, gross investment flows, and physical capital. We find that a conventional specification -- quadratic adjustment costs for capital and no hiring costs -- performs poorly. Hiring and investment flows, unlike employment and capital stocks, are volatile and both are essential to account for market value volatility. A key result is that firms' value embodies the value of hiring and investment over and above the capital stock.

Sinking the blues: the impact of shop closing hours on labor and product markets

Goos, Maarten
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
There is a growing consensus among economists that extending shop opening hours creates jobs. While this is probably true in deregulating industries, this paper argues there are some deficiencies in the existing hypotheses about how exactly deregulation affects employment. First, this paper exploits recent changes in Sunday Closing Laws in the US to find that total employment, total revenue and the number of shops increase in deregulating industries and possibly decrease in non-deregulating industries. Second, a model assuming consumers like shopping on Sunday, monopolistic competition and low barriers to entry is presented to show how consumer behavior and retail competition can explain the observed impact of deregulation on retail labor and product markets and therefore ultimately employment.

Are European labor markets as awful as all that?

Freeman, Richard B.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
“The standard explanation of why advanced Europe has generated less work per adult than the US is that something is seriously amiss with EU labor markets. The theme of this piece is simple. Compared to an ideal competitive market, EU labor markets fall seriously short, but compared to labor markets in the US and to other markets in advanced capitalist countries, EU labor markets do not live up to their awful press. The variety of labor market institutions among EU countries, moreover, reveals a much richer picture of performance and diversity than the blanket condemnation of inflexibility suggests. I make my case in four propositions, with supporting evidence. My comparisons are with the actual labor market in the US and with other real world markets, not with the economists’ dream ideal competitive markets. I review briefly the evidence that labor markets in the EU have performed worse on the quantity side of the market but better on the price or wage side of the market than the US labor market, then consider the extent to which differences in outcomes are attributable to differences in the performance of labor markets.”

Child labor and the labor supply of other household members: evidence from 1920 America

Manacorda, Marco
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2003 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.96%
This paper analyses the effect of child labor on household labor supply using 1920 US Census micro data. The aim of the analysis is to understand who in the household benefits from child labor. In order to identify a source of exogenous variation in child labor I use State-specific child labor laws. I find that a rise in the proportion of working children by household is associated with no variation in parents¿ labor supply. I also find a strong negative externality among children: as the proportion of working children by household rises, everything else equal, the probability that each child works falls while the probability that he attends school rises. This suggests that parents redistribute entirely the returns from child labor to the children in the household, consistent with a model of household labor supply with fully altruistic parents.

Land markets and land market regulation : progress towards understanding

Cheshire, P. C.; Sheppard, Stephen Charles
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2004 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.97%
We introduce the papers in this volume and put them into the context of the literature on land use regulation. We then synthesise and draw some conclusions from existing research on land use regulation and interpret the evidence currently available. In the light of this review we then identify issues for research. As we stress in this introduction, the analysis of land use regulation is, compared to regulation in other contexts, significantly neglected. We hope that this special issue which draws on the results of a conference held at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy in the summer of 2002 will go some way towards highlighting and remedying this neglect.

The introduction of price signals into land use planning decision-making : a proposal

Cheshire, P. C.; Sheppard, Stephen Charles
Fonte: Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2005 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96%
Although directed to the British system of Town and Country Planning this paper has relevance for many OECD countries, including some with systems of land use regulation which evolved entirely independently of the British. The paper starts by characterising the basic features of the British land use planning system, viewed from the resource allocation point of view of an economist. A conclusion is that the system explicitly excludes any use of price signals from its decisions. The paper then summarises the problems which the exclusion of price information has given rise to. Because the UK planning system has deliberately constrained the supply of space, and space is an attribute of housing which is income elastic in demand, rising incomes not only drive rising real house prices but also mean that land prices have risen considerably faster than house prices. Several housing attributes other than garden space are to a degree substitutes for land but the underlying cause of the inelastic supply of housing in the UK is the constraint on land supply. The final section proposes a mechanism which would make use of the information embodied in the price premiums of neighbouring parcels of land zoned for different uses. Such premiums signal the relative scarcity of land for different uses at each location and should become a ‘material consideration’ in planning decision-making. If they were above some threshold...

Dynamics of indirect land-use change: empirical evidence from Brazil

Palmer, Charles; Di Falco, Salvatore
Fonte: Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Publicador: Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.98%
The expansion of a given land use may affect deforestation directly if forests are cleared to free land for this use, or indirectly, via the displacement of other land-use activities from non-forest areas towards the forest frontier. Unlike direct land conversion, indirect land-use changes affecting deforestation are not immediately observable. They require the linking of changes occurring in different regions. This paper empirically estimates these indirect effects for the case of Brazil. It presents evidence of a positive relationship between sugarcane expansion in the south of the country and cattle ranching in the Amazon, suggesting that the former is indeed displacing the latter towards the forest frontier. This displacement effect is shown to be a dynamic process, materialising over ten to 15 years.

On the origins of land use regulations: theory and evidence from US metro areas

Hilber, Christian A. L.; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.95%
We model residential land use constraints as the outcome of a political economy game between owners of developed and owners of undeveloped land. Land use constraints benefit the former group (via increasing property prices) but hurt the latter (via increasing development costs). More desirable locations are more developed and, as a consequence of political economy forces, more regulated. Using an IV approach that directly follows from our model we find strong and robust support for our predictions. The data provide weak or no support for alternative hypotheses whereby regulations reflect the wishes of the majority of households or efficiency motives.

Homeownership and land use controls: a dynamic model with voting and lobbying

Hilber, Christian A. L.; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric
Fonte: Geography and Environment Department, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Geography and Environment Department, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.93%
Homeowners have incentives to control and limit local land development and anecdotic evidence suggests that ‘homevoters’ indeed actively support restrictive measures. Yet, US metro area level homeownership rates are strongly negatively related to corresponding measures of the restrictiveness of land use regulation. To shed light on these seemingly contradictory stylized facts, we present a dynamic model with a planning board that maximizes a weighted social welfare function (SWF). The SWF can be interpreted as the reduced form of various political economy models of voting and lobbying. We consider three special cases: a median voter model, a probabilistic voting model, and an ‘influence for sale’ model. In all three cases conditions exist that predict outcomes which are consistent with the presented stylized facts. Generally, our model predicts that the homeownership rate has an ambiguous effect on the regulatory restrictiveness.

Owners of developed land versus owners of undeveloped land: why land use is more constrained in the Bay Area than in Pittsburgh

Hilber, Christian A. L.; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2006 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.99%
We model residential land use constraints as the outcome of a political economy game between owners of developed and owners of undeveloped land. Land use constraints are interpreted as shadow taxes that increase the land rent of already developed plots and reduce the amount of new housing developments. In general equilibrium, locations with nicer amenities are more developed and, as a consequence, more regulated. We test our model predictions by geographically matching amenity, land use, and historical Census data to metropolitan area level survey data on regulatory restrictiveness. Following the predictions of the model, we use amenities as instrumental variables and demonstrate that metropolitan areas with better amenities are more developed and more tightly regulated than other areas. Consistent with theory, metropolitan areas that are more regulated also grow more slowly.

Labour and land in Ghana, 1874-1939: a shifting ratio and an institutional revolution

Austin, Gareth
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Economic History Society of Australia and New Zealand Publicador: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Economic History Society of Australia and New Zealand
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.95%
The Second Industrial Revolution created markets for new products for Ghana, rubber and then cocoa beans. Mechanised transport spurred the spread of cocoa planting. The paper estimates the resultant shift in factor ratios, and synthesises the data for prices of land-use rights and wages as the economy moved from land abundance to localised land scarcity. The consequences for factor markets were institutional rather than simply quantitative. For the first time markets in land use rights became widespread, while hired labour and farm pledging replaced slavery and debt bondage, as cocoa income made it possible for farmers to offer labourers sufficient inducement to enter the labour market.

Privatization, entry regulation and the decline of labor's share of GDP: a cross-country analysis of the network industries

Azmat, Ghazala; Manning, Alan; Van Reenen, John
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance , London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance , London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
Labor’s share of GDP in most OECD countries has declined over the last two decades. Some authors have suggested that these changes are linked to deregulation of product and labor markets. To examine this we focus on a large quasi-experiment in the OECD: the privatization of many network industries (e.g. telecommunications and utilities). We present a model with agency problems, imperfect product market competition and worker bargaining which makes clear predictions on how the labor share, employment and wages respond to privatization and other regulatory changes. We exploit cross-country panel data on several network industries and find that privatization can account for a significant proportion of the fall of labor’s share (a fifth overall, but over half in Britain and France). The impact of privatization has been offset by falling barriers to entry, which consistent with theory, dampens profit margins.

Energy availability is more important than capital and skilled labor for the location of manufacturing industries in the US

Michielsen, Thomas
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/09/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.94%
Energy reserves are distributed much more unevenly across U.S. states than physical capital and skilled labor, and the energy intensity of manufacturing sectors is also strongly skewed. Using data from 2001-2009, Thomas Michielsen finds that a one standard deviation increase in coal or natural gas reserves per capita, roughly corresponding to the difference in per-capita natural gas reserves between Texas and California, is associated with a 20-25 percent increase in value added and employment in energy-intensive sectors.

The cultural industries sector: its definition and character from secondary sources on employment and trade, Britain 1984-91

Pratt, Andy C.
Fonte: Department of Geography, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Geography, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/1997 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.97%
Cultural industries are broadly defined for the purposes of this paper as music, film, radio and television, publishing and advertising. The sectoral approach adopted includes not only the artists, but also the skilled technicians and support infrastructure (material and organizational) necessary to reproduce these cultural endeavours. The aim of this paper is to provide the ground work for more intensive studies of the cultural industries sector. It takes as its major task the development of a practical definition of the cultural industry sector for use with existing secondary data on employment and trade. It shows changes in the size, composition and where possible distribution, in Britain in the period 1984-91. The paper suggests that significant restructuring that has taken place in the location and form of the cultural industries sector. Moreover, potential interdependencies may exist between cultural industries sector and some manufacturing industries; policy makers both in the arts, and in industry, may need to acknowledge these.

Female labor supply and divorce: new evidence from Ireland

Bargain, Olivier; González, Libertad; Keane, Claire; Özcan, Berkay
Fonte: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Publicador: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2010 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.94%
If participation in the labor market helps to secure women’s outside options in the case of divorce/separation, an increase in the perceived risk of marital dissolution may accelerate the increase in female labor supply. This simple prediction has been tested in the literature using time and/or spatial variation in divorce legislation (e.g., across US states), leading to mixed results. In this paper, we suggest testing this hypothesis by exploiting a more radical policy change, i.e., the legalization of divorce. In Ireland, the right to divorce was introduced in 1996, followed by an acceleration of marriage breakdown rates. We use this fundamental change in the Irish society as a natural experiment. We follow a difference-in-difference approach, using families for whom the dissolution risk is small as a control group. Our results suggest that the legalization of divorce contributed to a significant increase in female labor supply, mostly at the extensive margin. Results are not driven by selection and are robust to several specification checks, including the introduction of household fixed effects and an improved match between control and treatment groups using propensity score reweighting.

The division of labor, coordination, and the demand for information processing

Michaels, Guy
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
Since Adam Smith’s time, the division of labor in production has increased significantly, while information processing has become an important part of work. This paper examines whether the need to coordinate an increasingly complex division of labor has raised the demand for clerical office workers, who process information that is used to coordinate production. In order to examine this question empirically, I introduce a measure of the complexity of an industry’s division of labor that uses the Herfindahl index of occupations it employs, excluding clerks and managers. Using US data I find that throughout the 20th century more complex industries employed relatively more clerks, and recent Mexican data shows a similar relationship. The relative complexity of industries is persistent over time and correlated across these two countries. I further document the relationship between complexity and the employment of clerks using an early information technology (IT) revolution that took place around 1900, when telephones, typewriters, and improved filing techniques were introduced. This IT revolution raised the demand for clerks in all manufacturing industries, but significantly more so in industries with a more complex division of labor. Interestingly...