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Síndrome de Noonan: do fenótipo à terapêutica com hormônio de crescimento; Noonan syndrome: from phenotype to growth hormone therapy

MALAQUIAS, Alexsandra C.; FERREIRA, Lize V.; SOUZA, Silvia C.; ARNHOLD, Ivo J. P.; MENDONÇA, Berenice B.; JORGE, Alexander A. L.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.71%
A síndrome de Noonan (SN) é uma síndrome genética comum que constitui importante diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes com baixa estatura, atraso puberal ou criptorquidia. A SN apresenta grande variabilidade fenotípica e é caracterizada principalmente por dismorfismo facial, cardiopatia congênita e baixa estatura. A herança é autossômica dominante com penetrância completa. O diagnóstico é clínico, com base em critérios propostos por van der Burgt, em 1994. Recentemente, diversos genes envolvidos na via de sinalização RAS-MAPK foram identificados como causadores da SN: PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, RAF1 e MEK1. O tratamento com hormônio de crescimento (hrGH) é proposto para corrigir a baixa estatura observada nestes pacientes. Estudos recentes apontam que pacientes com SN por mutações no gene PTPN11 apresentam pior resposta ao tratamento com hrGH quando comparado com pacientes sem mutações no PTPN11. Este artigo revisará os aspectos clínicos, moleculares e do tratamento da baixa estatura de crianças com SN com hrGH.; Noonan Syndrome (NS) is one of the most common genetic syndromes and it is an important differential diagnosis in children with short stature, delayed puberty and cryptorchidism. NS is characterized by dysmorphic facial features...

Hormônio do crescimento e exercício físico: considerações atuais; Growth hormone and physical exercise: current considerations

CRUZAT, Vinicius Fernandes; DONATO JÚNIOR, José; TIRAPEGUI, Julio; SCHNEIDER, Claudia Dornelles
Fonte: Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação do Conjunto das Químicas da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação do Conjunto das Químicas da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.69%
Embora o hormônio do crescimento (GH) seja um dos hormônios mais estudados, vários de seus aspectos fisiológicos ainda não estão integralmente esclarecidos, incluindo sua relação com o exercício físico. Estudos mais recentes têm aumentado o conhecimento a respeito dos mecanismos de ação do GH, podendo ser divididos em: 1) ações diretas, mediadas pela rede de sinalizações intracelulares, desencadeadas pela ligação do GH ao seu receptor na membrana plasmática; e 2) ações indiretas, mediadas principalmente pela regulação da síntese dos fatores de crescimento semelhantes à insulina (IGF). Tem sido demonstrado que o exercício físico é um potente estimulador da liberação do GH. A magnitude deste aumento sofre influência de diversos fatores, em especial, da intensidade e do volume do exercício, além do estado de treinamento. Atletas, normalmente, apresentam menor liberação de GH induzida pelo exercício que indivíduos sedentários ou pouco treinados. Evidências experimentais demonstram que o GH: 1) favorece a mobilização de ácidos graxos livres do tecido adiposo para geração de energia; 2) aumenta a capacidade de oxidação de gordura e 3) aumenta o gasto energético.; Although growth hormone (GH) is one of the most extensively studied hormones...

Farmacogenética do tratamento do hormônio de crescimento em pacientes com síndrome de Turner; Growth hormone pharmacogenetics in patients with Turner syndrome

Braz, Adriana Farrant
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/09/2013 PT
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65.71%
A resposta individual ao tratamento com hormônio de crescimento recombinante humano (rhGH) na síndrome de Turner (ST) é muito variável. A falta de individualização da dose pode justificar a variabilidade de respostas e os resultados insatisfatórios de algumas pacientes mesmo quando diagnosticadas e tratadas em condições ideais. Como a resposta ao tratamento com rhGH reflete fatores genéticos e não genéticos, o objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar a influência de fatores genéticos no tratamento com rhGH das portadoras de ST. Foram estudadas 112 pacientes com ST, em tratamento ou que interromperam a terapia, após atingir a altura final. O DNA genômico de todas as pacientes foi obtido para estudo de três polimorfismos em genes envolvidos na ação do GH: a presença ou ausência do éxon 3 do receptor do GH (GHR), VNTR presente na região promotora do gene do fator de crescimento insulina-símile-1(IGF1) e polimorfismo de único nucleotídeo (SNP) presente na região promotora do gene da Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Insulina-símile (IGFBP3). Os achados moleculares foram correlacionados com a velocidade de crescimento no primeiro ano de tratamento (n=112) e com altura adulta (n=65)) após uso de rhGH por meio de análises de regressão linear simples e múltipla...

Growth hormone and heart failure: Oxidative stress and energetic metabolism in rats

Seiva, F. R. F.; Ebaid, Geovana Xavier; Castro, A. V. B.; Okoshi, K.; Nascimento, A.; Rocha, K. K. H.; Padovani, C. R.; Cicogna, A. C.; Novelli, E. L. B.
Fonte: Churchill Livingstone Publicador: Churchill Livingstone
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 275-283
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.71%
Several evidences point for beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) in heart failure (HF). Taking into account that HF is related with changes in myocardial oxidative stress and in energy generation from metabolic pathways, it is important to clarify whether GH increase or decrease myocardial oxidative stress and what is its effect on energetic metabolism in HF condition. Thus, this study investigated the effects of two different doses of GH on energetic metabolism and oxidative stress in myocardium of rats with HF. Male Wistar rats (n = 25) were submitted to aortic stenosis (AS). The HF was evidenced by tachypnea and echocardiographic criteria around 28 weeks of AS. The rats were then randomly divided into three groups: (HF) with HF, treated with saline (0.9% NaCl); (HF-GHI), treated with 1 mk/kg/day recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), and (HF-GH2) treated with 2 mg/kg/day rhGH. GH was injected, subcutaneously, daily for 2 weeks. A control group (sham; n = 12), with the same age of the others rats was evaluated to confirm data for AS. HF had lower IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I) than sham-operated rats, and both GH treatments normalized IGF-I level. HF-GH1 animals had lower lipid hydroperoxide (LH), LH/total antioxidant substances (TAS) and glutathione-reductase than HF. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)...

Growth hormone attenuates skeletal muscle changes in experimental chronic heart failure

dos Santos, Denis Pioli; Okoshi, Katashi; Moreira, Vanessa O.; Seiva, Fabio R. F.; Alves de Almeida, Fernanda Losi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Barros Castro, Ana Valeria; Dal Pai-S
Fonte: Churchill Livingstone Publicador: Churchill Livingstone
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 149-155
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.73%
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of growth hormone (GH) on morphology and myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) gene expression in skeletal muscle of rats with ascending aortic stenosis (AAS) induced chronic heart failure.Design: Male 90-100 g Wistar rats were subjected to thoracotomy. AAS was created by placing a stainless-steel clip on the ascending aorta. Twenty five weeks after surgery, rats were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of recombinant human GH (2 mg/kg/day; AAS-GH group) or saline (AAS group) for 14 days. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed before and after treatment. IGF-1 serum levels were measured by ELISA. After anesthesia, soleus muscle was frozen in liquid nitrogen. Histological sections were stained with HE and picrosirius red to calculate muscle fiber cross-sectional area and collagen fractional area, respectively. MRF myogenin and MyoD expression was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR.Results: Body weight was similar between groups. AAS and AAS-GH groups presented dilated left atrium, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LV mass index: Control 1.90 +/- 0.15; AAS 3.11 +/- 0.44; AAS-GH 2.94 +/- 0.47 g/kg; p < 0.05 AAS and AAS-GH vs. Control), and reduced LV posterior wall shortening velocity. Soleus muscle fiber area was significantly lower in AAS than in Control and AAS-GH groups; there was no difference between AAS-GH and Control groups. Collagen fractional area was significantly higher in MS than Control; AAS-GH did not differ from both Control and AAS groups. Serum IGF-1 levels decreased in AAS compared to Control. MyoD mRNA was significantly higher in AAS-GH than AAS; there was no difference between AAS-GH and Control groups. Myogenin mRNA levels were similar between groups.Conclusion: In rats with aortic stenosis-induced heart failure...

Muscle-specific growth hormone receptor (GHR) overexpression induces hyperplasia but not hypertrophy in transgenic zebrafish

Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Mareco, Edson A.; Pai Silva, Maeli Dal; Marins, Luis Fernando
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 457-469
ENG
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65.74%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Even though growth hormone (GH) transgenesis has demonstrated potential for improved growth of commercially important species, the hormone excess may result in undesired collateral effects. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop a new model of transgenic zebrafish () characterized by a muscle-specific overexpression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene, evaluating the effect of transgenesis on growth, muscle structure and expression of growth-related genes. In on line of transgenic zebrafish overexpressing GHR in skeletal muscle, no significant difference in total weight in comparison to non-transgenics was observed. This can be explained by a significant reduction in expression of somatotrophic axis-related genes, in special insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). In the same sense, a significant increase in expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 (SOCS) was encountered in transgenics. Surprisingly, expression of genes coding for the main myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) was higher in transgenic than non-transgenic zebrafish. Genes coding for muscle proteins did not follow the MRFs profile...

Thermogenic activity of growth hormone transgenic mice

Moura, ASAMT; Spiers, D. E.; Lamberson, W. R.
Fonte: Growth Publishing Co Inc Publicador: Growth Publishing Co Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 149-159
ENG
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75.66%
The objective was to determine the effect of a mouse metallothionein/bovine growth hormone transgene on resting metabolic rate (RMR), cold-induced thermogenesis, and beta-agonist stimulated nonshivering thermogenesis in mice. Non-transgenic littermates were used as controls. Open-circuit indirect calorimetry was used to assess RMR and cold-induced thermogenesis in 64 mice. Air temperature in the chamber was set at 31 degrees C for RMR and was decreased to 28, 25, 21, or 17 degrees C to determine cold-induced thermogenesis. Response to the beta-agonist isoproterenol was evaluated by monitoring changes in colonic temperature of 34 mice upon injection of the drug or saline. Despite the fact that RMR tended to be lower in transgenics than in nontransgenics, at 31 degrees C transgenic mice were able to regulate colonic temperature at the same level as nontransgenics, but colonic temperature decreased in transgenics relative to nontransgenics as air temperature was reduced. For each degree decrease in air temperature between 31 and 17 degrees C, nontransgenic mice increased heat production by 1.03 +/- .10 watt/kg, whereas transgenic mice increased it by only .56 +/- .08 watt/kg, indicating that the thermogenic response of transgenics to cold was inferior. The magnitude of the maximal increase in colonic temperature after isoproterenol injection was similar for both groups...

Growth hormone mRNA expression in the pituitary of Bos indicus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred young bulls treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin

Di Mauro, S. M Z; Furlan, L. R.; Ferro, M. I T; Macari, Marcos; Ferro, J. A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 327-336
ENG
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65.81%
The effects of breed and of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) treatment on growth hormone gene expression were studied in young bulls. The experiment was completely randomized in a [2 × 2]-factorial arrangement, using two levels of rbst (0 or 250 mg/animal/14 days), and two breed groups (Nelore and Simmental x Nelore crossbred). A CDNA encoding Bos indicus growth hormone was cloned and sequenced for use as a probe in Northern and dot blot analyses. Compared to the Bos taurus structural gene, the Bos indicus CDNA was found to begin 21 bases downstream from the transcription initiation site and had only two discrepancies (C to T at position 144-His and T to C at position 354-Phe), without changes in the polypeptide sequence. However, two amino acid substitutions were found for Bubalus spp., which belong to the same tribe. The rbst treatment did not change any of the characteristics evaluated (body and pituitary gland weights, growth hormone MRNA expression level). Crossbred animals had significantly higher body weight and heavier pituitaries than Nelore cattle. Pituitary weight was proportional to body weight in both breed groups. Growth hormone MRNA expression in the pituitary was similar (P>0.075) for both breed and hormonal treatment groups...

Low blood glucose levels and other complications during growth hormone supplementation in sepsis

Faintuch,Joel; Leme,Renata B. A.; Cruz,Maria Emilia L. F.; Lima,Angela M. B.; Giannella Neto,Daniel; Gama-Rodrigues,Joaquim J.
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/1999 EN
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65.75%
Blood glucose levels in the high normal range or even moderate hyperglycemia is the expected profile in septic postoperative patients receiving high-calorie enteral alimentation. The addition of growth hormone as an anabolic agent should additionally reinforce this tendency. In a cancer patient undergoing partial gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and suffering from postoperative subphrenic abscess and prolonged sepsis, tube feeding (38.3 kcal/kg/day) and growth hormone (0.17 IU/kg/day) were simultaneously administered for 25 days. Blood glucose levels were in the lower limits of the normal range before growth hormone introduction, and continued with a similar tendency during most of the therapeutic period. Two additional complications, namely heart arrest and peripheral edema, were documented during the same period. It is concluded that sepsis was the most likely mechanism for low glucose values, and that high-calorie enteral diet and growth hormone supplementation did not prevent that result. It is uncertain whether heart arrest was due to the drug, but its association with peripheral edema is well documented in clinical series.

Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin

Lengyel,A.-M.J.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 EN
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65.85%
Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo...

Response of the growth plate of uremic rats to human growth hormone and corticosteroids

Barbosa,A.P.F.; Silva,J.D.P.; Fonseca,E.C.; Lopez,P.M.; Fernandes,M.B.C.; Balduino,A.; Duarte,M.E.L.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2007 EN
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65.71%
Children with chronic renal failure in general present growth retardation that is aggravated by corticosteroids. We describe here the effects of methylprednisolone (MP) and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on the growth plate (GP) of uremic rats. Uremia was induced by subtotal nephrectomy in 30-day-old rats, followed by 20 IU kg-1 day-1 rhGH (N = 7) or 3 mg kg-1 day-1 MP (N = 7) or 20 IU kg-1 day-1 rhGH + 3 mg kg-1 day-1 MP (N = 7) treatment for 10 days. Control rats with intact renal function were sham-operated and treated with 3 mg kg-1 day-1 MP (N = 7) or vehicle (N = 7). Uremic rats (N = 7) were used as untreated control animals. Structural alterations in the GP and the expression of anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and anti-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) by epiphyseal chondrocytes were evaluated. Uremic MP rats displayed a reduction in the proliferative zone height (59.08 ± 4.54 vs 68.07 ± 7.5 µm, P < 0.05) and modifications in the microarchitecture of the GP. MP and uremia had an additive inhibitory effect on the proliferative activity of GP chondrocytes, lowering the expression of PCNA (19.48 ± 11.13 vs 68.64 ± 7.9% in control, P < 0.0005) and IGF-I (58.53 ± 0.96 vs 84.78 ± 2.93% in control...

Growth hormone-insuline-like growth factor-I system in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes)

Arranz,S.E.; Sciara,A. A.; Botta,P.; Cerutti,P.; Tobin,M.; Somoza,G.M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.75%
Using biotechnology to increase the growth rates of fish is likely to reduce production costs per unit of food. Among vertebrates, fish appear to occupy a unique position, when growth patterns are considered. With few exceptions, fish species tend to grow indeterminately, implying that size is never fixed. Both hyperplasia and hypertrophy contribute to post-larval muscle growth in fish. Growth hormone (GH) - Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) is the most important growth axis in fish. Our experimental model, the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis (Ateriniformes) is a South American inland water fish considered to be a promising species for intensive aquaculture. However, one major drawback to achieve this goal is its slow growth in captivity. In order to understand how growth is regulated in this species, our first objective was to characterized pejerrey GH- IGF-I axis. We first cloned and characterized pejerrey (pj) GH, IGF-I and the growth hormone receptors (GHRs) I and II. In addition to providing valuable data for evolutionary comparison of GH, investigation of GH action in teleosts is particularly important because of its potential application in aquaculture. GH can not only promote the somatic growth in fish but also lower dietary protein requirements. A prerequisite for providing sufficient amounts of GH for basic research and aquaculture application is a large-scale production of GH. For that purpose...

Is combined therapy more effective than growth hormone or hyperbaric oxygen alone in the healing of left ischemic and non-ischemic colonic anastomoses?

Adas,Mine; Kemik,Ozgur; Adas,Gokhan; Arikan,Soykan; Kuntsal,Leyla; Kapran,Yersu; Toklu,Akin Savas
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.73%
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the effects of growth hormone (GH), hyperbaric oxygen and combined therapy on normal and ischemic colonic anastomoses in rats. METHODS: Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 10). In the first four groups, non-ischemic colonic anastomosis was performed, whereas in the remaining four groups, ischemic colonic anastomosis was performed. In groups 5, 6, 7, and 8, colonic ischemia was established by ligating 2 cm of the mesocolon on either side of the anastomosis. The control groups (1 and 5) received no treatment. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was initiated immediately after surgery and continued for 4 days in groups 3 and 4. Groups 2 and 6 received recombinant human growth hormone, whereas groups 4 and 8 received GH and hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Relaparotomy was performed on postoperative day 4, and a perianastomotic colon segment 2 cm in length was excised for the detection of biochemical and mechanical parameters of anastomotic healing and histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: Combined treatment with hyperbaric oxygen and GH increased the mean bursting pressure values in all of the groups, and a statistically significant increase was noted in the ischemic groups compared to the controls (p<0.05). This improvement was more evident in the ischemic and normal groups treated with combined therapy. In addition...

Muscle-specific growth hormone receptor (GHR) overexpression induces hyperplasia but not hypertrophy in transgenic zebrafish

Figueiredo, M??rcio Azevedo; Mareco, Edson Assun????o; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai Filho; Marins, Luis Fernando Fernandes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
Even though growth hormone (GH) transgenesis has demonstrated potential for improved growth of commercially important species, the hormone excess may result in undesired collateral effects. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop a new model of transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio characterized by a muscle-specific overexpression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene, evaluating the effect of transgenesis on growth, muscle structure and expression of growth-related genes. In on line of transgenic zebrafish overexpressing GHR in skeletal muscle, no significant difference in total weight in comparison to non-transgenics was observed. This can be explained by a significant reduction in expression of somatotrophic axis-related genes, in special insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). In the same sense, a significant increase in expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 (SOCS) was encountered in transgenics. Surprisingly, expression of genes coding for the main myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) was higher in transgenic than non-transgenic zebrafish. Genes coding for muscle proteins did not follow the MRFs profile, showing a significant decrease in their expression. These results were corroborated by the histological analysis...

Debate: idiopathic short stature should be treated with growth hormone

Ambler, G.; Fairchild, J.; Wilkinson, D.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
In this paper we outline the case for and against the treatment of idiopathic short stature with growth hormone. Drs Ambler and Fairchild argue that many of those with ‘idiopathic’ short stature are not ‘short, normal children’ and will ultimately receive molecular diagnoses. They also argue that there is a subset of children who suffer negative psychosocial consequences of their stature for whom growth hormone therapy is effective. Growth hormone has a very good safety record and is likely to be as cost-effective in idiopathic short-stature as in some other conditions that are currently funded. Dr Wilkinson counters that short stature is not associated with physical or psychological illness, and that there is no evidence that growth hormone improves psychological or physical wellbeing. Moreover, growth hormone for idiopathic short stature represents a form of enhancement rather than treatment, and is not a fair use of resources. Socially mediated disadvantage should be treated by attention to prejudice and not by hormone treatment.; Geoffrey R. Ambler, Jan Fairchild and Dominic J.C. Wilkinson

Increased placental nutrient transporter expression at mid-gestation after maternal growth hormone treatment in pigs: A placental mechanism for increased fetal growth

Tung, E.; Roberts, C.; Heinemann, G.; De Blasio, M.; Kind, K.; Van Wettere, W.; Owens, J.; Gatford, K.
Fonte: Soc Study Reproduction Publicador: Soc Study Reproduction
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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65.71%
Growth hormone (GH) is important in maternal adaptation to pregnancy, and maternal circulating GH concentrations are reduced in human growth-restricted pregnancies. In the pig, maternal GH treatment throughout early-mid pregnancy increases fetal growth, despite constraining effects of adolescent and primiparous pregnancy, high litter size and restricted maternal nutrition. Since GH cannot cross the placenta, and does not increase placental weight, we hypothesised that its effects on fetal growth might be via improved placental structure or function. We therefore investigated effects of maternal GH treatment in pigs on structural correlates of placental function and placental expression of nutrient transporters important to fetal growth. Multiparous (sows) and primiparous pregnant pigs (gilts) were treated with GH (~15 µg kg(-1) day(-1)) or vehicle from days 25-50 of gestation (n = 7-8 per group, term ~115 days). Placentas were collected at day 50 of gestation and we measured structural correlates of function and expression of SLC2A1 (previously known as GLUT1) and SLC38A2 (previously known as SNAT2) nutrient transporters. Maternal GH treatment did not alter placental size or structure, increased protein expression of SLC2A1 in trophoblast (+35%...

The role of learning and growth hormone-releasing factor in the control of protein intake in rats /

Hague, Leslie.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.71%
Both learning and basic biological mechanisms have been shown to play a role in the control of protein int^e. It has previously been shown that rats can adapt their dietary selection patterns successfully in the face of changing macronutrient requirements and availability. In particular, it has been demonstrated that when access to dietary protein is restricted for a period of time, rats selectively increase their consumption of a proteincontaining diet when it becomes available. Furthermore, it has been shown that animals are able to associate various orosensory cues with a food's nutrient content. In addition to the role that learning plays in food intake, there are also various biological mechanisms that have been shown to be involved in the control of feeding behaviour. Numerous studies have documented that various hormones and neurotransmitter substances mediate food intake. One such hormone is growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), a peptide that induces the release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland. Recent research by Vaccarino and Dickson ( 1 994) suggests that GRF may stimulate food intake by acting as a neurotransmitter in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the adjacent medial preoptic area (MPOA). In particular...

The use of recombinant gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) growth hormone for radioiodination and standard preparation in radioimmunoassay

Martínez-Barberá, Juan P.; Pendón, Carlos; Martí-Palanca, Hilario; Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Rodríguez Martínez, Ramón B.; Valdivia, Manuel M.; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 20895 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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65.71%
6 pages.; A gilthead sea bream growth hormone (sbGH) obtained by cloning and expression of sbGH cDNA was used to develop a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Iodination of recombinant sbGH (rsbGH) was performed by the classical Chloramine-T method. Specific antiserum, raised in rabbits, was added in a final dilution of 1/36,000. The minimum detectable dose was 30 pg, and the midrange of the assay (ED50) was 275 pg. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were 3.3 and 5.8% at ED50 levels. Human GH (hGH), ovine GH (oGH), carp gonadotropin (cGtH), chinook salmon gonadotropin (sGtH), ovine prolactin (oPRL) and recombinant tilapia prolactin (rtiPRL) did not show cross-reactivity. Serial dilutions of chinook salmon GH (sGH) and recombinant rainbow trout GH (rtGH) showed a low but significant cross-reactivity. A good parallelism between rsbGH standard and serial dilutions of native sbGH, plasma and pituitary extracts was observed. In addition, when plasma and pituitary samples were analyzed for GH quantification, non-significant differences were observed within this and previous RIA for native sbGH. Therefore, it appears conclusive that our rsbGH can be used successfully as a standard and radioiodinated hormone in GH assays for gilthead sea bream...

Genetic markers of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion are associated with spontaneous postnatal growth and response to growth hormone treatment in short SGA children: the North European SGA Study (NESGAS)

Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; Day, Felix; Scott, Robert A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Kirk, Jeremy; Donaldson, Malcolm; Ivarsson, Sten-A.; S?der, Olle; Roche, Edna; Hoey, Hilary; Juul, Anders; Ong, Ken K.; Dunger, David B.
Fonte: Endocrine Society Publicador: Endocrine Society
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-3469.; Purpose: The wide heterogeneity in the early growth and metabolism of children born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during growth hormone (GH) therapy, may reflect common genetic variations related to insulin secretion or sensitivity. Method: Combined multi-allele single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) scores with known associations with insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion were analysed for their relationships with spontaneous postnatal growth and 1st year responses to GH therapy in 96 short SGA children. Results: The insulin sensitivity allele score (GS-InSens) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal weight gain (B:0.12 SD scores per allele, 95% CI:0.01-0.23, p=0.03) and also in response to GH therapy with 1st year height velocity (0.18 cm/year per allele, 0.02-0.35, p=0.03) and change in IGF-I (0.17 SD scores per allele, 0.00-0.32, p=0.03). The association with 1st year height velocity was independent of reported predictors of response to GH therapy (adjusted p=0.04). The insulin secretion allele score (GS-InSec) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal height gain (0.15...

A study on the growth hormone gene within a herd of female buffaloes of the Murrah breed (Bubalus bubalis); ESTUDO DO GENE DO HORMÔNIO DE CRESCIMENTO EM UMA POPULAÇÃO DE BÚFALAS DA RAÇA MURRAH (Bubalus bubalis)

D´Agostino Garrido, D. A.; Unesp Jaboticabal; Ferraz, A. L. J.; Unesp Jaboticabal; Tonhati, H.; Unesp Jaboticabal; Senna, J. D.; Unesp Jaboticabal; Otaviano, A. R.; Unesp Jaboticabal
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2007 POR
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The growth hormone is one of the main regulators for post-natal growth, and also plays a major role in the metabolism of mammals; it has been proposed as candidate gene for genetic identification markers on the following characteristics: growth, carcass, and milk production. Thus, the present study has focusedon observing the likely polymorphisms at the end of the 5´- flank region, firstly exon, and part of the first intron* of the growth hormone gene within a herd of female buffaloes of the Murrah breed. It has been done with a view to spotting future associations, such as characteristics of milk production and its constituents. In order to do that, blood samples of 115 female buffaloes have been used. Through a polimerasis chain reaction,a fragment of 450 pb has been enlarged, and it has been analyzed through the sequencing technique, and through the RFLP, utilizing restriction endonucleasis Ddel. As a result, the sequence of the nucleotides of the growth hormone of the female buffaloes will be submitted to the Genbank. Nevertheless, it has been noted that bubalines have showed monomorphism, in the region which was studied, towards the growth hormone gene.Therefore, it hasn´t been possible to quantify the action of this gene on the production of milk and its constituents.; O hormônio GH é um dos principais reguladores do crescimento pós-natal e do metabolismo em mamíferos...