Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Educação - FCT; Esta pesquisa, vinculada ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia de Presidente Prudente, na linha de pesquisa Infância e Educação, tem por objetivo geral investigar a qualidade de dois materiais didáticos, para ensino da leitura e da escrita do gênero textual artigo de opinião, na escola de Ensino Médio. O primeiro material é “Sequência Didática Artigo de Opinião”, o qual foi produzido para o curso Ensino Médio em Rede – oferecido aos professores pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação de São Paulo, entre os anos de 2004 e 2006. O segundo é “Pontos de Vista”, que acompanha a coleção de materiais da Olimpíada de Língua Portuguesa: Escrevendo o Futuro, a qual teve início em 2008 e está em vigor. O objetivo específico da pesquisa é investigar como estão construídas nos materiais as etapas da sequência didática, a materialização do gênero textual artigo de opinião e a abordagem de leitura e escrita. O procedimento metodológico de análise é a pesquisa documental, que utiliza as duas publicações como fonte primária e decompõe as partes dos materiais para compreender a organização e os conceitos adotados. O referencial teórico básico sustenta-se nos pressupostos bakhtinianos de gêneros discursivos e nas pesquisas desenvolvidas na Universidade de Genebra acerca do procedimento sequência didática...; This research...
This thesis is an investigation of the vomeronasal organ, which senses pheromones. It traces the use of the organ in land-dwelling vertebrates, and suggests evidence that the organ is vestigial in humans and Old World monkeys. Possible explanations for the loss of the vomeronasal organ in these groups are described and evaluated. Notably, the development of tri-color vision may have replaced pheromones for sexual selection in these lineages. This may explain the human proclivity for visual information over pheromonal cues.; by Siri Lefren Steiner.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Graduate Program in Science Writing, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 26-27).
This is the story of the language of eyes - what they say about our emotions, what they reveal about our intentions, how they interact with our face, and how they connect us to one another. The story follows our experience with eyes from infancy when we first learn to connect looking with knowing. This connection forms the foundation of our social understanding and has evolutionary implications. From there the story moves to gaze in love, and other social encounters. I look at the role of eye gaze in the judgments we make about others - the way in which direct eye contact may affect how likable or attractive we find another person. I then turn to these questions: how much of an eye does it take for us to feel watched? Do pictures of eyes affect us? What about the eyes of a robot - do we respond to them as we do to human eyes? I show that for those who have normally functioning eyes, attention to the eye region plays a critical role in how we learn about the social world and our place in it.; by Ada Brunstein.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Graduate Program in Science Writing, 2007.; "September 2007."; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 50-51).
Typically, if scientists want to study animals in the wild they rely on field observations by eye. If they want to track those species to know where they are, where they are going, and how they behave, then researchers may capture and tag them. These methods, however, are difficult if not impossible for rare and hard-to-see species like whales in the ocean, elephants under a forest canopy, or birds at night. Sound gives scientists a new way of knowing what is swimming, roaming, and flying where. And some scientists are using these sounds for conservation, to identify the habitats animals need to survive and to protect the animals from human activity. Of course, as with any new science, there are unanswered questions. The uncertainties are especially profound in the ocean, where researchers know little about how marine creatures hear. Scientists are still searching for answers, but now they have a new way to find them.; by Elizabeth H. Quill.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Graduate Program in Science Writing, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 43-44).
Technology use-particularly the use of the Internet-is a pervasive component of modem society. The Internet has changed the way we work and the way we play, creating new possibilities for self expression and communication. But it also enables (and possibly encourages) compulsive behavior. Internet Addiction is the compulsive use of the computer and the Internet. Internet use is considered compulsive when the user engages in the behavior to such an extent that he is no longer able to meet his responsibilities and physical and emotional needs. Case studies and experts from the realms of medicine and media studies provide a description of the disorder and some of the causes that contribute to the dysfunctional behavior. The author also tackles a larger question: What does Internet Addiction mean in the context of our modem society?; by Rachel Diane VanCott.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Graduate Program in Science Writing, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 39-43).
Singing the Brain Electric Brain pacemakers, scientists have found, can treat depression by correcting neural circuitry gone haywire. This thesis examines how such technology - a technique known as deep-brain stimulation, in which electrodes are implanted within the brain - was developed and how it works. We are introduced to a patient who received deep-brain stimulation for her refractory depression, and consider the risks, ethical issues, and questions of humanity and identity the technology raises.; by Grace Chua.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Graduate Program in Science Writing, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. -).
The current biofuels market in the United States is dominated by ethanol made from corn. But corn ethanol has limitations that will prevent it from displacing a large amount of fossil fuel use in the U.S. To achieve that goal, biofuels will need to come from different sources. Cellulose, one of the main candidates, looks like it could provide a much higher volume of ethanol. The Department of Energy has sponsored new research centers to investigate cellulosic ethanol and improve the technology necessary to produce it. Even so, questions remain about the true potential of biofuels in the future alternative energy market.; by Andrew Moseman.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Graduate Program in Science Writing, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves -).
In 2008, it will have been 25 years since HIV was first isolated from a patient with AIDS. In the early 1980s, when the mysterious disease of the immune system spread across the globe, scientists began a race to find the cause. Through the voices of the men and women involved, this thesis tracks the discovery of HIV from the early outbreak of a deadly epidemic to the design of therapies for a fully-defined disease. When the AIDS outbreak began, doctors and scientists had no idea what was making people sick, and the race to find a cause was a difficult and haphazard process. But it was also a successful one; scientists discovered a definite cause for the disease-the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. However, today there still remain AIDS denialists, people who do not believe HIV is the cause of AIDS. Their beliefs pose the question, why should we trust in science? This version of the history of HIV seeks to answer that question through a particular emphasis on achieving certainty in science, how the steps of the scientific process led to certainty that HIV is the cause of AIDS, through both experimental research and community acceptance.; by Megan R. Rulison.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities...
Learning to write is a daunting task for many young children. The purpose of this
study was to examine the impact of a combined approach to writing instruction and
assessment on the writing performance of students in two grade 3 classes. Five forms and
traits of writing were purposefully connected during writing lessons while exhibiting
links to the four strands of the grade 3 Ontario science curriculum. Students then had
opportunities to engage in the writing process and to self-assess their compositions using
either student-developed (experimental group/teacher-researcher's class) or teachercreated
(control group/teacher-participant's class) rubrics. Paired samples t-tests revealed
that both the experimental and control groups exhibited statistically significant growth
from pretest to posttest on all five integrated writing units. Independent samples t-tests
showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group on the persuasive +
sentence fluency and procedure + word choice writing tasks. Pearson product-moment
correlation r tests revealed significant correlations between the experimental group and
the teacher-researcher on the recount + ideas and report + organization tasks, while
students in the control group showed significant correlations with the teacher-researcher
on the narrative + voice and procedure + word choice tasks. Significant correlations
between the control group and the teacher-participant were evident on the persuasive +
sentence fluency and procedure + word choice tasks. Qualitative analyses revealed five
themes that highlighted how students' self-assessments and reflections can be used to
guide teachers in their instructional decision making. These findings suggest that
educators should adopt an integrated writing program in their classrooms...
Older adults are susceptible to the same mental afflictions that affect other age groups; depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and other illnesses affect all adult age groups to varying degrees. Yet despite recent improvements in the research attention given to mental disorders and reductions in the stigma against such illnesses in younger age groups, the elderly remain a vastly underserved segment of the population in both mental health research and care. They are not underrepresented in numbers, however: the National Institutes of Health place the population of adults 65 and older "on the threshold of a boom," predicting that the age group will include 72 million individuals by the year 2030 and comprise 20 percent of the U.S. population. The trend is expected to begin in earnest when the first Baby Boomers turn 65 just five years from now, in 2011. Yet despite these numbers and the population's high risk of mental illness - the elderly are more prone to mental illness than any other age group - the U.S. health system remains grossly unprepared for the mental health needs of the elderly population.; (cont.) Its major problems include a shortage of caregivers, a notable lack of successful treatment methods, a dearth of research on the aspects of mental illness specific to the elderly...
Grigori Perelman, a reclusive Russian mathematician, may have proved the Poincare Conjecture, a statement first poised by Jules Henri Poincare in 1902. The problem is the most eminent challenge in the mathematical field of topology. Perelman posted his proof on the online informal preprint server at arXiv.org. His proof leaves a number of details unexplained. Although he initially participated in the verification of his proof, answering questions to help people understand his work, in the last year Perelman has effectively disappeared from the mathematical community. His absence has caused some controversy in the world of mathematics, where individual mathematicians are usually expected to support their own results. In the wake of his disappearance, other mathematicians are coming together to pore over his work and try to flesh out the details. His apparent desertion raises questions both about the personal risk of mathematicians working at the highest level and the responsibility of the mathematical community in the verification process.; (cont.) These questions are further complicated by the fact that the Poincare Conjecture is one of seven problems that was selected by the Clay Mathematics Institute as a Millennium Prize Problem. If a mathematician solves one of the problems...
The wandering buffalo of Yellowstone National Park are the subject of a heated debate in the western United States. The animals carry a disease called brucellosis, which infects both buffalo and cattle and has economic consequences for ranchers. Some ranchers fear that buffalo, as they migrate out of Yellowstone in search of forage, will transmit the disease to cattle around the park and jeopardize their financial well-being. The Park Service and other government agencies have tried to control the situation by exercising a lethal form of boundary control for buffalo, though other wildlife species are unregulated. Animal advocates dispute the agencies' tactics. Native Americans wonder why the buffalo are entirely under agency control. The park has become somewhat of a war zone, where the groups quarrel throughout the migratory season. Their disagreement is about much more than the animals themselves, taking root in even older and deeper conflicts. Yet despite the tangled nature of the problem, there may be room for negotiation and eventual resolution.; by Susan L. Nasr.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Graduate Program in Science Writing, 2006.; "September 2006."; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 38-42).
Since the fall of 2001, biologists have taught endangered whooping cranes how to migrate over a once-lost course stretching from the wetlands of central Wisconsin to the mud flats of Florida's Gulf Coast. Wildlife biologists did this through an unusual method of reintroduction: training the endangered birds to follow behind ultralight airplanes for the entire 1,200-mile journey. The technique is highly invasive and expensive, but by the summer of 2005, it had established the first population of whooping cranes migrating east of the Mississippi in more than one hundred years. To supplement these ultralight-led migrations, crane biologists tried a new approach in the fall of 2005. Biologists with the International Crane Foundation of Baraboo, Wisconsin, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service released four captive-bred whooping cranes directly into the wild. Biologists hoped that there were enough graduates of the ultralight program already making the migration for a few first timers to simply follow the older birds south. But no one knew if this bold new experiment, which relied entirely on the young birds following older non-related birds, would work. This thesis follows a year in the life of Maya, Poe, Waldo and Jumblies-the first four "Direct Autumn Release" birds.; (cont.) The story begins with their parent's artificial insemination in the spring of 2005...
All humans have certain genes that cause or predispose them to various diseases. In the ideal medical future, scientists will have hyperfast gene analyzers able to sequence anyone's DNA in a matter of minutes. In that future, a patient could have his entire sequence of DNA screened for mutations that cause or predispose him to disease, and health care would be truly individualized to fit the genetic profile of each patient. But science isn't yet able to make this future a reality; DNA sequencing remains too time-consuming and expensive to allow for such completely individualized medicine. In the meantime, scientists have discovered a useful shortcut: race and ethnicity. Many genes vary across racial and ethnic lines. Geography is linked to genetic variation, and people who have the same geographic ancestry are more likely, on average, to be genetically similar than people who do not. Although there is no gene for "race" or "ethnicity," many genes do occur in different ethnic groups at different frequencies. This means that doctors can use a patient's race or ethnicity - indicators of geographic ancestry - to make inferences about his genes, including his likelihood of developing specific diseases.; (cont.) Today's Ashkenazi Jews are appealing research subjects because they are both genetically interesting and culturally willing. For the past half-century...
The rocks on which the city of Boston was built did not form as part of North America. They formed about 600 million years ago, at the South Pole, as the northern coast of a supercontinent called Gondwanaland. Boston's journey from the South Pole to its current location traces the world's geologic history over that period of time, including the emergence of animal life as we know it, the formation and destruction of Pangaea, and the rise and fall of the dinosaurs. More than that, though: the history of our understanding of Boston's journey illustrates how geologists think about their world, and how their ideas have changed over the last 150 years in one of science's great revolutions.; by Selby Cull.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Graduate Program in Science Writing, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 26-27).
On May 11th 1997, the world watched as IBM's chess-playing computer Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov in a six-game match. The reverberations of that contest touched people, and computers, around the world. At the time, it was difficult to assess the historical significance of the moment, but ten years after the fact, we can take a fresh look at the meaning of the computer's victory. With hindsight, we can see how Deep Blue impacted the chess community and influenced the fields of philosophy, artificial intelligence, and computer science in the long run. For the average person, Deep Blue embodied many of our misgivings about computers becoming our new partners in the information age. For researchers in the field it was emblematic of the growing pains experienced by the evolving field of AI over the previous half century. In the end, what might have seemed like a definitive, earth-shattering event was really the next step in our on-going journey toward understanding mind and machine. While Deep Blue was a milestone - the end of a long struggle to build a masterful chess machine - it was also a jumping off point for other lines of inquiry from new supercomputing projects to the further development of programs that play other games...
The human voice is an important indicator of a person's gender. For male-to-female transgender individuals (or transsexuals) the voice is one of the most difficult parts of the gender transition. Males have larger and heavier vocal apparatuses (larynx and vocal folds), which generally produce a lower sound. Transgender women can have voice surgery, but it can sometimes cause a Minnie Mouse-like falsetto or the complete loss of the voice. As a result, many transgendered women turn to specially trained voice therapists to learn how to speak more convincingly like women. The voice's pitch, although important, is not the only factor in creating a more female sound. Intonation, resonance, volume, speech patterns and formant frequencies also play significant roles in making a realistic feminine sound. There continue to be many unanswered questions about how listeners perceive the voices of transgender women and how best to blend the voices of transwomen into a comfortable range. Transgender women have many hurdles to face as they transition from male to female, and possessing an authentic voice is a way to smooth out the bumpy path they face.; by Katharine Stoel Gammon.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
In the MIT lab of neuropharmacologist Richard Wurtman, rodents that received a new Alzheimer's drug have shown a marked improvement in learning and memory. They are able to master elaborate mazes in half the time of their all-natural counterparts. Wurtman theorizes that the memory loss and dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease is caused not by amyloid plaques and tangles but by a gradual deterioration of the brain's synapses. Wurtman's drug-a cocktail of three dietary supplements including uridine, choline, and an omega-3 fatty acid called DHA-is designed to generate more synapses. The three ingredients deliver the stimulus and raw material needed to create more phosphatidylcholine, a major component of neuronal membrane. More membrane, the thinking goes, means more neuronal encounters, more synapses, and more relayed messages. Wurtman's cocktail has just entered a massive clinical trial involving 10,000 Alzheimer's patients spread across 10 European countries. The same drug that could preserve brain function in Alzheimer's patients also has potential as a memory drug for healthy people. This thesis explores the ethical questions surrounding such biotechnological enhancement. What might be the benefits and drawbacks of taking a memory booster? Could a class-like division eventually arise between those who get the drug and those who do not? Could the molecular manipulations of a smart drug-what some call "cosmetic pharmacology"--change qualities that are inextricable from who we are?; by William Dowd.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
Each fall, the entire monarch butterfly population of the Eastern United States and Canada funnels into a handful of oyamel pine groves in Michoacan, Mexico, to weather the winter months. Each spring, the butterflies mate and fly north to repopulate the continent in short generational bursts. The monarchs flying south in the fall are three generations removed from those that made the trip the previous year. With no parents to guide its way, a migrating monarch has only its genes to steer it to its Mexican overwintering site. Monarchs orient using the sun as a guidepost. Because the sun appears to move across the sky throughout the day, the butterflies must keep track of time in order to correctly interpret the sun's position. Although this so-called "time-compensated sun compass" was demonstrated in 1997, little was known about how it worked. Steven Reppert, a neurobiologist at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, MA, is working to change that. His lab seeks to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms monarchs use to guide them on their remarkable yearly journey. Reppert and his colleagues believe they have pinpointed the sun compass, and the circadian clock that guides it, in the monarch brain. They have shown how the clock and compass might work together to allow the monarchs to find their way to Mexico. Their work has also uncovered some unexpected insights into the workings and evolution of circadian clocks in general. This thesis profiles these discoveries...
A rich body of science has grown up around the art of dance. It includes study of a dancer's relationship to Newtonian physics, dance medicine, the role of the spine in balance, and the emerging study of the neuroscience of dance. The thesis integrates personal narrative and descriptions of dance performances with scientific discussion of the art form. Greater scientific understanding of the art of dance is needed in order to improve teaching practices and decrease injuries to dancers.; by Erica Naone.; Thesis (S.M. in Science Writing)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Humanities, Graduate Program in Science Writing, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 29-31).