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After the Microfinance Crisis : Assessing the Role of Government-Led Microcredit Alternatives

de la Torre, Jordi; Giné, Xavier; Vishwanath, Tara
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
In light of the recent microfinance crisis in South India, government-run institutions in general, and primary agricultural credit cooperatives in particular, may end up playing a larger role in the provision of financial services for the poor. Using survey data collected in 2007 from three districts in Andhra Pradesh, this paper assesses the performance of 72 primary agricultural credit cooperatives and finds lack of training among the management. In addition, primary agricultural credit cooperatives tend to be used as political instruments and, as a result, borrowers prioritize all debt obligations (microfinance institutions, informal lenders, etc.) before repaying their primary agricultural credit cooperative loans. The authors suggest that if the performance of primary agricultural credit cooperatives does not improve, a larger government role in the supply of credit may undermine the culture of repayment.

Strengthening Local Government Budgeting and Accountability

Schaeffer, Michael; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
In many developing and middle-income countries, decentralization reforms are promoting changes in governance structures that are reshaping the relationship between local governments and citizens. The success of these decentralization reforms depends on the existence of sound public financial systems both at the central and local levels. This paper focuses on the role of budgeting as a critical tool in reform efforts, highlighting problems that might impede successful local government budget development and implementation. The attainment of effective local government accountability and transparency is not an end itself, but rather it represents the means to support better decision-making on national and local budgeting. Community based schemes for enhancing local government accountability need to combine legal, political, and administrative mechanisms with proactive community involvement. Of particular importance are the legal and budgetary instruments that require input from local community members on certain local government decisions and instruments that increase accessibility for the press or the general public at large to information on government activities.

Participation and Local Government

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Citizen participation in the decisionmaking and development activities of local government can produce more efficient and effective delivery of services by the public sector. In order to foster participation, some responsibility must be devolved from central to local government. However, the assignment of responsibilities to local governments cannot, by itself, ensure participation. Accountable local governments are key actors in any attempt to create an enabling environment for effective participation in public sector activities.

Strengthening Local Governance : Defining the Role of Upazila and Union Parishads

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
This note focuses on the rural sector. It takes as its starting point the premise that the Upazila and the Union Parishads can jointly form the backbone of a system of rural local governments in Bangladesh. The key interventions required are to strengthen the Upazila as an independent tier of government - especially relative to national parliament - and to clarify the relationship between the Upazilas and Union Parishads so that the two can jointly work as one system of local government. In this context, holding elections at Upazila level will be an important step to take, but this action alone will not result in a sustainable or effective system of local governance. Upazilas require clarity on their functions and their relations to Union Parishads, adequate untied resources for which they can be held accountable and appropriate checks and balances on their powers. There is a broad social consensus for strengthening local governance in Bangladesh. This is largely expressed as support for strengthening the role of Upazila and Union Parishads...

Decentralized Systems of Health Care Delivery and the Role of Large Cities : A Comparative Analysis

di Gropello, Emanuela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
South Africa is going through an important political and administrative reorganization and a series of structural reforms. The responsibility for primary health care, which was mostly provincial, is about to be decentralized to the Local Government level. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the on-going decentralization process in the Gauteng province and determine the role that Great Johannesburg can play within this new decentralized framework. To extract lessons and recommendations for Gauteng and Johannesburg, the paper takes a close look at the case of three middle -income Latin American countries, Chile, Colombia and Brazil, which offer valuable experience in the design and implementation of decentralized systems of health care delivery at the country and city level. It also looks at other international experiences. At the city level, the paper concludes that the case of Bogota in Colombia seems to be particularly relevant to the selection of a decentralized health care model for Johannesburg. It also shows that...

State and Local Governance in Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge about state capacity in Nigeria by taking stock of governance issues, including public financial management and civil services, and analyzing them in representative states across the regions, as states assume an expanded role in delivering services to their populations under the 1999 constitution. Specifically, the study lays the groundwork for preparing a program of assistance to state governments, should the Federal Government seek financing from the Bank. Before capacity can be strengthened, the context for capacity building must be understood and the constraints analyzed. Thus the study focuses both on the evolving story of federalism in Nigeria, as well as the challenges states face in managing their finances and delivering services in the aftermath of misrule and decay under the military. Six states were selected for review: Bauchi, Nasarawa, Rivers, Anambra, Ogun and Sokoto--one from each of the geo-political zones of Nigeria. These are some of the principal findings: There is a great deal of variation across states in their capacity for governance. A new generation of state governors is emerging...

Fiscal Decentralization in Developing and Transition Economies: Progress, Problems, and the Promise

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The author discusses the revolution in public sector thinking that is transforming the public sectors of developing and transition countries. Countries are reconsidering their fiscal systems and searching for the right balance between central government control and decentralized governance. Political decentralization has advanced in most countries. Subnational expenditures in developing countries as a percentage of total public expenditures have also increased over the past two decades. However, the process is far from complete. In many countries, the central government is still involved in the delivery of local services, local governments have few sources of own-revenues, local governments have limited access to borrowing for capital projects, and the design of intergovernmental transfers does neither address regional fiscal equity nor convey appropriate incentives for fiscal discipline, improved service delivery performance, and accountability to citizens. Decentralized public governance can help realign public sector incentives through greater accountability to citizens...

The future of local government: a study on local government sustainability and future developments

Li, Janice
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This report will discuss the crucial role that local governments play all throughout Australia, both in regional and urban areas. The focus of this paper will be the current issues surrounding sustainability, revenue-raising ability, the failures in current policies, and the need for change. Local government is often the forgotten tier of government, despite the vital role it plays in the delivery of services. While it is seen as an arm of the States and only created by their respective constitutions, there has been an ongoing tension between the two levels of government, while the federal government has not taken any steps to reconcile the relationship. After the failure of the 1988 Referendum to recognise local government in the Australian Constitution, the pressure that local governments face has only increased under the weight of new responsibilities alongside decreased authority. The trend towards centralisation continues to hurt local council autonomy at a time when they need more autonomy to take control of the responsibilities that have been thrust upon them. The problem of local government sustainability is multi-faceted. The first problem is dealing with the increasing number of services that local councils are asked to provide on behalf of State- and federal-level government. The second problem is dealing with the amount of funding...

The constitutional role of the Solicitor-General : an historical, legal and lived portrait.

Appleby, Gabrielle
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
This thesis introduces the Solicitor-General as an important actor in the modern Australian constitutional order. The Solicitor-General‘s significance lies in the office‘s role as the final and authoritative legal adviser to government. This function is combined with that of government advocate, defending the legality of government action and protecting the institutional interests of the body politic. This research provides the first portrait of the office from an historical, legal, and lived perspective. I hope that it will be a valuable tool for officeholders and government officials seeking to understand the role. The modern Australian Solicitor-General is a uniquely Australian institution. Its design is underpinned by the objective of creating an independent, exclusively legal officer to complement the Australian Attorney-General, who has become increasingly political. On the one hand, the office‘s framers sought to create an office that would be beyond criticism because of improper political or administrative influence. On the other, the officeholder‘s continuity of service to the Crown would mean they would be understanding of, and responsive to, government‘s interests. This thesis considers the extent to which this delicate balance has been achieved. It embarks upon an analysis of the legal position...

What's My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

Donnelly, Timothy S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; What constitutes an effective Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) protection program for Massachusetts This study evaluates existing literature regarding CIKR to extrapolate an infrastructure protection role for Massachusetts. By reviewing historical events and government strategies regarding infrastructure protection, Chapters I and II will provide scope and context for issues surrounding critical infrastructure. Chapter III reviews the roles of the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Defense, possibly the two most influential organizations tasked to support the federal infrastructure protection initiative. Chapter IV analyzes the private-sector role in infrastructure protection as articulated in federal strategies, academic research, federally directed studies, and professional journals. The National Infrastructure Protection Plans framework for managing the risk to CIKR will be used as a guide in Chapter V to evaluate the infrastructure protection strategies of Arizona, Virginia, and Washington. Finally, Chapter VI recommends that Massachusetts develop a state infrastructure assurance program vice a Critical Infrastructure Protection Program. Concepts such as reframing the critical infrastructure debate...

Backing democracy: an analysis of the rights and role of the media in Indonesia

Rollason, Adam
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The Australian government is currently attempting to build a positive and mutually beneficial relationship with Indonesia, a country that has experienced dramatic democratic reform over the past five years. However, Australia must simultaneously continue to encourage further democratisation and discourage reversion. One area where there have been signs of reversion is in the , which is currently facing serious challenges to its ability to function freely. Press freedom can only be achieved when the press is autonomous- in other words, when censorship and government control are avoided. The media must also be healthy, with the resources and strength to report accurately and credibly. The significance of a free media lies in the role of keeping the powerful accountable, in informing the public and giving the people a voice in the democratic system. It is Australia's responsibility and in Australia's interest to promote democracy in Indonesia - one way of doing so is to support press freedom. The media in Indonesia need support because the challenges they face threaten their ability to fulfil their role in the democratic system. One of the greatest challenges is overcoming the Indonesian government's negative attitude towards the media...

China - National Development and Sub-National Finance : A Review of Provincial Expenditures

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
In China, the highly decentralized fiscal system undermines improvements in policy outcomes and contributes to increasing disparities among its regions. However, rather than re-centralizing, China would benefit from pursuing reforms to: improve expenditure and revenue assignments for the various levels of government; distribute fiscal resources more equally; and improve the use of these resources through better budget management at all levels of government. This report recommends a comprehensive reform effort that covers all the components of the inter-governmental fiscal system, arguing that selective interventions to address specific local financial problems such as defaults on pension and unemployment stipends, and payment arrears on teachers' salaries, have created some pervasive incentives. A piecemeal approach to inter-governmental fiscal reform is unlikely to succeed because it will not take into account the interdependence of transfers on revenue assignments or the role played by expenditure assignments on the adequacy of revenue assignments and transfers.

Bangladesh : Public Expenditure Review

World Bank; Asian Development Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This public expediture review analyzes the state of public expenditure in Bangladesh, particularly their adequacy and appropriateness relative to the Government's broad economic and social goals. It aims to contribute to the Government's overall growth and poverty reduction efforts by offering suggestions about the efficient use of public resources and fiscally sustainable improvements in public services. The findings and detailed recommendations of this report, summarized below, have been organized around six issues: 1) restoring fiscal sustainability; 2) reducing the role of state-owned enterprises and strengthening their governance framework; 3) strengthening Annual Development Program spending; 4) strengthening public expenditure managmement; 5) enhancing the pro-poor bias of public spending; and 6) expanding the involvement of the private sector and improving the role of government.

Romania - Reining in Local Government Spending

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Sub-national Governments play an important role in the Romanian public sector. In 2009, sub-national spending was equivalent to 8.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Romania has frequently adjusted its system for financing sub-national government over the last decade. These changes reflect ongoing Government concerns over the performance of local governments as well as attempts to increase the transparency and stability of the intergovernmental fiscal relationship. The most recent reform proposals reflect a more immediate concern: the government deficit. In an effort to meet aggregate targets for cuts in spending, the Government has been debating measures to reduce the local wage bill, cut transfers to local governments, and restrain local arrears. The principal objective of this technical assistance has been to advise the Government on the design and implementation of such efforts, and to suggest directions for longer-term structural reforms. Romania has a two-tier structure of local government. The national territory is divided into 41 counties (judets) and the city of Bucharest. These are then divided into various categories of second-tier local governments...

Latvia - From Exuberance to Prudence : A Public Expenditure Review of Government Administration and the Social Sectors - Overview and Summary

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This public expenditure review (PER) was conducted at the request of the Ministry of Finance (MoF) on behalf of the Government of the Republic of Latvia. The objective of the PER is to identify potential areas of further budget savings in public administration and the social sectors that could help restore fiscal balance, speed Latvia's recovery from the current crisis, and help it to meet the Maastricht Criteria by 2012 so it can adopt the Euro in 2014. The remainder of this volume is structured in the following way. Section two recounts the events and circumstances that set the Government's fiscal stance in the years prior to the crisis. Section three summarizes the principal emergency measures the Government took to cope during 2008 and 2009 as the crisis broke and led to Latvia's severe economic contraction. The purpose of these sections which draw liberally from material prepared by the financial authorities, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European Central (EC) is to make the case for further fiscal adjustment plain. The report then summarizes the main messages and highlights the most important suggestions made in each of the longer...

Latvia - From Exuberance to Prudence : A Public Expenditure Review of Government Administration and the Social Sectors - Analytical Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This public expenditure review (PER) was conducted at the request of the Ministry of Finance (MoF) on behalf of the Government of the Republic of Latvia. The objective of the PER is to identify potential areas of further budget savings in public administration and the social sectors that could help restore fiscal balance, speed Latvia's recovery from the current crisis, and help it to meet the Maastricht Criteria by 2012 so it can adopt the Euro in 2014. The remainder of this volume is structured in the following way. Section two recounts the events and circumstances that set the Government's fiscal stance in the years prior to the crisis. Section three summarizes the principal emergency measures the Government took to cope during 2008 and 2009 as the crisis broke and led to Latvia's severe economic contraction. The purpose of these sections which draw liberally from material prepared by the financial authorities, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European Central (EC) is to make the case for further fiscal adjustment plain. The report then summarizes the main messages and highlights the most important suggestions made in each of the longer...

When Do Special Interests Run Rampant? Disentangling the Role in Banking Crises of Elections, Incomplete Information, and Checks and Balances

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
The author investigates the political determinants of government decisions that benefit special interest groups - especially government decisions to deal with banking crises. He finds that the better informed the voters, the more proximate elections, and the larger the number of political veto players ( conditional on the costs to voters of relevant policy decision), the smaller the government's fiscal transfer are to the financial sector and the less likely the government is to exercise forbearance in dealing with insolvent financial institutions. The results suggest that policies that might be appropriate for mitigating banking crises in the United States might be less effective in settings where voters are less informed, where elections are less competitive, and where there are fewer veto players, because in these settings checks and balances are missing. These policies include: a) Disseminating information about the costs of inefficient government decisions. b) Improving the structure of legislative regulatory oversight. c) Intervening early in insolvent banks. The author concludes that the more veto players there are, the less likely policies are to favor special interest groups (contrary to previous views). Moreover, the closer the elections...

Government Connections and Financial Constraints : Evidence from a Large Representative Sample of Chinese Firms

Cull, Robert; Li, Wei; Sun, Bo; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
This paper examines the role of firms' government connections, defined by government intervention in the appointments of Chief Executive Officers and the status of state ownership, in determining the severity of financial constraints faced by Chinese firms. In line with the previous literature, the paper demonstrates that investment by non-state firms is highly sensitive to internal cash flows, while no such sensitivity is found for government-owned enterprises. Even within the subset of non-state firms, government connections are associated with substantially less severe financial constraints (less reliance on internal cash flows to fund investment). The paper also finds that large non-state firms with weak government connections are especially financially constrained, due perhaps to the formidable hold that their state rivals have on financial resources after the "grabbing-the-big-and-letting-go-the-small" privatization program in China. Firms with government-appointed Chief Executive Officers also have significantly lower investment intensities...

Malaysia Public Expenditures : Managing the Crisis; Challenging the Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Malaysia achieved unprecedented economic growth and dramatic poverty reduction in the two decades prior to 1997. As a result, pressure on public expenditures was alleviated and when the regional financial crisis hit in 1997, the budget was in surplus and public debt had fallen to around 30 percent in GDP. But the crisis brought to the fore issues in public expenditure management that might have remained of less significance in a fast-growing economy: large and increasing off-budget liabilities that could undermine fiscal prudence, accountability, and efficiency in the use of public resources. The government is rethinking its role in tertiary education, tertiary health care, social protection against income risk, and infrastructure. In these areas, there is a potential role for the private sector in provision and financing, and the government's role is gradually shifting from being a provider of these services to a financial supporter and a regulator. In this evolving public-private partnership, the goal of the government is to reduce the fiscal burden while ensuring equity in delivering public services and efficiency in allocating and using public resources. This public expenditure analysis aims to analyze fiscal issues arising from the crisis...

The role of local government in evictions

van Wyk,J
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
Local government occupies a unique place in the South African system of government. This is circumscribed by the Constitution which contains directives. enjoining municipalities inter alia to provide democratic and accountable government for local communities and to promote social and economic development (section 152) as well as to undertake developmentally-oriented planning (section 153). In addition local government has a specific role to play regarding access to adequate housing and, in that context, evictions. In terms of sections 25 and 26 of the Constitution as well as legislation enacted in terms of these provisions new and different procedures have been put in place to demarcate the role of municipalities in evictions. The interpretation, by the courts, of these legislative provisions, has created a framework within which municipalities must react to and deal with evictions. In terms of that framework a number of duties and responsibilities are placed on municipalities, which include that they do the following: have policies, actions and programmes in place, draw up proper housing plans, be notified of evictions, mediate and engage with all stakeholders and provide temporary and suitable alternative - accommodation of a specific standard...