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Transforming Government and Empowering Communities : The Sri Lankan Experience with e-Development

Hanna, Nagy K.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
This book focuses on the institutional innovations needed to lead the diffusion of the new information and communication technology (ICT) that can help transform developing economies into knowledge economies and information societies. It shows that developing e-leadership institutions is a long-term process, fraught with uncertainties, but a process that remains at the heart of implementing ICT-enabled development strategies. It focuses on improving governance and the delivery of public services, bridging economic divides, promoting social inclusion, and drastically cutting transaction costs across the economy. It seeks to exploit new sources of growth, employment, and competitiveness by promoting the ICT and IT-enabled services industries and the use of ICT by small enterprises to network and compete. This book draws on the experience of Sri Lanka to explore what is involved in moving from vision to implementation of a comprehensive e-development strategy-the e-Sri Lanka program. The focus is on building local e-leadership institutions to drive this process and leveraging ICT to transform government and empower communities through e-government and e-society. Finally...

Strengthening Local Government Budgeting and Accountability

Schaeffer, Michael; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
In many developing and middle-income countries, decentralization reforms are promoting changes in governance structures that are reshaping the relationship between local governments and citizens. The success of these decentralization reforms depends on the existence of sound public financial systems both at the central and local levels. This paper focuses on the role of budgeting as a critical tool in reform efforts, highlighting problems that might impede successful local government budget development and implementation. The attainment of effective local government accountability and transparency is not an end itself, but rather it represents the means to support better decision-making on national and local budgeting. Community based schemes for enhancing local government accountability need to combine legal, political, and administrative mechanisms with proactive community involvement. Of particular importance are the legal and budgetary instruments that require input from local community members on certain local government decisions and instruments that increase accessibility for the press or the general public at large to information on government activities.

How Close Is Your Government to Its People? Worldwide Indicators on Localization and Decentralization

Ivanyna, Maksym; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
This paper is intended to provide an assessment of the impact of the silent revolution of the last three decades on moving governments closer to people to establish fair, accountable, incorruptible and responsive governance. To accomplish this, a unique data set is constructed for 182 countries by compiling data from a wide variety of sources to examine success toward decentralized decision making across the globe. An important feature of this data set is that, for comparative purposes, it measures government decision making at the local level rather than at the sub-national levels used in the existing literature. The data are used to rank countries on political, fiscal and administrative dimensions of decentralization and localization. These sub-indexes are aggregated and adjusted for heterogeneity to develop an overall ranking of countries on the closeness of their government to the people. The resulting rankings provide a useful explanation of the Arab Spring and other recent political movements and waves of dissatisfaction with governance around the world.

Government at Risk : Contingent Liabilities and Fiscal Risk

Polackova Brixi, Hana; Schick, Allen
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
EN_US
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Conventional fiscal analysis fails to address contingent fiscal risk. The government budget process and documentation generally fail to scrutinize the substantial claims on public resources that are associated with government contingent liabilities, realized and potential. This report fills gaps on our understanding of fiscal risks and develops suitable frameworks for managing them. It offers new analytical concepts, presents country case studies, and based on country case studies, provides a menu of practical ideas for policymakers and scholars to bring fiscal risk within the ambit of public finance. The book is divided into two parts: Part I of this book gives an overview of different approaches to dealing with government fiscal risks. The country examples in this part offer additional conceptual approaches and illustrate some of the discussion in the earlier chapters. Part II presents analytical and institutional approaches that governments might consider when facing risks in specific government programs or sectors. The book indicates that countries differ greatly in their treatment of contingent liabilities and other fiscal risks. In this respect...

Central-Local Government Relations in Thailand : Improving Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Addressing regional disparities in access to public services is an emerging development challenge for Thailand. A well-functioning system of Central-Local Government Relations and proactive expenditure policy can help achieve this goal. Providing responsive and accountable public services are necessary for maintaining trust of the citizens in government and fostering cohesion within a unitary state like Thailand. Without a reversal of current regional disparities in access to public services and addressing tensions that are present in the central-local architecture, Thailand runs the risk of eroding public trust in government and leading to further polarization. Thailand has a significant opportunity to improve delivery of public services by: (i) making access to public services more uniform across the country; (ii) transitioning fully to a unitary decentralized form of government with clearly demarcated roles and accountability structures between different levels of government (especially within health and education sectors) and to administratively consolidate Laos into larger more financially viable entities; and (iii) establishing national service delivery standards...

Cambodia : Review of Government Information and Communications Technologies Policies and Investments

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Further, governments are using information and communication technologies (ICT) as tools to reduce transaction costs and processing time, and increase government revenues. Further, the potential to access public services at home or at a local Internet kiosk empowers citizens in rural areas, including women and minorities. Access to relevant public information on rights and benefits, inheritance and family laws, health care, and housing can be provided through the Internet or mobile phone which translates to easier access and less time than traveling to or queuing up at government departments. The Royal Government of Cambodia (the Government) has taken various initiatives regarding the streamlining of ICTs in administration functions and several core agencies have invested or are planning on investing in information systems, databases of various types, websites, communications networks, etc. However, this figure will be significantly higher when the cost for ICT components under sector projects, such as under education...

Report on tribal government

United States -- American Indian Policy Review Commission. -- Task Force Two, Tribal Government
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: xi, 365 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Publicado em //1976 ENGLISH
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(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.; At head of title: Committee print.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 J892-2; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.; (Statement of Responsibility) Task Force Two, tribal government .

Government in the sunshine act, S. 5 (Public Law 94-409)

Relyea, Harold; United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Government Operations; United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Government Operations
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: viii, 832 p. : ; 23 cm.
Publicado em // ENGLISH
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(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; (Additional Physical Form) Also available in electronic format.; (Statement of Responsibility) Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate and the Committee on Government Operations, U.S. House of Representatives.; At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Joint committee print.; Prepared by Harold C. Relyea.; Issued Dec. 1976.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 S402-15

The evolution of Australian Government policy towards the conflict in Afghanistan and the spill over effects into neighbouring Pakistan

Cawthray, Tyler
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
This paper discusses the evolution of Australian Afghanistan and Pakistan policies from 2001 and reviews the policy challenges and options facing the Australian Government in 2009. From 1919 until 1978 Afghanistan was a relatively stable state free from foreign interference. This relative stability was destroyed in 1978 when the Communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) overthrew the government and in 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded. This set Afghanistan upon a path of intermittent warfare between foreign and Afghan factions that has lasted until the present. The latest phase began in the wake of the terrorist attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001. These were the most horrific in the history of the United States. The United States responded to these attacks by launching an invasion of Afghanistan in an attempt to capture Osama Bin Laden, the leader of the global terrorist network AI-Qaeda, who claimed responsibility for the attacks. The Australian Government was also spurred into action through the impetus given by the horrific nature of these attacks. As a result the Howard Government invoked the ANZUS Treaty and contributed military forces to support the initial US operations in October 2001 under the banner of the War on Terror. However by March 2003 a US-led coalition including Australia invaded Iraq. From March 2003 until July 2005 Australia had almost no military presence in Afghanistan and only continued to provide development aid. In July 2005 the Howard Government decided to recommit troops to Afghanistan when pressured by the US. The Howard Government publicly used rhetoric treating Afghanistan as one of two important theatres in the War on Terror {Iraq being the other) to try and convince the Australian public. The November 2007 election saw the election of the new Rudd Labor Government. Throughout 2008 the Rudd Government maintained Australia's level of military commitment and increased development aid. However the Rudd Government did change its public message...

Government of Republic of South Sudan Public Finance Management Assessment : Jonglei State

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
A public finance management (PFM) law is still not in place, even though a draft was prepared more than three years ago. The purpose is to assess the PFM system performance of Jonglei State in South Sudan. This report feeds into a Country Fiduciary Risk Assessment (CIFA) along with a South Sudan Public Expenditure Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment country procurement assessment report being prepared by a World Bank team on Republic of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS's) procurement system, using the OECD-DAC assessment methodology, and with PFM diagnostics study on three other state governments. The CIFA will include an action plan for implementing PFM reforms. This PEFA is focused on the State Government of Jonglei. At the time of this PEFA assessment, South Sudan, then known as Southern Sudan, was a semi-autonomous part of Sudan managed by Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS), as part of the Government of National Unity (GoNU) that included both GoSS and the Government of Sudan ('the north'). Jonglei is the largest state in South Sudan...

Putting Saudi Arabia on the 'e-Map' : Note on United Nations Public Administration Network e-Government Index

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.56%
E-mapping covers various layers of data and indicators useful to achieve the above-mentioned objectives. The concept is hence both of an analytical and operational nature, and serves domestic as well as external purposes. This report focuses on the UNPAN e-government index, and constitutes the fourth deliverable of the e-mapping activity offered by the World Bank in the context of its cooperation activity with the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MOCIT). The text of the report is divided in four main sections: the introduction sets up the context and rationale against which the e-mapping activity has been designed for Saudi Arabia, and how the UNPAN e-government index fits in it; section two provides some background and methodological consideration regarding the importance of e-government efforts in Saudi Arabia, and the value of tracking such efforts through an index such as UNPAN's e-government index; section three offers a direct analysis of Saudi Arabia's past and current rankings in the UNPAN e-government index...

Public-Private Partnerships in e-Government : Knowledge Map

Institute for Public-Private Partnerships
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.56%
The last few years have seen considerable research and applications in the areas of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) and electronic-government (e-government). Rather than attempting to redefine these areas, or considering them as two distinct paradigms, the authoring of this Knowledge Map (KM) and its accompanying Handbook is an effort to bring a certain degree of convergence, and see whether PPPs are, or can be, effective instruments for e-government initiatives in a country. The increasing emphasis on e-government is often directly attributed to the fact that the use and application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are now commonly accepted as powerful engines for economic growth. As governments embrace ICT as a means to accelerate the development process this also becomes foremost in the reforms agenda, and in their delivery of services to citizens, businesses, civil society organizations, and other government agencies. This 'public-private partnerships in e-government: knowledge map' is designed to be an introductory guide to PPPs for public officials responsible for e-government initiatives. It is for those who are seeking to enhance the quality...

Open Government Initiative in Edo State : Fostering an Ecosystem of Collaboration and Transparency

Bujoreanu, Lyudmila; Kaplan, Jeff; McNaughton, Matthew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This note is intended to briefly describe the World Bank's experience supporting the development and implementation of an open government initiative in Nigeria's Edo State. It reflects upon the process of design and implementation of the first phase of the Edo State Open Government Initiative, which began in 2011 and sought to establish a broader framework for an Open Government ecosystem in the state. Phase 1 culminated with the launch of the Edo State Open Data Portal in September 2013, the first sub-national portal in Africa and which contains more than 100 data sets that had not been previously digitized or released to the public. Using this experience as a reference point, the note seeks to surface some lessons learned for effectively partnering with governments (both federal and state) on an open government agenda. At its core, open government is commonly perceived as being comprised of three main pillars: participation, transparency and collaboration. The World Bank's engagement with the Edo State Government in establishing of an Open Government Framework and moving open government ideas forward has resulted in a number of tangible outcomes and public goods. The Edo State Open Data Portal is now being reused by the developer's community and is providing citizens of Edo with free access to high-value...

Local Government Discretion and Accountability : A Local Governance Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
This economic and sector work (ESW) report presents an analytical framework of local governance through the lens of accountability. It intends to establish a methodological basis for analyzing linkages between decentralization and accountability and is based on desk reviews and interviews. The main objective of this report is to present a coherent and comprehensive approach for decentralizing countries to achieve a high degree of local government discretion accompanied by robust accountability mechanisms. This report, which is a direct response to this growing interest, presents various social accountability mechanisms that could complement public sector accountability approaches. It also highlights the operational challenges the Bank's projects on local governance reform must often confront. Accordingly, the findings of this ESW provide, in one comprehensive framework, guidance on both macro policy-making and implementation of decentralization reforms.

Reprioritizing Government Spending on Health : Pushing an Elephant Up the Stairs?

Tandon, Ajay; Fleisher, Lisa; Li, Rong; Yap, Wei Aun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Countries vary widely with respect to the share of government spending on health, a metric that can serve as a proxy for the extent to which health is prioritized by governments. World Health Organization (WHO) data estimate that, in 2011, health's share of aggregate government expenditure in the 170 countries for which data were available averaged 12 percent. However, country differences were striking: ranging from a low of 1 percent in Myanmar to a high of 28 percent in Costa Rica. Some of the observed differences in health's share of government spending across countries are unsurprisingly related to differences in national income. However, significant variations exist in health's share of government spending even after controlling for national income. This paper provides a global overview of health's share of government spending and summarizes key theoretical and empirical perspectives on allocation of public resources to health vis-a-vis other sectors from the perspective of reprioritization, one of the modalities for realizing fiscal space for health. Theory and cross-country empirical analyses do not provide clear...

South East Europe Municipal Finance Review : Local Government Finance in the Western Balkans

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
This report addresses the limited access to local governments of data and knowledge of municipal finance issues in South East Europe (SEE). The objective of the analytical work under the SEE Municipal Finance Review (MFR) aims to (i) contribute to improved understanding of local government management and finance in the SEE Region; and (ii) contribute to improving the quality and consistency of key municipal finance data for improved evidence based policy making. The analysis presented in this report comprises the first attempt to review and analyze a regional set of disaggregated sub-national finance data in the SEE Region. Main findings of the MFR are presented in this report. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 provides an overview of the decentralization framework in the SEE Region, including on the administrative and political structure of sub-national governments, their population size and distribution, and the service functions assigned to local governments. Chapter 3 explains in more detail the local government finance framework. This includes an overview of the structure and composition of sub-national finances...

Romania - Reining in Local Government Spending

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Sub-national Governments play an important role in the Romanian public sector. In 2009, sub-national spending was equivalent to 8.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Romania has frequently adjusted its system for financing sub-national government over the last decade. These changes reflect ongoing Government concerns over the performance of local governments as well as attempts to increase the transparency and stability of the intergovernmental fiscal relationship. The most recent reform proposals reflect a more immediate concern: the government deficit. In an effort to meet aggregate targets for cuts in spending, the Government has been debating measures to reduce the local wage bill, cut transfers to local governments, and restrain local arrears. The principal objective of this technical assistance has been to advise the Government on the design and implementation of such efforts, and to suggest directions for longer-term structural reforms. Romania has a two-tier structure of local government. The national territory is divided into 41 counties (judets) and the city of Bucharest. These are then divided into various categories of second-tier local governments...

Cambodia - More Efficient Government Spending for Strong and Inclusive Growth : Integrated Fiduciary Assessment and Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
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Cambodia has made substantial progress in economic reconstruction since the 1993 elections helped return peace to the war ravaged country. The report is organized as: the remainder of chapter one presents the strategic background, including macroeconomic and fiscal developments. The chapter concludes with options for restoring and expanding the government's fiscal space. Chapter two discusses the level and composition of public spending. Chapters three, four and five discuss the level, composition and effectiveness of government spending on agriculture, health, and education, respectively. The analysis suggests that government spending in these areas is lower relative to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) than in countries with similar levels of income per capita. Chapter six discusses Cambodia's progress and challenges in reforming public expenditure policy and public finances. The chapter underscores the key areas where additional attention is needed to help advance the reform agenda.

Decentralization and Local Democracy in the World : First Global Report by United Cities and Local Governments 2008

United Cities and Local Government; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This overall picture of decentralization and local democracy in African countries shows significant progress at the strictly institutional level. No country now publicly opposes the implementation of decentralization policies. Local governments exist in all countries, and elections are held to elect local authorities. The extent of such progress must, however, be set against a number of persistent obstacles that continue to hinder a real progression of decentralization in Africa. Difficulties remain within states concerning the transfer of financial resources needed to match the devolved responsibilities. Local governments also face difficulties in increasing their own resources (aside from state-transfers and grants) at a faster pace. Ensuring the availability of qualified human resources at the local level and improving public access to local services are also fundamental issues of concern.

Melhoria da comunicação e do relacionamento entre o governo e os cidadãos com aplicativos móveis: o caso do m-government do estado de São Paulo

Andrade, Maurício Arantes de; Centeno, Fernanda Pagan Rivaroli; Souza, Ronnye Oliveira
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Esta dissertação tem como objetivo explorar como o governo do Estado de São Paulo pode utilizar a tecnologia para aproximar o Estado dos cidadãos por meio de aplicativos móveis. A intensificação do uso dos dispositivos móveis pela população brasileira e a recente ampliação do uso de m-government como esforço na busca da melhoria da prestação de serviços ao cidadão pelo Estado de São Paulo nas duas últimas décadas configuram o cenário em que foi estabelecido o Termo de Referência da Subsecretaria de Tecnologia e Serviços ao Cidadão, da Secretaria de Governo do Estado de São Paulo. Neste trabalho, houve a integração de métodos de pesquisa de diferentes naturezas: revisão da literatura, entrevistas semi-estruturadas com atores influentes na formulação das políticas públicas, avaliação da política de aplicativos móveis do Governo do Estado de São Paulo e dos próprios aplicativos, benchmarking de experiências internacionais e diagnóstico analítico da situação atual. Foram identificados como pontos fortes a importância da existência de uma subsecretaria próxima ao Governador, a criação de um aplicativo central que facilita o conhecimento dos aplicativos do governo existentes e a existência de uma empresa pública de processamento de dados com competência para desenvolver serviços e aplicativos. Como desafios foram identificados a estratégia de comunicação e divulgação dos aplicativos...