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Governance Matters VIII : Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators 1996–2008

Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Mastruzzi, Massimo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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36.98%
This paper reports on the 2009 update of the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) research project, covering 212 countries and territories and measuring six dimensions of governance between 1996 and 2008: Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption. These aggregate indicators are based on hundreds of specific and disaggregated individual variables measuring various dimensions of governance, taken from 35 data sources provided by 33 different organizations. The data reflect the views on governance of public sector, private sector and NGO experts, as well as thousands of citizen and firm survey respondents worldwide. The authors also explicitly report the margins of error accompanying each country estimate. These reflect the inherent difficulties in measuring governance using any kind of data. They find that even after taking margins of error into account, the WGI permit meaningful cross-country comparisons as well as monitoring progress over time. The aggregate indicators...

Governance Matters VII : Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators 1996-2007

Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Mastruzzi, Massimo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
This paper reports on the latest update of the Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) research project, covering 212 countries and territories and measuring six dimensions of governance between 1996 and 2007: Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, and Control of Corruption. The latest aggregate indicators are based on hundreds of specific and disaggregated individual variables measuring various dimensions of governance, taken from 35 data sources provided by 32 different organizations. The data reflect the views on governance of public sector, private sector and NGO experts, as well as thousands of citizen and firm survey respondents worldwide. The authors also explicitly report the margins of error accompanying each country estimate. These reflect the inherent difficulties in measuring governance using any kind of data. The authors also briefly describe the evolution of the WGI since its inception, and show that the margins of error on the aggregate governance indicators have declined over the years...

Governance Matters IV : Governance Indicators for 1996-2004

Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Mastruzzi, Massimo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
The authors present the latest update of their aggregate governance indicators, together with new analysis of several issues related to the use of these measures. The governance indicators measure the following six dimensions of governance: (1) voice and accountability; (2) political instability and violence; (3) government effectiveness; (4) regulatory quality; (5) rule of law, and (6) control of corruption. They cover 209 countries and territories for 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2004. They are based on several hundred individual variables measuring perceptions of governance, drawn from 37 separate data sources constructed by 31 organizations. The authors present estimates of the six dimensions of governance for each period, as well as margins of error capturing the range of likely values for each country. These margins of error are not unique to perceptions-based measures of governance, but are an important feature of all efforts to measure governance, including objective indicators. In fact, the authors give examples of how individual objective measures provide an incomplete picture of even the quite particular dimensions of governance that they are intended to measure. The authors also analyze in detail changes over time in their estimates of governance; provide a framework for assessing the statistical significance of changes in governance; and suggest a simple rule of thumb for identifying statistically significant changes in country governance over time. The ability to identify significant changes in governance over time is much higher for aggregate indicators than for any individual indicator. While the authors find that the quality of governance in a number of countries has changed significantly (in both directions)...

Governance Matters II : Updated Indicators for 2000-01

Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Zoido-Lobaton, Pablo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The authors construct aggregate governance indicators for six dimensions of governance, covering 175 countries in 2000-01. They apply the methodology developed in Kaufmann, Kraay, and Zoido-Lobaton ("Aggregating Governance Indicators", Policy Research Working Paper 2195, and "Governance Matters", Policy Research Working Paper 2196, October 1999) to newly available data at governance indicators comparable with those constructed for 1997-98. The data is presented I the appendix, and accessible through an interactive Web-interface at http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/govdata2001.htm.

Governance Matters III : Governance Indicators for 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002

Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Mastruzzi, Massimo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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This article presents estimates of six dimensions of governance for 199 countries and territories for 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002 developed in the context of an ongoing project to measure governance across countries. Section one describes the data used in developing this round of the governance indicators, which include several new sources. Data sources used in the earlier studies were updated forward to 2002 and backward to 1996, and previously estimated indicators for 1998 and 2000were revised to reflect the new data. The aggregation procedure, described in section two, provides not only estimates of governance for each country but also measures of the precision or reliability of these estimates. Although the new data have improved the precision of the governance indicators, the margins of error remain large relative to the units in which governance is measured, so that comparisons across countries and especially over time should be made with caution.

Government Matters III : Governance Indicators for 1996-2002

Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Mastruzzi, Massimo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
The authors present estimates of six dimensions of governance covering 199 countries and territories for four time periods: 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002. These indicators are based on several hundred individual variables measuring perceptions of governance, drawn from 25 separate data sources constructed by 18 different organizations. The authors assign these individual measures of governance to categories capturing key dimensions of governance and use an unobserved components model to construct six aggregate governance indicators in each of the four periods. They present the point estimates of the dimensions of governance as well as the margins of errors for each country for the four periods. The governance indicators reported here are an update and expansion of previous research work on indicators initiated in 1998 (Kaufmann, Kraay, and Zoido-Lobat 1999a,b and 2002). The authors also address various methodological issues, including the interpretation and use of the data given the estimated margins of errors.

Traditional leaders and governance in Micronesia

Haglegam, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 252767 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Let me assert from the outset that contemporary politics and governance in Micronesia are influenced to a large extent by the traditional system which underlies the modern system. This traditional system has given a unique Micronesian flavour to contemporary politics and governance, albeit undemocratic in some cases. With careful nurturing through regular briefings and consultation by government leaders, the traditional chiefs can be relied upon to muster the necessary public support for policy implementation. The customary power of the traditional chiefs in Micronesia varied from culture to culture. For instance, on Kosrae the power was centralised in a very powerful ruler, while on Yap, the power of the chiefs was decentralised and subjected to elaborate checks and balances built into the customary political relationship. In Palau, the power was vested in the heads of two alliances of villages. These alliances were involved in constant fighting for domination. In Chuuk, the most powerful traditional leaders were the village chiefs. In the Marshall Islands, the most powerful leaders were the two paramount chiefs, one heading each of the two island chains—the Ratak and Ralik. Surprisingly, for low island chiefs, these two paramount chiefs had absolute power. In Pohnpei...

Making sense of good governance

Larmour, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 181921 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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It is now nearly ten years since the World Bank introduced the word ‘governance’ into discussions about development. This paper asks what the term means, why it became part of the policy discourse, and what it assumes about the way organisational performance might be improved. It then reviews some recent research on governance in the South Pacific, and considers the tension between universal principles of good governance and particular national circumstances. Finally it introduces some comparative research that addresses several questions about achieving ‘good governance’. * How much does the design of institutions affect their performance? * What are the conditions under which policy ideas can be transferred? * What factors determine whether the ‘right’ policies are implemented?; no

Australia’s governance aid: evaluating evolving norms and objectives

Cirillo, Susan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 338292 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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‘Good governance’ – the current buzzword of the international development community, despite its elusiveness – promises prosperity and democratic justice for all citizens of the world. Good governance commonly espouses the efficient management of a country’s institutions and social and economic resources in an open, accountable manner. Upon its emergence as the prevailing developmental paradigm in the early 1990s, Australia’s official aid agency, AusAID immediately caught the good governance wave. Initially a peripheral concern for AusAID, the governance agenda had, by the mid-1990s come to dominate the character and objectives of the Australian aid program – with a decidedly greater emphasis on democratic governance. The promotion of ‘good governance’ in developing countries – with the pursuit of open trade – is declared by AusAID as the ticket to poverty reduction. This paper aims to deconstruct the Australian approach to promoting ‘good governance’ with a view to answering four key questions: (1) What does the elusive concept of ‘good governance’ mean in the context of development theory and practice? (2) How did this concept evolve and become institutionalised as a core objective of AusAID’s work? (3) How does Australia’s conception of ‘good governance’ facilitate the pursuit of national interest? (4) To what extent does AusAID’s foreign policy-focused conception of governance conflict with a more developmentally-focused conception of governance?; no

Local-level governance in the Pacific

Schoeffel, Penelope; Turner, Mark
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 19 pages; 1056604 bytes; 361 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Throughout Melanesia and many parts of the Pacific, systems of government continue to be reviewed and restructured. Decentralisation of state powers and responsibilities from the national to provincial and lower levels of government is a recurring theme. The major rationale is that it is both more democratic and more efficient to locate decision-making powers closer to the people. A good deal of thought and effort by government planners and constitutional engineers has gone into central - local relations, particularly into the division of powers and financial arrangements between the two levels. From one country to another the resulting models of decentralisation have varied considerably. In all of this effort however, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the nature and shape of local-level government. In the years since independence, it is clear that in many Pacific countries local-level institutions have decayed and the quality of their governance has deteriorated. Now - in light of the apparent inability of national governments to provide stability, consistent services and good governance - the demand for the reform and strengthening of government at the local level is increasing. In May 2003, the State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Project hosted the Local-level Governance in the Pacific Workshop at the Australian National University. This discussion paper comprises the papers presented by two key speakers...

Governance in Vanuatu: in search of the Nakamal way

Huffer, Elise; Molisa, Grace
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 94341 bytes; 361 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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There has been much talk of governance in the South Pacific in the past few years. Indeed, it seems that governance has become the political and economic message of the late 1990s, much as ‘sustainable development’ was that of the early 1990s. The messengers are the premier international organisations such as the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund relayed in the South Pacific by prominent bilateral donors, such as Australia, New Zealand and Great Britain. Although the message of governance is relevant globally, it has been essentially directed at the developing world. It is, as such, currently having an impact on the Pacific islands. Like many new and widespread concepts before it, governance will be absorbed and ‘recycled’ by Pacific island governments and administrations. It may prove to be only an empty, ‘flavour of the month’ (Williams and Young 1994) expression used by Pacific officials as and when deemed necessary to satisfy aid donors. In this case governance will have an effect only in the context of Pacific island countries’ relations with larger powers and will not provoke fundamental or far-reaching changes on how Pacific societies actually govern themselves. On the other hand...

Corruption and governance in the South Pacific

Larmour, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 256597 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Suspicion of corruption has contributed to the crisis the PNG government currently faces over the use of mercenaries on Bougainville (Regan 1997), with the Governor General reported as referring to the ‘termites of corruption’ (Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 24 March 1997). Meanwhile the World Bank has announced a ‘renewed approach’ to preventing corruption, including a revision of its own global lending policies (The Independent February 14 1997). Corruption is hard to pin down, in principle and in practice. Transparency International, the anti-corruption non-government organization (NGO), distinguishes between ‘grand’ corruption, or the use of public office for private gain, and ‘petty’ corruption, in which officials demand facilitation payments to carry out perfectly legal tasks, like clearing a container from a wharf, which they are supposed to perform in any case (Pope 1996). The examples used in this paper refer mainly to grand corruption, which is often linked to election campaigning. There certainly seems to be more talk and moralising about corruption in the region. Politicians are widely suspected of it. The word itself (in English) carries connotations of decline, decay and falling away from the high ideals of the past. It has religious overtones in the strongly Christian countries of the region. In this paper...

Good governance, administrative reform and socioeconomic realities: A South Pacific perspective

Ray, Binayak
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 271054 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This paper examines good governance and administrative reform issues in 12 South Pacific Island countries. The paper concludes that to be effective, reform measures must specifically relate to the country’s geography, history, society and economy, and should not blindly follow other countries. Pacific Island countries vary is size: the smallest, Nauru, and the largest, Papua New Guinea, have total land areas of 21 and 453,000 square kilometres respectively. Pacific Islands are different from the other major island groups: the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean. Caribbean Islands are clustered together, and close to the United States market, Indian Ocean Islands are fast developing into the gateway to Africa for business in the East and South Asia. Pacific Islands do not have such advantages. They are scattered over a wider area, away from major markets and the size of their internal markets is small. The development of a new form of transport (containerisation) and advances in air transport technology have made the situation worse as the small volume of goods loaded and unloaded, and the small number of passengers did not justify the investment and reorganisation required to participate in these new forms of transport. Pacific Islands face severed destructive cyclones almost every year costing them a fortune in financial and resource terms. The ‘green-house’ effect is also threatening the physical existence of number of Pacific Island.; no

Cultivating Christian civil society: fundamentalist Christianity, politics and governance in Papua New Guinea

Eves, Richard
Fonte: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program Publicador: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 25 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
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"I begin this discussion with a general introduction to Christianity in Papua New Guinea, particularly as it relates to broad issues of governance, electoral discourse and demands for reform. Then, as further background, I present my observations of the conduct of the most recent Papua New Guinea elections, taken largely from my situation in the Southern Highlands electorate of Kagua-Erave. The course of the election and the types of election messages people were presented with, together with their responses, offer considerable insight into their opinions of government and their approach to the question of governance. While this Discussion Paper canvasses a range of Christian approaches to electoral politics and the 2007 national election, my focus is especially on the fundamentalist Christian groups. These groups are increasing in influence throughout Papua New Guinea and contribute to a profound disenchantment with electoral politics and politics more generally, which militates against efforts to strengthen community demands for better governance ..." - page 2

Strengthening civil society to build demand for better governance in the Pacific: literature review and analysis of good practice and lessons learned

Haley, Nicole
Fonte: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program Publicador: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 23 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
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"The purpose of this exercise is to shift the focus to the Pacific, and to bring together the wealth of experience of Australian NGO’s that have been working with local partners to build their capacity to promote social accountability and/or demand for better governance through their programs. This paper employs an evidence-based approach to identify where social accountability practices and demand for better governance strategies (either direct or indirect) are being employed in current practice. In particular, this paper seeks to identify and analyze the elements of good practice and to collate the lessons learnt through strengthening civil society to demand better governance in the Pacific. This paper also examines the ways and means of strengthening civil society to support homegrown reform initiatives and build demand for better governance, without causing harm or destroying local civil society initiatives in the process. It brings together findings from the existing literature concerning demand led governance and social accountability, civil society strengthening, and case studies from ACFID (Australian Council for International Development) member agencies currently involved in seeking to strengthen civil society in the Pacific region...."- page 2; AusAID

Indigenous governance in Melanesia

White, Geoffrey
Fonte: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program Publicador: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 16 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
"... this paper offers a brief overview of issues and themes emerging from Melanesian studies that bear on current concerns with “indigenous governance". My strategy for doing so is to discuss a recent case of political innovation in Santa Isabel, Solomon Islands. Drawing on my own research in Santa Isabel, I ask what issues and questions emerging in that locale may be relevant for other local systems in Melanesia ..." - page 1; AusAID

Urban governance in Pacific island countries: advancing an overdue agenda

Storey, Donovan
Fonte: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program Publicador: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 12 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
"From this paper three main themes emerge: the importance of peri-urban areas, the emergence of conflict as a result of weak government and stressed traditional systems and finally, the need for new and more inclusive systems of governance. Increasingly both material (infrastructure, housing, services, etc.) and nonmaterial (state-society relations, governance, etc.) needs are seen as complimentary to sustainable urban development. This working paper will primarily focus on what can be achieved in terms of creating more inclusive and effective forms of governance, building on international and Pacific perspectives and experiences." - page 1; AusAID

Political governance and service delivery in Western Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea

Ketan, Joseph
Fonte: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program Publicador: ANU Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Program
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 25 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Western Highlands is one of several Papua New Guinean provinces caught in the suffocating grip of poor governance. It has a woeful record of administrative ineptitude, dreadful financial management and political interference with public service functions. These are deeply entrenched problems that have been allowed to grow over time and are not restricted to a particular administration or government.

Roots for Good Forest Outcomes : An Analytical Framework for Governance Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
Poor governance is a major impediment to achieving development outcomes of the forest sector. It results in losses of income, employment, government revenues, and local and global environmental services. However, at present, no comprehensive guide to reforming forest governance has been developed. Although usually it is relatively easy to recognize that the forest sector in a country is failing to deliver all its potential benefits, the lack of an appropriate analytical framework makes it much harder to identify the major shortcomings and to propose a fitting response. This economic and sector work (ESW) is the first step in creating a reformer's tool to diagnose forest governance weaknesses and pinpoint appropriate reforms. Section one of these studies explores the consequences of poor governance and the need for and the track record of forest governance reforms. It highlights some key gaps in our understanding of the governance challenge that provide the rationale for this report. Section two reviews the available literature and extant initiatives on describing and measuring governance. It looks at existing general indicators of governance and an indicator aim specifically at the forest sector and highlights the main lessons learned. Section three presents a comprehensive conceptual framework with which forest governance diagnostics can be undertaken in a country. Finally...

Growth without Governance

Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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It is well known that there is a strong positive correlation between per capita incomes and the quality of governance across countries. the authors propose an empirical strategy that allows separation of this correlation into (1) a strong positive causal effect running from better governance to higher per capita incomes, and, perhaps surprisingly at first, (2) a weak and even negative causal effect running in the opposite direction from per capita incomes to governance. The first result confirms existing evidence on the importance of good governance for economic development. The second result is new and suggests the absence of a "virtuous circle" in which higher incomes lead to further improvements in governance. This motivates the authors' choice of title, "Growth Without Governance." They document this evidence using a newly updated set of worldwide governance-indicators covering 175 countries for the period 2000-01, and use the results to interpret the relationship between incomes and governance focusing on the Latin America and Caribbean region-within a worldwide empirical context. Finally...