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Globalização e educação: a formação do comunicador social na América Latina; GLOBALIZATION AND EDUCATION: Higher Education Background in Communication in Latin America

Sakata, Marici Cristine Gramacho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/03/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
O estudo das relações entre a globalização e a educação superior possibilita compreender as questões locais no contexto das discussões e teorias sociais globais. Com isso, o objetivo desta tese é analisar os efeitos da globalização na formação do comunicador, pela análise dos cursos de graduação em Comunicação Social em universidades latino-americanas. Esta pesquisa tem como base o referencial teórico dos Estudos Culturais. Quanto ao tratamento metodológico combinaram-se a pesquisa bibliográfica e a pesquisa qualitativa. Em primeiro lugar buscamos as teorias e modelos de globalização existentes na literatura para compreender a natureza, o objeto, a estrutura e a dinâmica deste fenômeno. Pesquisamos a estrutura e os sistemas de ensino superior de cada país da amostra, as características dos cursos de Comunicação Social, e as mudanças ocorridas no "mercado educacional" da década de 1980 até 2007. Na pesquisa qualitativa, foram analisados os conteúdos das missões e objetivos declarados pelas Instituições de Ensino, aplicou-se um questionário e foram feitas entrevistas com professores. Além das universidades latino-americanas, analisamos Instituições norte-americanas, francesas e espanholas como base de comparação. Algumas instituições francesas e espanholas da amostra foram visitadas. Os relatos foram analisados a partir do referencial teórico e os resultados deste estudo foram de grande valia para melhor compreensão da influência exercida pela globalização sobre os processos educacionais...

Repensando o desenvolvimento diante da globalização capitalista e das novas demandas para a educação.; Reflecting about the development in front of the capitalist globalization and the new demands for education.

Viscaino Junior, Manuel Marquez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/03/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
Nos últimos anos tem-se aguçado a discussão sobre as perspectivas de desenvolvimento econômico e social para o Brasil no atual contexto econômico mundial. Desde a década de 1950 com o surgimento das teorias do desenvolvimento, as questões envolvendo crescimento econômico, industrialização, geração e distribuição de riquezas e bens têm ocupado um lugar central em diversas áreas de estudo. A possibilidade de que o processo de globalização econômica, que se acentuou desde os anos 90, esteja recolocando a discussão sobre o desenvolvimento em novas perspectivas, impactando diretamente a estrutura e funcionamento da educação escolar e forçando uma revisão dos seus objetivos em decorrência das necessidades de qualificação da força de trabalho associada aos processos de inovações tecnológicas, conduzem a uma série de indagações que envolvem tanto a percepção da existência concreta dessa nova dimensão, quanto o entendimento dos seus fundamentos teóricos. Procuramos realizar uma revisão da teoria do desenvolvimento inserindo a análise da globalização econômica e das novas demandas pretendidas para a educação escolar. Partimos de uma análise sistêmica do processo histórico do capitalismo, apoiada nas contribuições de Giovanni Arrighi...

Globalização na escola, para além de um conteúdo; Globalization at school, beyond a content

Bonassi, Edna Celeste Vieira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/09/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Esta dissertação trata do ensino da globalização, enquanto conteúdo no último ano do Ensino Fundamental. A pesquisa envida nos caminhos de compreensão da globalização no campo teórico, mas enfocada principalmente em sua materialização no lugar de vivência do aluno, expresso no cotidiano e as relações dialéticas aí geradas a fim de oportunizar condições de contexto dessa temática para encaminhamento do tema nas aulas de Geografia. O nascedouro desta proposta ocorreu em função de contradições e paradoxos no comportamento dos alunos em relação à posse e uso de aparelhos tecnológicos de última geração, e também, das dificuldades, enfrentadas por nós professores, no ensino desse conteúdo. Assim, o objetivo da pesquisa está direcionado para a possibilidade de contextualizar o conteúdo da globalização na perspectiva dialética, considerando as variáveis que se lhe constituem, as dimensões: tecnológica, cultural, política, econômica e social, manifestas e imbricadas no cotidiano. Antes, porém é dedicado um espaço de compreensão do jovem e sua condição no contexto da e na globalização, se perfazendo no lugar do vivido, do cotidiano. O jovem, neste início de século, vive em presentes perpétuos...

Globalização financeira e integração de mercados financeiros nacionais; Financial globalization and integration of national financial markets

Mirandola, Carlos Maurício Sakata
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/06/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
O presente estudo tem dois objetivos. O primeiro (1) é substantivo: contribuir com o debate sobre globalização financeira, ajudando a nele incorporar uma dimensão que parecia um pouco fora de foco em diversas discussões a dimensão jurídico-institucional empírica. O segundo (2) é metodológico, e não se relaciona diretamente com o objeto da pesquisa: ajudar a incorporar ao estudo do direito no Brasil a utilização de certas técnicas empíricas que permitiriam o exercício mais freqüente do que se será chamado aqui de ceticismo esclarecido pela empiria o salutar questionamento de afirmações doutrinais peremptórias com o auxílio de evidência empírica. Em relação ao objetivo (1), apresenta-se a seguinte tese. A globalização financeira é produto de diversos processos heterogêneos de cooperação internacional, políticas governamentais, reformas legislativas e estratégias políticas. Tais processos têm determinantes diversos, e objetivos variados, não apenas liberalização. De fato, mera liberalização unilateral não daria suporte suficiente ao aumento de fluxos financeiros transfronteiriços a globalização só pôde e só pode ocorrer em vista da criação de uma diversidade de estruturas internacionais...

Agriculture and food in the globalization age

Moreira, Manuel Belo
Fonte: International Sociological Association - Research Committee on Sociology of Agriculture and Food Publicador: International Sociological Association - Research Committee on Sociology of Agriculture and Food
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
The objective of this article is to reflect on three basic questions concerning globalization and its effects on agriculture and food: 1) what are the major characteristics of globalization; 2) who are its major actors and 3) what are the future trends? Globalization continues to be a disputed concept despite the immense literature dedicated to it. I will focus on features of the current globalization process that can be employed to better understand the direction and reach of changes, particularly in agriculture and food.1 It is not my goal to produce original contributions about the theoretical relevance and accuracy of globalization or about its scale and scope. I will use a theoretical framework based on a political economy perspective focusing on the global agents, their logic and dynamics. However, this must be tempered by calling attention to the agencies and contingencies involved in the process. In fact, political economy insights suggesting global lines of evolution are not contradictory but rather complementary to actor-oriented, actor-network theory and social constructivist approaches, which acknowledge the social agencies and the complex articulations of the different spaces involved in agro-food production and consumption (Llambí et al. 1999...

Financial Globalization in Emerging Economies : Much Ado about Nothing?

Yeyati, Eduardo Levy; Williams, Tomas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Financial globalization, defined as global linkages through cross-border financial flows, has become increasingly relevant for emerging markets as they integrate financially with the rest of the world. This paper argues that, because of the way it is often measured, it has also led to the misperception that financial globalization in emerging markets has been growing in recent years. The authors characterize the evolution of financial globalization in emerging markets using alternative measures, and find that, in the 2000s, financial globalization has grown only marginally and international portfolio diversification has been limited and declining over time. The paper revisits the empirical literature on the implications of financial globalization for local market deepening, international risk diversification, financial contagion, and financial dollarization, and finds them to be rather limited. Whereas financial globalization has indeed fostered domestic market deepening in good times, it has yielded neither the dividends of consumption smoothing (in line with limited portfolio diversification) nor the costs of amplifying global financial shocks. In turn...

Benefits and Risks of Financial Globalization : Challenges for Developing Countries

Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Publicador: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
This paper discusses the benefits and risks that financial globalization entails for developing countries. Financial globalization can lead to large benefits, particularly to the development of the financial system. But financial globalization can also come with crises and contagion. The net effect of financial globalization is likely positive in the long run, with risks being more prevalent right after countries liberalize. So far, only some countries, sectors, and firms have taken advantage of globalization. As financial systems turn global, governments lose policy instruments, so there is an increasing scope for some form of international financial policy cooperation.

Does Globalization Hurt the Poor?

Agenor, Pierre-Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Agenor attempts to examine analytically and empirically the extent to which globalization affects the poor in low- and middle-income countries. He begins with a description of various channels through which trade openness and financial integration may have an adverse effect on poverty. However, the author also stresses the possible nonlinearities involved-possibilities that have seldom been recognized in the ongoing debate. Agenor then presents cross-country regressions that relate measures of real and financial integration to poverty. The regressions control for changes in income per capita and output growth rates, as well as various other macroeconomic and structural variables, such as the inflation tax, changes in the real exchange rate and the terms of trade, health and schooling indicators, and macroeconomic volatility. The author uses not only individual indicators of trade and financial openness but also a "globalization index" based on principal components analysis, and tests for both linear and nonlinear effects. The results suggest the existence of a nonmonotonic...

Managing Small-Medium Cities in a Time of Globalization: Experiences and Evidence from Florida’s Public Managers

Wedderburn, Nadine V
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study examines how public management practitioners in small and medium-sized Florida cities perceive globalization and its impact on public management practice. Using qualitative analysis, descriptive statistics and factor analysis methods, data obtained from a survey and semi-structured interviews were studied to comprehend how public managers view the management and control of their municipalities in a time of globalization. The study shows that the public managers’ perceptions of globalization and its impact on public management in Florida’s small-medium cities are nuanced. Whereas some public managers feel that globalization has significant impacts on municipalities’ viability, others opine that globalization has no local impact. The study further finds that globalization processes are perceived as altering the public management functions of decision-making, economic development and service delivery in some small-medium cities in Florida as a result of transnational shifts, rapidly changing technologies, and municipalities’ heightened involvement in the global economy. The study concludes that the globalization discourse does not resonate among some public managers in Florida’s small-medium cities in ways implied in extant literature.

Hindutva Meets Globalization: The Impact on Hindu Urban Media Women

Gangopadhyay, Monalisa
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study examines the impact of globalization and religious nationalism on the personal and professional lives of urban Hindu middle class media women. The research demonstrates how newly strengthened forces of globalization and Hindutva shape Indian womanhood. The research rests on various data that reveal how Indian women interpret and negotiate constructed identities. The study seeks to give voice to the objectified by scrutinizing and challenging the stereotypical modern faces of Indian womanhood seen in the narratives of globalization and Hindutva. Feminist open-ended interviewing was conducted in English and Hindi in New Delhi, the capital of India, with 23 Hindu women, employed by electronic and print media corporations. Accumulated data were analyzed and interpreted using feminist critical discourse analysis. Findings from the study indicate that while the Indian middle class women have embraced professional opportunities presented by globalization, they remain circumscribed by mutating gender politics. The research also finds that as academic and professional progress empower the women within their homes, their public lives have become fraught with increasing gender violence and decreasing recourse to justice. Therefore...

The myth of prosperity: globalization and the South.

Thacker, Viraj P.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Despite many important advances since the “Bretton Woods” agreement, the state of Third World development remains extremely unsatisfactory. About a billion people live in extreme poverty and more than 800 million do not get adequate nutrition. Third World Debt looms large on the horizons of most underdeveloped nations and development continues to benefit the Third World elites, the developed nations, and their multinational corporations. The North-South divide continues to widen with very little “tricking down” to the poor majority in many nations. It is strongly believed that one-third of the world’s poor are getting poorer. The conventional approach to development theory and practice, focusing on economic growth, investment, trade and free markets continues to benefit developed nations. Even in nations where free trade and markets have spurred growth, the net results of globalization have not reached the majority. Globalization defined as the “economic, social, political and environmental integration of nations” creates some major imbalances in a world system increasingly based on liberal market economies. Ultimately, the IMF-WTO corporate globalization model has failed to deliver for developing countries, severely punishing those least capable of protecting themselves – the billions living on $ 400 million annually. Market access is only useful to countries at a stage of development that allows for their engagement in world markets...

Bringing Nuance into the Globalization Debate: Changes in US, Japanese, and German Management, with Special Reference to the Impact of International Finance

BOSCH, Reinoud
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
This study presents the results of an application of an extended version of grounded theory to bring nuance into the globalization debate by looking at changes in US, Japanese, and German management, with special reference to the impact of international finance. It starts out by presenting the core of the preconceptions with which I started my research, represented by reconstructions of three perspectives that were highly popular and influential in the financial globalization debate at the end of the 1980s and during the 1990s. Next, well-substantiated, systematized, and synthesized empirical and theoretical material from many different sources is presented with which the three perspectives are compared. On the basis of the findings, the study concludes that the three perspectives cannot reasonably be upheld. More generally, the study indicates different sources of causality that more or less contradict each other and that lead to some kind of transformation. The main channels through which financial globalization is hypothesized to impact on management practices are the possibility of offshore outsourcing, financial deregulation, foreign shareholdings, the way attempts to improve global competitiveness have been affected by international finance...

Globalization and democracy

NAYYAR,DEEPAK
Fonte: Editora 34 Publicador: Editora 34
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

Between the colonial heritage and the first globalization boom: on income inequality in the Southern Cone

Bertola Flores, Luis Eduardo; Castelnovo, Cecilia; Rodriguez Arroyo, Javier; Willebald Remedios, Henry Francisco
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /09/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
This paper presents a first estimate of income inequality in the Southern Cone of South America (Brazil 1872 and 1920, Chile 1870 and 1920, Uruguay 1920) and some assumptions with regard to Argentina (1870 and 1920) and Uruguay (1870). We find that income distribution was relatively high on the eve of the first globalization boom. Thus, inequality is not only the result of globalization, but also a structural feature. Inequality increased between 1870 and 1920, both within individual countries and between countries. Globalization forces do not result in obvious outcomes. Rather, the effect of globalization on inequality depends on the expansion of the frontier and institutional persistence and change in old and new areas. Inequality was clearly high in the wake of the globalization process. This was a particular kind of inequality, which was part of a set of institutions closely linked to the exports of primary goods, sluggish technological change and limited human capital formation.; Este artículo presenta una primera estimación de la distribución del ingreso en el Cono Sur de Sudamérica (Brasil 1872 y 1920, Chile 1870 y 1920, Uruguay 1920) y algunos supuestos sobre la desigualdad en Argentina 1870 y 1920, así como en Uruguay en 1870. Encontramos que la distribución del ingreso era relativamente alta en los albores de la primera globalización...

An Assessment of Relative Globalization in Asia during the 1980s and 1990s

Looney, Robert E.; Frederiksen, P.C.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Refereed Journal Article
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The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.10 l 6/j.asieco.2004.02.002; This paper uses factor and discriminant analyses to generate indices of globalization. The first part of the paper describes the technique and we find that the Netherlands is the most globalized and Sierra Leone the least. In the second part of the paper, comparisons are made between South Asian, East Asian and Middle East countries to see if relative globalization process is proceeding at a faster or slower pace. Although the analysis is mostly regional, we introduce evidence for several countries, including Sri Lanka, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, India and Malaysia to compare globalization and openness. Based on our findings, several conclusions are drawn concerning progress made and the economic implications of that progress. Because of the poor showing of Pakistan's globalization efforts, special attention has been focused on that country. The main finding is that Pakistan appears to have fallen into a vicious cycle of low and declining globalization leading to low productivity causing low rates of return on investment. The result is low investment and technology transfer which only reinforces the drift towards an increasing globalization gap with the country's main international competitors.

Hegemonic Masculinity and Globalization: 'Transnational Business Masculinities' and Beyond

Elias, J.; Beasley, C.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.96%
In recent years masculinity studies writers, in particular R. W. Connell, have focused on the relationship between globalization and 'hegemonic' forms of masculinity. This paper provides an assessment of this scholarship and argues that whilst Connell and others have usefully identified the gendered nature of globalization, masculinity scholars have also provided a somewhat limiting account of the global hegemonic role of a monolithic top-down 'transnational business masculinity'. By contrast, we suggest a demassification of this notion of hegemonic masculinity. Such a demassification enables the opening up of a dialogue between masculinity studies and feminist and other critical globalization scholars, allowing for a more nuanced analysis that can attend to both the unevenness of globalization in different settings and more detailed awareness of interactions between global and local/cultural/state imperatives. Our aim here is to move away from conceptualizations of globalization and hegemonic masculinity that are exceptionally top-down towards an analysis of the contested and shifting nature of gender identity at the global as well as the local level, to highlight the ways in which different hegemonic masculinities are negotiated...

Globalization and the Public Provision of Higher Education: Empirical Evidence from Selected Countries

Nyang'oro, Claudette
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
This research study was designed to examine the relationship between globalization as measured by the KOF index, its related forces (economic, political, cultural and technological) and the public provision of higher education. This study is important since globalization is increasingly being associated with changes in critical aspects of higher education. The public provision of education was measured by government expenditure and educational outcomes; that is participation, gender equity and attainment. The study utilized a non-experimental quantitative research design. Data collected from secondary sources for 139 selected countries was analyzed. The countries were geographically distributed and included both developed and developing countries. The choice of countries for inclusion in the study was based on data availability. The data, which was sourced from international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank, were examined for different time periods using five year averages. The period covered was 1970 to 2009. The relationship between globalization and the higher education variables was examined using cross sectional regression analysis while controlling for economic, political and demographic factors. The major findings of the study are as follows. For the two spending models...

Sovereignty, Law, and Capital in the Age of Globalization

Sobel-Read, Kevin B.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%

This dissertation offers a comprehensive model of contemporary nation-state sovereignty. To do so, it examines the mutually constitutive relationship between sovereignty and present-day globalization as well as the role of law and capital in creating, maintaining, and driving that relationship.

The scholarly treatment of nation-state sovereignty has been inadequate for several reasons. Older theories of sovereignty could not have foreseen the unprecedented technological advances that underlie our current system and therefore do not sufficiently explain it. More recent theories of sovereignty, in turn, tend to be too narrowly focused, such that a given model of sovereignty often only applies to that particular condition. Furthermore, the academic literatures on sovereignty and nationalism, while occasionally referencing each other, have failed to recognize that the two phenomena are parts of the same whole and therefore must be more fully integrated.

This dissertation argues that a comprehensive model of contemporary nation-state sovereignty must include two symbiotic elements. The first, referred to here as emotional sovereignty, involves subjective relationships with the state. As such, the substance of this element is unique for each group. The second element is a functional/instrumental element. It addresses ways that the sovereignty serves as an interface-mechanism with other sovereignties...

BANKING STRATEGY AND FINANCIAL EXCLUSION: TRACING THE PATHWAYS OF GLOBALIZATION; ESTRATÉGIAS DOS BANCOS E EXCLUSÃO FINANCEIRA: DELINEANDO OS CAMINHOS DA GLOBALIZAÇÃO

Dymski, Gary A.
Fonte: Editora UFPR Publicador: Editora UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/05/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper argues that the current world-wide scenario of liberalized banking and financial exclusion has emerged because of two successive phases of financial globalization: a macro-scale globalization beginning in the late 1970s and persisting two decades; and a micro-scale globalization – that is, the movement across borders of banking firms and banking practices - beginning in the late 1980s and still gathering force. Contrary to those who view micro-scale globalization as shifting formerly sheltered national banking systems toward efficiency, this paper argues that micro-scale globalization is generating both financial inclusion for the privileged and financial exclusion for the poor or working poor. That is, the micro-scale globalization processes move not only along an efficiency/inefficiency axis, but also along an axis of wealth-equality/opportunity; and moves in the direction of efficiency may force a given economy further from the point of equality of opportunity and wealth.; Este artigo argumenta que o corrente cenário mundial de liberalização bancária e exclusão financeira surgiu em virtude de duas sucessivas fases de globalização financeira: uma globalização em macro-escala iniciada no fim dos anos 70 e que persistiu por duas décadas; e uma globalização em micro-escala – ou seja...

THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA

Figueroa, Ana Magdalena; Universidade de São Paulo
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/05/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This research aims to empirically test the impact of globalization on human development by studying 17 Latin American countries in a range of time from 1995 to 2009, in order to confirm the hypothesis that the effect of globalization on human development of developing countries depends on specific aspects of globalization and human development, as well as the level of state fragility and delinquency. The motivation leading this research is the fact that globalization has not brought improvement in the developmental conditions of the population as a whole. The potential and originality of this study includes the contribution to providing evidence by testing empirically the relationship between globalization and human development in Central and South America in such a way that will allow us to differentiate what kind of globalization is positive or negative in distinct areas of human development. And this is with the purpose of helping policymakers to have a clearer idea of what can be done according to each country’s peculiarities to enhance the human development in a globalized era.       The outcomes from empirical data analysis that employ Panel Corrected Standard Errors (PCSE) modeling reveal that globalization has a conditional correlation with human development in Central and South American countries. That is...