peer-reviewed; As part of a research project dedicated to the Social Organizational and Cultural Aspects of Global Software Development, the author has chosen to focus on collaborative work practices and knowledge management aspects of collaborative work. More
precisely, the focus is on how the global distribution of software development affects collaborative work. The current paper is a first attempt to unveil, through a concrete situation observed in a distributed software development environment, the complex ways in which people use technology to establish collaborative work practices. By using ethnographically-informed methods, the author presents a bottom-up study of actual work practices, meant to contribute to a better understanding of collaborative work and knowledge management processes in distributed software development.
peer-reviewed; In this paper, I explain how globally-distributed software development subunits can coordinate their activities with information systems
(IS). The basis of this explanation lies in the contemporary proliferation of global software development (GSD) activities which suggests an unexplained
reality: that organizations practicing GSD are somehow regulating their IS to cope with increasing and varied uncertainties. Through an empirical example
of an organization’s subunit’s regulating and coping, I make the case that requisite variety in a subunit’s information systems is a dependent variable for
managing uncertainties leading to optimal coordination. In this example, I show varied uncertainties that faced the subunit; and I explain how variety in
its information system was requisite for managing the uncertainties satisfactorily. Based on these explanations, I suggest four characteristics of
variety in IS that will be requisite for managing uncertainties in GSD – developers’ agility, developers’ continuity and travelling, high frequency of
communications, and varied communication modes and technologies.
peer-reviewed; With the expansion of national markets beyond geographical limits, success of any business often depends on using software for competitive advantage. Furthermore, as technological boundaries are expanding, projects distributed across different geographical locations have become a norm for the software solution providers. Nevertheless, when implementing Global Software Development (GSD), organizations continue to face challenges in adhering to the development life cycle. The advent of the internet has supported GSD by bringing new concepts and opportunities resulting in benefits such as scalability, flexibility, independence, reduced cost, resource pools, and usage tracking. It has also caused the emergence of new challenges in the way software is being delivered to stakeholders. Application software and data on the cloud is accessed through services which follow SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) principles. In this paper, we present the challenges encountered in globally dispersed software projects. Based on goals mutually shared between GSD and the cloud computing paradigm, we propose to exploit cloud computing characteristics and privileges both as a product and as a process to improve GSD.
non-peer-reviewed; Global software development (GSD) is often impeded by global distance which may be
geographical, cultural, temporal or linguistic. When compared to a collocated setting, specific methods are required to coordinate a range of activities in the GSD environment. Therefore, to manage and reduce global distance there is a need for continuous coordination within both client
and vendor companies. Our literature review [Deshpande et al, 2011], shows that only 15% of the research studies for GSD are from the vendor’s perspective. There is a similar assertion made by Gonzalez et al (2006) where they identified that only 16% of the research studies explore outsourcing from the perspective of the service provider or vendor. Vendor companies have solved many of the global distance related issues. Both client and vendor companies need insight into
these solutions which will assist them to successfully coordinate distributed projects. The research presented in this paper is addressing these gaps. Following our systematic literature review and
empirical research within vendor companies, we have compared GSD coordination from the
vendor perspective with the Project Management Body of Knowledge guide [PMBOK® Guide, 2008]. We have established that while the PMBOK® Guide partially supports GSD coordination within vendor companies...
peer-reviewed; Global Software Development (GSD) research has reached a level of maturity. Paper-based solutions and guidelines are readily available to solve many known distributed software development problems. The large number of recommendations can present a confusing picture to the practitioner. The Global Teaming Model (GTM), captures key global software processes and recommendations by drawing on the large and growing corpus of empirical research on GSD. This paper introduces the Global Teaming Decision Support System (GT-DSS), that
is designed to help software managers navigate through the many recommendations in the GSD literature and the GTM.
The interactive GT-DSS captures details about the development organization, and tailors GTM practices to fit specific business and organizational needs. A prototype of the GTM-DSS has been
evaluated by industry experts in GSD, with favorable results.
non-peer-reviewed; Many authors have reported on various challenges and benefits encountered by teams engaged in global software development (GSD). Previous research has proposed a framework to structure these challenges
and benefits within dimensions of distance and process. In this paper, the framework was used as an analytic device to investigate various projects performed by distributed teams in order to explore
further the mechanisms used in industry both to overcome obstacles posed by distance and process challenges and also to exploit potential benefits enabled by global software development.
peer-reviewed; Global software development (GSD), as a mode of information systems development, surfaces various challenges and benefits that are not always present in co-located teams. A psychological contract reflects the written and unwritten expectations, or obligations, of collaborating parties in a transaction. This paper uncovers a set of candidate obligations that make up the psychological
contract of parties collaborating in global software development efforts (the GSD psychological contract). Particular focus is applied to certain development roles: business analyst, designer, developer and development-support. A qualitative research approach is employed against various
incidents that occurred in development projects performed by a global software product development organization. Finally, opportunities for future research are presented.
peer-reviewed; Global software development (GSD) is a phenomenon that is receiving considerable interest from companies all over the world. In GSD, stakeholders from different
national and organizational cultures are involved in developing software and the many benefits include access to a large labour pool, cost advantage and round-the-clock development. However, GSD is technologically and organizationally complex and presents a variety of challenges to be managed by the
software development team. In particular, temporal, geographical and socio-cultural distances impose problems not experienced in traditional systems development. In this paper, we present findings from a
case study in which we explore the particular
challenges associated with managing GSD. Our study also reveals some of the solutions that are used to deal with these challenges. We do so by empirical investigation at three US based GSD companies operating in Ireland. Based on qualitative interviews we present challenges related to temporal,
geographical and socio-cultural distance.
peer-reviewed; Global software development surfaces various
challenges and benefits that are not always present in co-located teams. The purpose of this paper is to explore a set of propositions that address the
suitability of four different software development roles to Global software development (GSD). A qualitative
research approach was applied to collaborations undertaken between remote counterparts playing the same development role in various GSD projects.
Specific development roles were considered: business analyst, designer, developer and development-support. A framework that details the benefits and challenges of
GSD was used as a basis for this research. Suitability of a role to GSD is based upon the balance of challenges and benefits discovered in that role’s case.
Finally, opportunities for future research are presented.
peer-reviewed; Sources of Global Software Development (GSD)
information, such as academic literature, often focus on highlevel
issues rather than on specific problems. Researchers tend
to generalize problems and solutions; however, practitioners
and instructors frequently need to identify real low-level
scenarios and patterns in an effort to study specific problems
and their solutions.
We propose a method for collecting and defining GSD scenarios
and related patterns. Scenarios depicting events that happen in
certain GSD contexts associated with communication,
coordination are central to this method. In this paper we show
how problems and solutions extracted from these events can
lead to the definition of patterns. Patterns describe generalized
information that can be re-used in similar contexts.
To facilitate knowledge sharing, we have integrated this pattern
model into a GSD Community Web intended to promote
collaboration between industry and academia. News, resources
and discussion forums on GSD topics are also available through
peer-reviewed; Over the last two decades of globalisation, the software industry has witnessed
the emergence of Global Software Development (GSD). Various business motives
have driven software companies to outsource software development projects to
software companies based in low cost economies. Given the highly competitive
environment in which software companies operate, the client and the vendor
have to equip themselves to operate successfully across national and
Software development carried out at various geographical locations across
boundaries is mainly impeded by distance which can be categorized as exterior
and interior. The exterior distance is formed due to geographical, cultural and
temporal differences while the interior distance is created due to organisational,
technological and knowledge differences. The outcome of these distances is that
they draw out primarily communication, coordination, culture and control issues
which can spiral out of control if not resolved. The literature on GSD gives
evidence as to how various tactics are applied to alleviate these issues created by
While each of these is of interest to the GSD researchers, this research study has
particular focus on coordination. Coordination is the act of making things work
together for attaining common goals. In GSD projects...
Abstract not available; Muhammad Ali Babar; A shorter version of this paper has been published in the IEEE Conference: Muhammad Ali Babar, A Framework for Supporting the Software Architecture Evaluation Process in Global Software Development, Fourth IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, pp. 93–102, 2009.
Organizations involve in Global Software Development (GSD) face challenges in terms of having access to appropriate set of tools for performing distributed engineering and development activities, integration between heterogeneous desktop and web-based tools, management of artifacts developed and maintained over distant locations using different kind of tools, traceability among artifacts, and access to artifacts and data of sensitive nature. These challenges pose additional constraints on specific projects and reduce the possibility to carry out their engineering and development in globally distributed environment. In this paper, we argue the need to have a cloud-enabled platform for supporting GSD and propose reference architecture of a cloud based Platform for providing support to provision ecosystem of the Tools as a Service (PTaaS).; Muhammad Aufeef Chauhan, Muhammad Ali Babar
non-peer-reviewed; Global software development (GSD) encompasses all software development where people located in different parts of the world are working together to produce software. Software development in itself is a complex process. GSD increases those complexities, as it involves people coordinating across significant geographical and temporal distance. It also typically involves people working together who come from different national and organisational cultures.
This mixture of distances brings with it both challenges and benefits. While working across significant distances can prove to be problematic, there have also been numerous benefits associated with GSD. Through the medium of Internet communication technologies, companies can tap into new expanding employment markets offering thousands of graduates with good education in software development skills. Moreover, these expanding employment markets typically demand salaries that may be many times lower than at higher-cost locations such as the US and Western Europe.
This thesis focuses on two multi-national companies with significant GSD activities. The aim of the study was to contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the potential benefits of GSD. Previous studies have offered some conflicting conclusions on characteristics of GSD – whether those characteristics are indeed beneficial and whether they are being realised in industry. While providing a synthesis and characterisation of numerous potential benefits of GSD through a structured framework...
peer-reviewed; While organisations recognise the advantages offered by global software development, there are many socio-technical barriers that affect successful collaboration in this inter-cultural environment. In this paper we present a review of the global software development literature where we highlight collaboration problems experienced by a cross-section of organisations in twenty-six studies. We also look at the literature to answer how organisations are over- coming these barriers in practice. We build on our previous study on global software development where we define collaboration as four practices related to agreeing, allocating, and planning goals, objectives, and tasks among distributed teams. We found that the key barriers to collaboration are geographic, temporal, cultural, and linguistic distance; the primary solutions to overcoming these barriers include site visits, synchronous communication technology, and knowledge sharing infrastructure to capture implicit knowledge and make it explicit.
peer-reviewed; One of the dominant characteristics of contemporary software development is the global distribution of tasks, of developers, of information and of technologies. Undoubtedly, such distribution engenders new coordination challenges in the form of distance-related interdependencies. One of the predominant processes of addressing these challenges is electronic meetings (or teleconferences). However, the functions of these meetings for coordination purposes are not yet understood. The distinctive conventions of teleconferences and their causal relationships that lead to optimal coordination of global software development (GSD) projects are also not yet understood. In this paper, the functions of teleconferences held by globally distributed software developers to coordinate their work in the face of global distribution of resources, cross-site information interdependencies, and continuously changing software requirements are analysed. The analysis is based on a qualitative study of how a subunit of 13 software developers, distributed across three sites in the USA and one in Republic of Ireland, used teleconferences to address its coordination challenges. The paper proffers a teleconference approach to GSD coordination by arguing that the functions of teleconferences manifest in software developers‟ multitasking; their ready access to all their information as additional benefits; flexibility in their communicative behaviours; and a reduction in their structure overload. This approach draws attention to these manifestations as distinctive conventions of the de-structured meeting...
peer-reviewed; Cultural diversity is assumed to be a fundamental issue in global software development. Research carried out to date has raised concerns over how to manage cultural differences in global software development. Our empirical research in India, a major outsourcing destination, has helped us investigate this complex issue of global software development. A triangulated study based on a questionnaire, telephonic interviews and structured face-to-face interviews with 15 Project Managers and Senior Executives has revealed how they cope with the demands of cultural differences imposed by a geographically distributed environment. This research study brings forward various techniques initiated by these project managers to deal with cultural differences that exist within geographically distributed software development teams. We also discuss different strategies and make a case to explain how to build on and take advantage of cultural differences that exist in global software development.
peer-reviewed; In existing global software development (GSD)
literature, much focus has been on identifying the
challenges that practitioners may face (such as sociocultural
and temporal distance issues), while potential
benefits have not been extensively analyzed. We
reverse this trend by studying these potential benefits.
We question whether they are well-founded
assumptions and whether they are attainable in
practice. This paper presents findings from a multicase
study at three multi-national companies that have
extensive experience in GSD. We identify the benefits
mentioned in GSD literature, analyze them with
regards to the companies' experiences and then
conclude whether or not each benefit is being realized
in practice. Our findings reveal that the realization of
the assumed benefits cannot be simply taken for
peer-reviewed; Simulation has been applied in several Software Engineering fields, and is shown to be a useful method in industrial training. As part of our research work, we have used simulation to provide training in Global Software Development (GSD). We have developed a platform to strengthen GSD skills by simulating realistic settings in which learners interact with Virtual Agents of differing cultures. Thus, learners will experience multi-cultural problems and will develop specific GSD communication skills.
The development of these skills must, however, be accurately assessed, bearing in mind that the training is aimed at learners with different characteristics and skills. In this paper we present an assessment process based on educational theory adapted to our simulation-based training environment. Methods to minimize the instructors’ effort and tailor the assessment to specific training needs are proposed. The assessment process has been evaluated by 34 potential users. Results indicate that the assessment method yields meaningful results and proof of learning. Also that automated assessment can be achieved with minimal intervention from the instructor. Though tailored for GSD, this method could be applied to other domains...
Abstract Global Software Development (GSD) brought competitive advantages to organizations, but it has also imposed some drawbacks due to the physical distribution. A critical aspect of this approach is related to communication. In order to provide the same semantic understanding about information exchanged on the environment to all team members it is necessary to minimize the ambiguity. This paper presents OntoDiSENv1, application ontology for a distributed software development environment. The goal of this ontology is support communication among geographically dispersed team members. The ontology is integrated to a contextual information dissemination model, which notifies the team members about the actions that occur on the shared workspace and can influence their work. The main contribution of OntoDiSENv1 is to support contextual information representation and processing, providing inference capability and semantic consistency of the information disseminated.