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A landscape genetics approach to unravel the complex evolutionary history of the Iberian honey bee hybrid zone

Pinto, M. Alice; Johnston, J. Spencer; Azevedo, João; Brandão, Andreia; Moura, Inês; Muñoz, Irene; De la Rúa, Pilar; Patton, John C.
Fonte: IPB, IUFRO Publicador: IPB, IUFRO
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
While landscape genetics is in its infancy, it is a rapidly growing research field in part owing to the increasing availability of powerful molecular and analytical tools. By integrating landscape ecology, spatial statistics and population genetics, landscape genetics is allowing an unprecedented understanding of the microevolutionary processes shaping genetic variation, which has important implications for the advance of ecological and evolutionary knowledge. The Iberian honey bee provides a great model system to address evolutionary questions using a landscape genetics framework. First, previous studies suggest that the Iberian honey bee has a hybrid origin and hybrid zones have been favored by evolutionary biologists as powerful natural laboratories to study evolutionary processes. Second, with the publication of the honey bee genome and development of high‐density SNP markers, powerful tools are now available to dissect the relative importance of neutral and adaptive forces in shaping the Iberian honey bee hybrid zone, a goal of central importance as it leads to more robust inferences of demographic history and to identification of adaptive divergence. Herein, we will present an ongoing research project on the Iberian honey bee hybrid zone where the tools of landscape genetics and population genomics will be combined to unravel the challenging evolutionary history of the Iberian honey bee.

Análise do ensino de genética e genômica em cursos de graduação em enfermagem no Brasil; Analysis of genetics and genomics teaching in undergraduate nursing programs in Brazil

Lopes Junior, Luis Carlos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
Após a conclusão do Projeto Genoma Humano, uma quantidade imensurável de conhecimentos genômicos surgiu e, atualmente, se torna essencial sua integração à prática profissional de enfermeiros. Esses conhecimentos vêm transformando o modelo de atenção à saúde, com implicações para a enfermagem e repercussões no ensino, na assistência e na pesquisa. Embora já seja reconhecida a importância da genética e da genômica na educação de enfermeiros, levantamentos realizados em diversos países mostram que esses conteúdos ainda são limitados nos cursos de graduação desses profissionais, sendo desconhecida a situação nas escolas de enfermagem do Brasil. O principal objetivo desse estudo foi identificar as oportunidades existentes de educação em genética e genômica, oferecidas por cursos brasileiros que graduam enfermeiros. Trata-se de pesquisa exploratória, tipo survey, com delineamento transversal e abordagem quantitativa, realizada no período de fevereiro de 2011 a novembro de 2012. A amostra de conveniência compreendeu 311 Instituições de Ensino Superior cadastradas junto ao Ministério da Educação. Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário eletrônico...

MaizeGDB, the community database for maize genetics and genomics

Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Dong, Qunfeng; Polacco, Mary L.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Brendel, Volker
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) is a central repository for maize sequence, stock, phenotype, genotypic and karyotypic variation, and chromosomal mapping data. In addition, MaizeGDB provides contact information for over 2400 maize cooperative researchers, facilitating interactions between members of the rapidly expanding maize community. MaizeGDB represents the synthesis of all data available previously from ZmDB and from MaizeDB—databases that have been superseded by MaizeGDB. MaizeGDB provides web-based tools for ordering maize stocks from several organizations including the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center and the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS). Sequence searches yield records displayed with embedded links to facilitate ordering cloned sequences from various groups including the Maize Gene Discovery Project and the Clemson University Genomics Institute. An intuitive web interface is implemented to facilitate navigation between related data, and analytical tools are embedded within data displays. Web-based curation tools for both designated experts and general researchers are currently under development. MaizeGDB can be accessed at http://www.maizegdb.org/.

The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database. The Community Resource for Access to Diverse Maize Data1

Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Seigfried, Trent E.; Brendel, Volker
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (MaizeGDB) serves the maize (Zea mays) research community by making a wealth of genetics and genomics data available through an intuitive Web-based interface. The goals of the MaizeGDB project are 3-fold: to provide a central repository for public maize information; to present the data through the MaizeGDB Web site in a way that recapitulates biological relationships; and to provide an array of computational tools that address biological questions in an easy-to-use manner at the site. In addition to these primary tasks, MaizeGDB team members also serve the community of maize geneticists by lending technical support for community activities, including the annual Maize Genetics Conference and various workshops, teaching researchers to use both the MaizeGDB Web site and Community Curation Tools, and engaging in collaboration with individual research groups to make their unique data types available through MaizeGDB.

Genetics and Genomics of Infectious Diseases: advancing our understanding of host/pathogens and their interactions

Yang, Ninghan; Hibberd, Martin L
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/05/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
A report on the Genetics and Genomics of Infectious Diseases conference, Singapore, 21-24 March 2009.

From Human Genetics and Genomics to Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics: Past Lessons, Future Directions

Nebert, Daniel W.; Zhang, Ge; Vesell, Elliot S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
A brief history of human genetics and genomics is provided, comparing recent progress in those fields with that in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, which are subsets of genetics and genomics, respectively. Sequencing of the entire human genome, the mapping of common haplotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and cost-effective genotyping technologies leading to genome-wide association (GWA) studies—have combined convincingly in the past several years to demonstrate the requirements needed to separate true associations from the plethora of false positives. While research in human genetics has moved from monogenic to oligogenic to complex diseases, its pharmacogenetics branch has followed, usually a few years behind. The continuous discoveries, even today, of new surprises about our genome cause us to question reviews declaring that “personalized medicine is almost here” or that “individualized drug therapy will soon be a reality.” As summarized herein, numerous reasons exist to show that an “unequivocal genotype” or even an “unequivocal phenotype” is virtually impossible to achieve in current limited-size studies of human populations. This problem (of insufficiently stringent criteria) leads to a decrease in statistical power and...

Ten years of genetics and genomics: what have we achieved and where are we heading?

Heard, Edith; Tishkoff, Sarah; Todd, John A.; Vidal, Marc; Wagner, Günter P.; Wang, Jun; Weigel, Detlef; Young, Richard
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
To celebrate the first 10 years of Nature Reviews Genetics, we asked eight leading researchers for their views on the key developments in genetics and genomics in the past decade and the prospects for the future. Their responses highlight the incredible changes that the field has seen, from the explosion of genomic data and the many possibilities it has opened up to the ability to reprogramme adult cells to pluripotency. The way ahead looks similarly exciting as we address questions such as how cells function as systems and how complex interactions among genetics, epigenetics and the environment combine to shape phenotypes.

Can Genetics and Genomics Nursing Competencies Be Successfully Taught in a Prenursing Microbiology Course?

Shuster, Michèle
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
In recognition of the entry into the era of personalized medicine, a new set of genetics and genomics competencies for nurses was introduced in 2006. Since then, there have been a number of reports about the critical importance of these competencies for nursing practices and about the challenges of addressing these competencies in the preservice (basic science) nursing curriculum. At least one suggestion has been made to infuse genetics and genomics throughout the basic science curriculum for prenursing students. Based on this call and a review of the competencies, this study sought to assess the impact of incorporation of genetics and genomics content into a prenursing microbiology course. Broadly, two areas that address the competencies were incorporated into the course: 1) the biological basis and implications of genetic diversity and 2) the technological aspects of assessing genetic diversity in bacteria and viruses. These areas address how genetics and genomics contribute to healthcare, including diagnostics and selection of treatment. Analysis of learning gains suggests that genetics and genomics content can be learned as effectively as microbiology content in this setting. Future studies are needed to explore the most effective ways to introduce genetics and genomics technology into the prenursing curriculum.

GENETICS AND GENOMICS IN NURSING: EVALUATING ESSENTIALS IMPLEMENTATION

Thompson, Hilaire J.; Brooks, Mirella Vasquez
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
The goal of the present study was to determine how well selected essential knowledge elements and practice indicators from the Essential Nursing Competencies and Curricula Guidelines in Genetics and Genomics (Essentials) were being achieved. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Eligible participants were recruited from a convenience sample of attendees at a national nursing conference in October 2008. Of the 200 surveys distributed, 47 usable surveys (24%) were returned. The majority of respondents were current nursing faculty (45.7%). Only 36% of all respondents had read the Essentials document. Less than 30% of respondents had attended any recent genetic/ genomic content continuing education. There were significant associations between having read the Essentials document and obtaining both recent genomic continuing education and conducting genetic research (p<0.01). The results from this survey indicate that the Essentials have not been well disseminated outside of those primarily interested in the subject matter. They further indicate that respondents were not well prepared to respond to patient queries about genetic testing. Nurse educators must be adequately educated to address genomics as it will eventually become commonplace...

Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics

Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun
Fonte: Korea Genome Organization Publicador: Korea Genome Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally, they have their own problems and shortcomings. However, a common set of the principles expressed in them will be highlighted here, because they are still relevant, and many of them will be more relevant in the future. Some of the interesting contents will be selected and described. After that, the morality of one recent event related to whole-genome sequencing and person-identifiable genetic data will be explored based on those international standards.

Genetics and Genomics of Endometriosis

Hansen, Keith A.; Eyster, Kathleen M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Endometriosis is a common cause of morbidity in women with an unknown etiology. Studies have demonstrated the familial nature of endometriosis and suggest that inheritance occurs in a polygenic/multifactorial fashion. Studies have attempted to define the gene or genes responsible for endometriosis through association or linkage studies with candidate genes or DNA mapping technology. A number of genomics studies have demonstrated significant alterations in gene expression in endometriosis. A more thorough understanding of the genetics and genomics of endometriosis will facilitate understanding the basic biology of the disease and open new inroads to diagnosis and treatment of this enigmatic condition.

Summary of the OA Biomarkers Workshop 2010 - Genetics and Genomics: New Targets in OA

Meulenbelt, I.; Kraus, V.B; Sandell, L.J.; Loughlin, J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
On November 4th and 5th 2010 a group of more than 100 international investigators gathered in Atlanta for the 2nd Osteoarthritis (OA) Biomarkers Global Initiative workshop titled “Genetics and Genomics: New Targets in OA”. The 1st workshop took place in April 2009 and focused on in vitro (soluble) biomarkers whilst the 3rd and final workshop will take place in 2012 and will focus on imaging biomarkers. The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) has organized the workshops. In addition to OARSI, the National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, the Arthritis Foundation, Amgen, Genzyme, the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine and Pfizer sponsored the 2nd meeting. It was clear from this meeting that experiments in the genetics, epigenetics and genomics of OA, are yielding valuable insights into the etiology of this heterogeneous disease but that much still needs to be learnt. Combining genetic insights with conventional biomarkers and imaging modalities may provide scientists with the enhanced tools to understand this complex disease. With those tools in hand, clinicians and industry can develop protocols to ultimately improve patient care.

Historiographic reflections on model organisms: Or how the mureaucracy may be limiting our understanding of contemporary genetics and genomics

Ankeny, R.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
Scholarship in the history of biology focused on model organisms has burgeoned along with the growth of the use of these organisms in genetic research in the closing decades of the 20th century. This paper draws on criticisms of model organism-based research, particularly the epistemological dangers of focus on a relatively limited number of species whose very development has become canalized through processes of standardization, to articulate the analogous historical pitfalls of these blinders for developing a fuller history of genetics and genomics.; R. A. Ankeny

Molecular genetics and genomics of the Rosoideae: state of the art and future perspectives

Longhi, Sara; Giongo, Lara; Buti, Matteo; Surbanovski, Nada; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Ward, Judson A; Sargent, Daniel J
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
The Rosoideae is a subfamily of the Rosaceae that contains a number of species of economic importance, including the soft fruit species strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa), red (Rubus idaeus) and black (Rubus occidentalis) raspberries, blackberries (Rubus spp.) and one of the most economically important cut flower genera, the roses (Rosa spp.). Molecular genetics and genomics resources for the Rosoideae have developed rapidly over the past two decades, beginning with the development and application of a number of molecular marker types including restriction fragment length polymorphisms, amplified fragment length polymorphisms and microsatellites, and culminating in the recent publication of the genome sequence of the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, and the development of high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping resources for Fragaria, Rosa and Rubus. These tools have been used to identify genes and other functional elements that control traits of economic importance, to study the evolution of plant genome structure within the subfamily, and are beginning to facilitate genomic-assisted breeding through the development and deployment of markers linked to traits such as aspects of fruit quality, disease resistance and the timing of flowering. In this review...

Human genetics and genomics a decade after the release of the draft sequence of the human genome

Naidoo, Nasheen; Pawitan, Yudi; Soong, Richie; Cooper, David N; Ku, Chee-Seng
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Substantial progress has been made in human genetics and genomics research over the past ten years since the publication of the draft sequence of the human genome in 2001. Findings emanating directly from the Human Genome Project, together with those from follow-on studies, have had an enormous impact on our understanding of the architecture and function of the human genome. Major developments have been made in cataloguing genetic variation, the International HapMap Project, and with respect to advances in genotyping technologies. These developments are vital for the emergence of genome-wide association studies in the investigation of complex diseases and traits. In parallel, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has ushered in the 'personal genome sequencing' era for both normal and cancer genomes, and made possible large-scale genome sequencing studies such as the 1000 Genomes Project and the International Cancer Genome Consortium. The high-throughput sequencing and sequence-capture technologies are also providing new opportunities to study Mendelian disorders through exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing. This paper reviews these major developments in human genetics and genomics over the past decade.

Key questions in the genetics and genomics of eco-evolutionary dynamics

Hendry, A P
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Increasing acceptance that evolution can be ‘rapid' (or ‘contemporary') has generated growing interest in the consequences for ecology. The genetics and genomics of these ‘eco-evolutionary dynamics' will be—to a large extent—the genetics and genomics of organismal phenotypes. In the hope of stimulating research in this area, I review empirical data from natural populations and draw the following conclusions. (1) Considerable additive genetic variance is present for most traits in most populations. (2) Trait correlations do not consistently oppose selection. (3) Adaptive differences between populations often involve dominance and epistasis. (4) Most adaptation is the result of genes of small-to-modest effect, although (5) some genes certainly have larger effects than the others. (6) Adaptation by independent lineages to similar environments is mostly driven by different alleles/genes. (7) Adaptation to new environments is mostly driven by standing genetic variation, although new mutations can be important in some instances. (8) Adaptation is driven by both structural and regulatory genetic variation, with recent studies emphasizing the latter. (9) The ecological effects of organisms, considered as extended phenotypes, are often heritable. Overall...

Eucalyptus applied genomics: from gene sequences to breeding tools

Grattapaglia, Dario; Kirst, Matias
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: Texto
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Eucalyptus is the most widely planted hardwood crop in the tropical and subtropical world because of its superior growth, broad adaptability and multipurpose wood properties. Plantation forestry of Eucalyptus supplies high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications while reducing the pressure on tropical forests and associated biodiversity. This review links current eucalypt breeding practices with existing and emerging genomic tools. A brief discussion provides a background to modern eucalypt breeding together with some current applications of molecular markers in support of operational breeding. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and genetical genomics are reviewed and an in-depth perspective is provided on the power of association genetics to dissect quantitative variation in this highly diverse organism. Finally, some challenges and opportunities to integrate genomic information into directional selective breeding are discussed in light of the upcoming draft of the Eucalyptus grandis genome. Given the extraordinary genetic variation that exists in the genus Eucalyptus, the ingenuity of most breeders, and the powerful genomic tools that have become available, the prospects of applied genomics in Eucalyptus forest production are encouraging.

Genomics of growth traits in forest trees

Grattapaglia, Dario; Plomion, Christophe; Kirst, Matias; Sederoff, Ronald R.
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: Texto
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Growth traits in trees are fundamental components of adaptation in a forest ecosystem and of productivity in planted forests. A number of processes determine tree growth, which are controlled by genetic and epigenetic factors that respond dynamically to environmental signals throughout centuries. Advances in genomics have allowed an increased comprehension of the complex mechanisms of tree growth and adaptation. Yet, the application of genomics to improving forest productivity and sustainability still entails capturing a large proportion of the total genetic variation controlling the component traits. Nonetheless, genetics and genomics are unifying disciplines that will serve well to dissect the variables and mechanisms of tree growth and development.

Center for Public Genomics List of Challenged Claims in Association for Molecular Pathology et al. v. United States Patent and Trademark Office et al.

Center for Public Genomics; Cook-Deegan, Robert Mullan
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2009 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
List of challenged claims in the case, compiled and written by researchers at Duke University's Center for Public Genomics

Panelist Bios for Center for Public Genomics Gene Patent Issue Briefing for Congressional Staff

The Center for Public Genomics at Duke University
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 15/09/2011 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Speaker bios, provided as background material for September, 2011 Center for Public Genomics Congressional briefing.