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Comparing general-purpose and domain-specific languages: an empirical study

Kosar, Tomaz; Oliveira, Nuno; Mernik, Marjan; Pereira, Maria João; Crepinsek, Matej; Cruz, Daniela; Henriques, Pedro
Fonte: ComSIS Consortium Publicador: ComSIS Consortium
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Many domain-specific languages, that try to bring feasible alternatives for existing solutions while simplifying programming work, have come up in recent years. Although, these little languages seem to be easy to use, there is an open issue whether they bring advantages in comparison to the application libraries, which are the most commonly used implementation approach. In this work, we present an experiment, which was carried out to compare such a domain-specific language with a comparable application library. The experiment was conducted with 36 programmers, who have answered a questionnaire on both implementation approaches. The questionnaire is more than 100 pages long. For a domain-specific language and the application library, the same problem domain has been used – construction of graphical user interfaces. In terms of a domain-specific language, XAML has been used and C# Forms for the application library. A cognitive dimension framework has been used for a comparison between XAML and C# Forms.

Contribuições da língua portuguesa e das línguas africanas quicongo e bini para a constituição do crioulo sãotomense; Contributions of portuguese and african languages Bini and Kongo and the formation of creole spoken in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe

Barretto, Marcus Vinicius Knupp
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/02/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
O objetivo desta dissertação é apresentar e discutir alguns processos fonológicos de adição e subtração de elementos (metaplasmos) na língua sãotomense. Neste trabalho, faremos uma comparação entre as contribuições das línguas portuguesa, quicongo e bini. Entre os séculos XV e XVI, diversas línguas nasceram do contato entre europeus e povos da África, Ásia e América. Chamadas de pidgins e crioulos, essas línguas contam com contribuições linguísticas da língua do povo dominador (língua de superstrato) e com contribuições da(s) língua(s) do(s) povo(s) dominado(s) (língua(s) de substrato). O sãotomense, língua falada atualmente na República de São Tomé e Príncipe, é uma dessas línguas, classificada como crioulo de base portuguesa, e conta com o português seiscentista como língua de superstrato e com línguas africanas, dentre elas o quicongo e o bini como línguas de substrato. Ao longo deste trabalho, analisaremos algumas das influências das línguas de substrato e superstrato na constituição do sãotomense. As contribuições das línguas de superstrato estão, majoritariamente, relacionadas à composição do léxico e as das línguas de substrato na fonologia, morfologia e sintaxe, embora também haja traços inovadores. No caso do sãotomense...

Representações hierárquicas de vocábulos de línguas indígenas brasileiras: modelos baseados em mistura de Gaussianas; Hierarchical representations of words of brazilian indigenous languages: models based on Gaussian mixture

Sepúlveda Torres, Lianet
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/12/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Apesar da ampla diversidade de línguas indígenas no Brasil, poucas pesquisas estudam estas línguas e suas relações. Inúmeros esforços têm sido dedicados a procurar similaridades entre as palavras das línguas indígenas e classificá-las em famílias de línguas. Seguindo a classificação mais aceita das línguas indígenas do Brasil, esta pesquisa propõe comparar palavras de 10 línguas indígenas brasileiras. Para isso, considera-se que estas palavras são sinais de fala e estima-se a função de distribuição de probabilidade (PDF) de cada palavra, usando um modelo de mistura de gaussianas (GMM). A PDF foi considerada um modelo para representar as palavras. Os modelos foram comparados utilizando medidas de distância para construir estruturas hierárquicas que evidenciaram possíveis relações entre as palavras. Seguindo esta linha, a hipótese levantada nesta pesquisa é que as PDFs baseadas em GMM conseguem caracterizar as palavras das línguas indígenas, permitindo o emprego de medidas de distância entre elas para estabelecer relações entre as palavras, de forma que tais relações confirmem algumas das classificações. Os parâmetros do GMM foram calculados utilizando o algoritmo Maximização da Expectância (em inglês...

Structuring general and complete quantum computations in Haskell : the arrows approach; Estruturando computaçõoes quânticas gerais e completas em Haskell : abordagem das setas

Vizzotto, Juliana Kaizer
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Computaçãao quântica pode ser entendida como transformação da informação codificada no estado de um sistema físico quântico. A idéia básica da computação quântica é codificar dados utilizando bits quânticos (qubits). Diferentemente do bit clássico, o qubit pode existir em uma superposição dos seus estados básicos permitindo o “paralelismo quântico”, o qual é uma característica importante da computação quântica visto que pode aumentar consideravelmente a velocidade de processamento dos algoritmos. Entretanto, tipos de dados quânticos são bastante poderosos não somente por causa da superposição de estados. Existem outras propriedades ímpares como medida e emaranhamento. Nesta tese, nós discutimos que um modelo realístico para computações quânticas deve ser geral com respeito a medidas, e completo com respeito a comunicação entre o mundo quântico e o mundo clássico. Nós, então, explicamos e estruturamos computações quânticas gerais e completas em Haskell utilizando construções conhecidas da área de semântica e linguagens de programação clássicas, como mônadas e setas. Em mais detalhes, esta tese se concentra nas seguintes contribuições. Mônadas e Setas. Paralelismo quântico...

On the use of programming languages for textual specification of Petri Net Models

Barros, João Paulo; Gomes, Luís
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
O presente artigo revê e aprofunda o artigo intitulado Towards a Human-Friendly Textual Language for Petri Nets, apresentado no Workshop on Petri Net Standards 2007.; As a general interchange format for Petri net models, the Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) allows the specification of Petri net models for all Petri net classes. Those models are typically generated by graphical editors for each Petri net type. Yet, there is no general way to specify Petri net models in a human-friendly textual notation. Instead of proposing a standard for such textual notation, this paper proposes the use of popular general purpose programming languages for the creation and modification of net models defined using PNML. To that end, the paper presents a model for the concepts, and the respective inter- relations, that should be available to define Petri net models in a compact textual format. After, it presents a general framework to specify model composition, using node fusion, for any Petri net class. The framework allows the specification of node fusions and node refinements based on the specification of fusions for each node and net label. The labels’ fusions are defined through the implementation of an abstract data type for the respective Petri net type definition. This allows a general support for model structuring...

Software languages engineering: experimental evaluation

Gabriel, Pedro Hugo do Nascimento
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática; Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) are programming languages that offer, through appropriate notation and abstraction, still enough an expressive control over a particular problem domain for more restricted use. They are expected to contribute with an enhancement of productivity, reliability, maintainability and portability, when compared with General Purpose Programming Languages (GPLs). However, like in any Software Product without passing by all development stages namely Domain Analysis, Design, Implementation and Evaluation, some of the DSLs’ alleged advantages may be impossible to be achieved with a significant level of satisfaction. This may lead to the production of inadequate or inefficient languages. This dissertation is focused on the Evaluation phase. To characterize DSL community commitment concerning Evaluation, we conducted a systematic review. The review covered publications in the main fora dedicated to DSLs from 2001 to 2008, and allowed to analyse and classify papers with respect to the validation efforts conducted by DSLs’ producers, where have been observed a reduced concern to this matter. Another important outcome that has been identified is the absence of a concrete approach to the evaluation of DSLs...

A Semiótica Geral de Nelson Goodman; The Semiotics of General Nelson Goodman

BARBOSA, Carlos Eduardo Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Filosofia; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Filosofia; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
This work concerns of the notation concept by Nelson Goodman in the book Languages of Art. From a general approach to the language notion, the concept of notation is presented as an intermediary between the verbal languages and general communication. Goodman proposes an interesting theory about notation, whose principle relates to the need at providing means to identify plays. In this work the concept of Goodman and the criteria used to define the notational structure is going to be discussed and exemplified. Then this approach is applied in discussions case, music, chemistry, painting, electronic diagram, floor plan, especially in the "literature" of the (brazilian) movimento concretista; Este trabalho diz respeito ao conceito de notação tal qual o mesmo é desenvolvido por Nelson Goodman no livro Languages of art. A partir de uma abordagem geral da noção de linguagem, o conceito de notação é apresentado entre as linguagens verbais e a comunicação em sentido amplo. Goodman propõe uma interessante teoria da notação, cujo princípio se prende na necessidade de fornecer meios para se identificar execuções. Neste trabalho será abordado e exemplificado o conceito de Goodman e os critérios utilizados para se definir uma estrutura notacional. Em seguida...

Extending enterprise architecture modeling languages: application to telecommunications service creation

Chiprianov, V.; Kermarrec, Y.; Rouvrais, S.
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Enterprise Engineering offers a global view on multiple concerns such as processes, stakeholders, supporting technology. This global view is sustained by Enterprise Architecture frameworks, languages, tools and standards. The current effort has been focused on general purpose Enterprise Architecture frameworks, modeling languages and tools, which allow describing a wide range of domains. While they are expressive enough at the business layer, at the technical layer, where more detail is needed to describe a domain specific system, such general purpose Enterprise Architecture Modeling Languages sometime lack the semantic strength required. The concepts present in the language are too abstract, they need refinement and specification. To provide the necessary specific semantic strength, this paper proposes an approach to extend Enterprise Architecture Modeling Languages with domain specificity. The proposed approach is a model-driven one, allowing a high degree of automation in the building of tools for the language extension. To better show its benefits, the approach is applied on the domain of Telecommunications, for defining an Enterprise Architecture Modeling Language extension for service creation. The so defined language and its associated tools are illustrated on an IP Multimedia Subsystem conferencing service example.; Vanea Chiprianov...

Definir e exemplificar: estratégias didáticas no Curso de Linguística Geral (1907); Defining and Exemplifying: teaching strategies in the Course on General Linguistics

Torelli, Lygia Rachel Testa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/07/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Esta dissertação tem por objetivo analisar a atividade docente de Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) relativa à Linguística Geral, em 1907, quando o então experiente professor assumiu, pela primeira vez, o ensino da disciplina (Curso I). Nossos pressupostos teóricos provêm da Historiografia Linguística, tal como praticada por Auroux (1994), Koerner (1996) e Swiggers (2004). Nossa problemática parte do reconhecimento de que uma das maneiras de perpetuar a presença de Saussure no cânone dos estudos linguísticos consiste em repetir metáforas e exemplos a ele creditados, como a célebre metáfora do jogo de xadrez para ilustrar o conceito de língua. A partir de estudos historiográficos das funções semiótica e argumentativa de definições e de exemplos de língua (Rey, 1995; Quijada Van den Berghe e Swiggers, 2009; Chevillard et al., 2007), repartimos o material de análise (Saussure, 1996[1907]) em três porções, a que chamamos domínios (Caussat, 1978): Fonologia, Fonética e Analogia, temas do Curso I, para os quais estabelecemos três objetivos principais de pesquisa [1 a 3], e um objetivo secundário [4]: [1] levantar e caracterizar definições nos três domínios; [2] levantar e caracterizar os exemplos de língua nos três domínios; [3] correlacionar o uso de definições e de exemplos de língua nos três domínios; [4] correlacionar os dados apurados em [3] com com o contexto imediato de emergência do Curso I...

Regular Ideal Languages and Their Boolean Combinations

Jahn, Franz; Kufleitner, Manfred; Lauser, Alexander
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
We consider ideals and Boolean combinations of ideals. For the regular languages within these classes we give expressively complete automaton models. In addition, we consider general properties of regular ideals and their Boolean combinations. These properties include effective algebraic characterizations and lattice identities. In the main part of this paper we consider the following deterministic one-way automaton models: unions of flip automata, weak automata, and Staiger-Wagner automata. We show that each of these models is expressively complete for regular Boolean combination of right ideals. Right ideals over finite words resemble the open sets in the Cantor topology over infinite words. An omega-regular language is a Boolean combination of open sets if and only if it is recognizable by a deterministic Staiger-Wagner automaton; and our result can be seen as a finitary version of this classical theorem. In addition, we also consider the canonical automaton models for right ideals, prefix-closed languages, and factorial languages. In the last section, we consider a two-way automaton model which is known to be expressively complete for two-variable first-order logic. We show that the above concepts can be adapted to these two-way automata such that the resulting languages are the right ideals (resp. prefix-closed languages...

Varieties of Unranked Tree Languages

Steinby, Magnus; Jurvanen, Eija; Cano, Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/10/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
We study varieties that contain unranked tree languages over all alphabets. Trees are labeled with symbols from two alphabets, an unranked operator alphabet and an alphabet used for leaves only. Syntactic algebras of unranked tree languages are defined similarly as for ranked tree languages, and an unranked tree language is shown to be recognizable iff its syntactic algebra is regular, i.e., a finite unranked algebra in which the operations are defined by regular languages over its set of elements. We establish a bijective correspondence between varieties of unranked tree languages and varieties of regular algebras. For this, we develop a basic theory of unranked algebras in which algebras over all operator alphabets are considered together. Finally, we show that the natural unranked counterparts of several general varieties of ranked tree languages form varieties in our sense. This work parallels closely the theory of general varieties of ranked tree languages and general varieties of finite algebras, but many nontrivial modifications are required. For example, principal varieties as the basic building blocks of varieties of tree languages have to be replaced by what we call quasi-principal varieties, and we device a general scheme for defining these by certain systems of congruences.

Towards Hybrid Intensional Programming with JLucid, Objective Lucid, and General Imperative Compiler Framework in the GIPSY

Mokhov, Serguei A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Pure Lucid programs are concurrent with very fine granularity. Sequential Threads (STs) are functions introduced to enlarge the grain size; they are passed from server to workers by Communication Procedures (CPs) in the General Intensional Programming System (GIPSY). A JLucid program combines Java code for the STs with Lucid code for parallel control. Thus first, in this thesis, we describe the way in which the new JLucid compiler generates STs and CPs. JLucid also introduces array support. Further exploration goes through the additional transformations that the Lucid family of languages has undergone to enable the use of Java objects and their members, in the Generic Intensional Programming Language (GIPL), and Indexical Lucid: first, in the form of JLucid allowing the use of pseudo-objects, and then through the specifically-designed the Objective Lucid language. The syntax and semantic definitions of Objective Lucid and the meaning of Java objects within an intensional program are provided with discussions and examples. Finally, there are many useful scientific and utility routines written in many imperative programming languages other than Java, for example in C, C++, Fortran, Perl, etc. Therefore, it is wise to provide a framework to facilitate inclusion of these languages into the GIPSY and their use by Lucid programs. A General Imperative Compiler Framework and its concrete implementation is proposed to address this issue.; Comment: 222 pages...

Descriptional complexity of bounded context-free languages

Malcher, Andreas; Pighizzini, Giovanni
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Finite-turn pushdown automata (PDA) are investigated concerning their descriptional complexity. It is known that they accept exactly the class of ultralinear context-free languages. Furthermore, the increase in size when converting arbitrary PDAs accepting ultralinear languages to finite-turn PDAs cannot be bounded by any recursive function. The latter phenomenon is known as non-recursive trade-off. In this paper, finite-turn PDAs accepting bounded languages are considered. First, letter-bounded languages are studied. We prove that in this case the non-recursive trade-off is reduced to a recursive trade-off, more precisely, to an exponential trade-off. A conversion algorithm is presented and the optimality of the construction is shown by proving tight lower bounds. Furthermore, the question of reducing the number of turns of a given finite-turn PDA is studied. Again, a conversion algorithm is provided which shows that in this case the trade-off is at most polynomial. Finally, the more general case of word-bounded languages is investigated. We show how the results obtained for letter-bounded languages can be extended to word-bounded languages.; Comment: 31 pages, 1 figure. A preliminary version was presented at DLT 2007. The full version is submitted to a journal

On the Structure and Complexity of Rational Sets of Regular Languages

Holzer, Andreas; Schallhart, Christian; Tautschnig, Michael; Veith, Helmut
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/05/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
In a recent thread of papers, we have introduced FQL, a precise specification language for test coverage, and developed the test case generation engine FShell for ANSI C. In essence, an FQL test specification amounts to a set of regular languages, each of which has to be matched by at least one test execution. To describe such sets of regular languages, the FQL semantics uses an automata-theoretic concept known as rational sets of regular languages (RSRLs). RSRLs are automata whose alphabet consists of regular expressions. Thus, the language accepted by the automaton is a set of regular expressions. In this paper, we study RSRLs from a theoretic point of view. More specifically, we analyze RSRL closure properties under common set theoretic operations, and the complexity of membership checking, i.e., whether a regular language is an element of a RSRL. For all questions we investigate both the general case and the case of finite sets of regular languages. Although a few properties are left as open problems, the paper provides a systematic semantic foundation for the test specification language FQL.

Monitorability of $\omega$-regular languages

Bauer, Andreas
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/06/2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Arguably, omega-regular languages play an important role as a specification formalism in many approaches to systems monitoring via runtime verification. However, since their elements are infinite words, not every omega-regular language can sensibly be monitored at runtime when only a finite prefix of a word, modelling the observed system behaviour so far, is available. The monitorability of an omega-regular language, L, is thus a property that holds, if for any finite word u, observed so far, it is possible to add another finite word v, such that uv becomes a "finite witness" wrt. L; that is, for any infinite word w, we have that uvw \in L, or for any infinite word w, we have that uvw \not\in L. This notion has been studied in the past by several authors, and it is known that the class of monitorable languages is strictly more expressive than, e.g., the commonly used class of so-called safety languages. But an exact categorisation of monitorable languages has, so far, been missing. Motivated by the use of linear-time temporal logic (LTL) in many approaches to runtime verification, this paper first determines the complexity of the monitorability problem when L is given by an LTL formula. Further, it then shows that this result, in fact...

Invisible pushdown languages

Kopczynski, Eryk
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Context free languages allow one to express data with hierarchical structure, at the cost of losing some of the useful properties of languages recognized by finite automata on words. However, it is possible to restore some of these properties by making the structure of the tree visible, such as is done by visibly pushdown languages, or finite automata on trees. In this paper, we show that the structure given by such approaches remains invisible when it is read by a finite automaton (on word). In particular, we show that separability with a regular language is undecidable for visibly pushdown languages, just as it is undecidable for general context free languages.

Quantum, Stochastic, and Pseudo Stochastic Languages with Few States

Shur, Arseny M.; Yakaryilmaz, Abuzer
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
Stochastic languages are the languages recognized by probabilistic finite automata (PFAs) with cutpoint over the field of real numbers. More general computational models over the same field such as generalized finite automata (GFAs) and quantum finite automata (QFAs) define the same class. In 1963, Rabin proved the set of stochastic languages to be uncountable presenting a single 2-state PFA over the binary alphabet recognizing uncountably many languages depending on the cutpoint. In this paper, we show the same result for unary stochastic languages. Namely, we exhibit a 2-state unary GFA, a 2-state unary QFA, and a family of 3-state unary PFAs recognizing uncountably many languages; all these numbers of states are optimal. After this, we completely characterize the class of languages recognized by 1-state GFAs, which is the only nontrivial class of languages recognized by 1-state automata. Finally, we consider the variations of PFAs, QFAs, and GFAs based on the notion of inclusive/exclusive cutpoint, and present some results on their expressive power.; Comment: A new version with new results. Previous version: Arseny M. Shur, Abuzer Yakaryilmaz: Quantum, Stochastic, and Pseudo Stochastic Languages with Few States. UCNC 2014: 327-339

Dyck-based characterizations of Indexed Languages

Fratani, Severine; Voundy, El Makki
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Indexed languages are a generalization of context-free languages and form a proper subset of context-sensitive languages. We propose to generalize to indexed languages several well known characterizations of context-free languages: namely, the characterization by rational transductions defined by Nivat, the Chomsky-Sch\"utzenberger theorem, and the logical characterization proved by Lautemann et al.; Comment: The general approach can be improved and some statements are inaccurate

Using the General Intensional Programming System (GIPSY) for Evaluation of Higher-Order Intensional Logic (HOIL) Expressions

Mokhov, Serguei A.; Paquet, Joey
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/06/2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
The General Intensional Programming System (GIPSY) has been built around the Lucid family of intensional programming languages that rely on the higher-order intensional logic (HOIL) to provide context-oriented multidimensional reasoning of intensional expressions. HOIL combines functional programming with various intensional logics to allow explicit context expressions to be evaluated as first-class values that can be passed as parameters to functions and return as results with an appropriate set of operators defined on contexts. GIPSY's frameworks are implemented in Java as a collection of replaceable components for the compilers of various Lucid dialects and the demand-driven eductive evaluation engine that can run distributively. GIPSY provides support for hybrid programming models that couple intensional and imperative languages for a variety of needs. Explicit context expressions limit the scope of evaluation of math expressions (effectively a Lucid program is a mathematics or physics expression constrained by the context) in tensor physics, regular math in multiple dimensions, etc., and for cyberforensic reasoning as one of the use-cases of interest. Thus, GIPSY is a support testbed for HOIL-based languages some of which enable such reasoning...

The UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger: Context and Process

Moseley, Christopher
Fonte: World Oral Literature Project Publicador: World Oral Literature Project
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
Christopher Moseley is General Editor of the third edition of the UNESCO Atlas of the World?s Languages in Danger (2010). Alongside linguistic geography, his research interests are in newly written languages and the creation of orthographies to suit them. Moseley completed his Master?s degree in Baltic-Finnic linguistics and his doctoral research in linguistics at the University College London (UCL) School of Slavonic and East European Studies. He has held posts at BBC Monitoring (a branch of the World Service); as Teaching Fellow in Latvian at the Language Centre at UCL; as a freelance translator and editor; and as Treasurer for the Foundation of Endangered Languages. Moseley also co-edited the second edition of the Routledge Atlas of the World?s Languages (2007). He completed this fifth Occasional Paper for the World Oral Literature Project in 2012, on the development of the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger; As General Editor of the third edition of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Atlas of the World?s Languages in Danger, Christopher Moseley came to an already-existing project that had been evolving and expanding over two editions, but had yet to truly encompass the whole world. The opportunity to keep continuously abreast of the threats to the world?s weaker languages was created by providing an additional version of the Atlas...