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Improving Gender Targeting of Public Expenditures : A Consolidated Note on Lessons and Policy Implications

Ruiz Abril, Maria Elena; Ofosu-Amaah, A. Waafaas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
This report summarizes policy lessons from the project Improving Gender Targeting of Public Expenditures through Capacity Building. The project, funded by the Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program between July 2007 and December 2009, has supported a combination of analytical work and capacity building activities in the area of Gender-Responsive Budgeting (GRB) in DRC, Liberia, and Rwanda, as well as a regional learning- exchange workshop on gender-responsive budgeting with participants from Kenya, Liberia, Rwanda, and Uganda. The purpose of this policy note is to provide a brief analysis of the key policy issues that emerged from project activities in the three countries.

Mainstreaming Gender in Water and Sanitation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Gender is a concept that refers to socially constructed roles, behavior, activities and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate and ascribes to men and women. A useful definition of the concept of gender mainstreaming is provided by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (1997), suggests that mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making the concerns and experiences of women as well as men, an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic and societal spheres, so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. The chapters that follow highlight in a short summary form experiences of mainstreaming gender at various levels in the water and sanitation sector. It begins with a discussion on gender responses to policy and its requirement for analysis and clear policy objectives to guide operations. The second section touches on experiences of mainstreaming gender within sector operations...

The Cost of the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity in Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda

UN Women; UNDP; UNEP; World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Women comprise a large proportion of the agricultural labor force in Sub-Saharan Africa, ranging from 30 to 80 percent (FAO 2011). Yet women farmers are consistently found to be less productive than male farmers. The gender gap in agricultural productivity—measured by the value of agricultural produce per unit of cultivated land—ranges from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the country and the crop (World Bank and ONE 2014). This gap exists because women frequently have unequal access to key agricultural inputs such as land, labor, knowledge, fertilizer, and improved seeds. This report estimates the monetary value of the gender gap in agricultural productivity in Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda.

Bhutan Gender Policy Note

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
Bhutan has undergone a major socio-economic transformation over the past few decades. Today, as a middle-income country guided by the unique development philosophy of Gross National Happiness, it continues to develop rapidly and become more integrated into the global economy. Coinciding with its development, Bhutan has also made considerable strides in closing gaps in gender equality. The analysis of the Gender Policy Note (GPN) focuses on specific issues related to economic empowerment. It analyzes patterns related to specific aspects of the economic empowerment of both men and women by applying the analytical framework of the 2012 World Development Report on Gender and Development to the Bhutan context. For the areas of focus, the report examines overall indicators on gender and identifies areas where gender gaps persist: agricultural land holding and inheritance practices, and gender gaps in labor markets and job quality. In Bhutan, most women acquire land ownership through inheritance, particularly in matrilineal communities. Unlike in other countries...

An Evaluation of World Bank Support, 2002-08 : Gender and Development; Evaluation de l'appui de la banque mondiale, 2002-08 : genre et developpement

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This evaluation, which covers the period fiscal 2002-08, finds that the Bank made progress in gender integration, compared with an earlier evaluation by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) on gender covering the period fiscal 1990-99. Gender integration into Bank support increased both in quantity and in scope, and more than half of relevant projects integrated gender concerns. This evaluation recommends several actions to regain and sustain the momentum of gender integration that was evident in the first half of the evaluation period. These include redoubling efforts to institutionalize the accountability framework and develop the monitoring system envisioned in the 2001 gender strategy, establishing a results framework, and restoring a broader requirement for gender integration at the project level.

Accounting for Gender Production from a Growth Accounting Framework in Sub-Saharan Africa

Fofack, Hippolyte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This paper draws on an expanded growth accounting framework to estimate the relative contribution of women to growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Empirical results show a consistently positive contribution of women to growth in gross domestic product in the region, both during economic downturns and growth spurts. This is despite the absence of any valuation of home-produced goods and informal sector production, which accounts for the bulk of womens production, in national product and income accounts. Women's positive contribution is largely attributed to their increased rates of labor force participation in wage employment and the reduction in the gender gap in education in recent years.

Gender and Development : An Evaluation of World Bank Support, 2002–08

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
The World Bank's current gender policy resulted directly from the 2001 gender strategy endorsed by the board. This evaluation which covers the period fiscal 2002-08, finds that the Bank made progress in gender integration compared with an earlier Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation on gender covering the period fiscal 1990-99. Gender integration into Bank support increased both in quantity and in scope, and more than half of relevant projects integrated gender concerns. With regard to outcomes, detailed reviews were undertaken in 12 focus countries, and the evaluation finds that Bank support likely contributed to increased gender equality in three domains - investment in human capital, access to economic assets and opportunities, and voice in development - substantially in 4 of the 12 countries, modestly in another 6, and weakly in 2. At the project level, 42 percent of relevant projects in the 12 focus countries generated substantial outcomes that contributed to progress in one or more of these domains. The objectives of the Bank's gender policy are directly relevant to the Bank's mandate of poverty reduction and economic development. The evaluation found another factor that also tended to diminish the relevance of the Bank's gender policy...

Country Gender Assessment for Lao PDR : Reducing Vulnerability and Increasing Opportunity

Asian Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: Manila Publicador: Manila
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Since the introduction of economic reforms in the mid-1980s, strong growth and development have lifted thousands of poor women and men out of poverty, changing traditional ways of life in Lao PDR. In this environment of change, gender relations, within the family, village and society at large, are changing too. Gender equality is a core development objective. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. As Lao PDR continues its development, the empowerment of women and girls will be a key to translating the country's economic growth and the energies of its young people into improved living standards that benefit women and men alike. This assessment synthesizes information and findings from recent literature and research on gender issues in Lao PDR for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank's (WB) country partnership strategies. The assessment is planned to contribute not only to the work of the ADB and the WB...

The Role of Men in the Economic and Social Development of Women : Implications for Gender Equality

Farré, Lídia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
This paper is a critical review of the literature on the issue of how male behavior affects female outcomes in the promotion of gender equality. It employs the family as the main unit of analysis because a large part of gender interactions occurs within this institution. This survey first summarizes recent studies on the distribution of power within the family and identifies several factors that have altered the bargaining position of men and women over the last decades. It then reviews empirical work on the contribution of men, as fathers and husbands, to the health and socioeconomic outcomes of women in both developed and developing countries. Finally, it discusses a set of economic policies that have intentionally or unintentionally affected men's attitudes and behaviors. The main implication is that policies meant to achieve gender equality should focus on men rather than exclusively target women.

Linking Gender, Environment, and Poverty for Sustainable Development : A Synthesis Report on Ethiopia and Ghana

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Poverty, environment, social development, and gender are important cross-cutting themes of the World Bank and government investment programs, especially within the Sustainable Development Network (SDN). For developing sectoral strategies and programs, economic, environment and social assessments are undertaken, however, these are usually done separately, and most often gender issues are not included. This is a missed opportunity, because joint assessments can map the links between gender, environment, and poverty and help identify approaches that can accelerate the positive synergy and better social/gender, environment, and poverty outcomes; otherwise, the existing negative relationships may slow the development process, and can even lead to unintended results. A joint analysis will also reduce cost of project preparation. This study was undertaken to analyze the links between gender, environment, and poverty; identify approaches; and provide practical suggestions for fostering positive synergies for better outcomes. The analytical framework for this study draws on the World Bank's three pillars of sustainable development: social inclusion...

Gender Inequality in the Labor Market in Serbia

Reva, Anna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This paper presents a broad overview of labor market indicators for men and women in Serbia with a focus on employment patterns, entrepreneurship and career advancement as well as earnings differentials. The analysis relies primarily on the results of the Labor Force Surveys conducted in Serbia in April 2008 and October 2009. The findings show that although the overall labor market situation in Serbia is difficult, women are in a much more disadvantageous position than men. Women are much less likely to be employed, start a business or advance in the political arena. Furthermore, there is a significant wage gap between men and women in a number of sectors and occupational groups with low educated women being particularly disadvantaged. The results of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition demonstrate that the wage gap is indicative of discrimination of women in the labor market as earnings differentials cannot be explained by differences in observed characteristics of male and female employees. Based on the obtained results...

Gender Equality and Economic Growth in Brazil : A Long-run Analysis

Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Canuto, Otaviano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
This paper studies the long-run impact of policies aimed at fostering gender equality on economic growth in Brazil. The first part provides a brief review of gender issues in the country. The second part presents a gender-based, three-period OLG model that accounts for women's time allocation between market work, child rearing, human capital accumulation, and home production. Bargaining between spouses depends on relative human capital stocks, and thus indirectly on access to infrastructure. The model is calibrated and various experiments are conducted, including investment in infrastructure, conditional cash transfers, a reduction in gender bias in the market place, and a composite pro-growth, pro-gender reform program. The analysis showed that fostering gender equality, which may partly depend on the externalities that infrastructure creates in terms of women's time allocation and bargaining power, may have a substantial impact on long-run growth in Brazil.

Jordan Country Gender Assessment : Economic Participation, Agency and Access to Justice in Jordan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Over the last three decades Jordan has made substantial investments in its human resources, spending more than 10 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health and education. Like their male counterparts, women and girls have benefitted from these policies and their quality of life has improved. The Jordan Country Gender Assessment (CGA) has two primary objectives. The first is to assess gender imbalances in the areas of economic participation in the labor market, agency, and access to justice; provide a framework for policies or interventions to the Government of Jordan (GoJ) on addressing imbalances; and provide a basis for implementing the activities included in the Gender Action Plan (GAP). The second objective is to develop and strengthen partnerships with GoJ agencies, Civil Society Organization's (CSOs), and academic institutions to promote collaboration on addressing gender-related issues impacting development, and in particular to develop mechanisms for cooperation on implementation of the GAP. This CGA will further explore...

Gender Dimensions of Investment Climate Reform : A Guide for Policy Makers and Practitioners

Simavi, Sevi; Manuel, Clare; Blackden, Mark
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Promoting women's economic empowerment is increasingly seen as an important driving force behind economic growth and the fight against poverty. Women's economic participation as entrepreneurs, employees, and leaders is recognized as a measure of a country's economic viability and dynamism. The guide starts with a brief section on the economic rationale for gender inclusion in investment climate reform work. It is then divided into nine modules. Recognizing the socioeconomic dimensions of gender-focused work, the core module outlines the broader, overarching framework within which gender-informed investment climate work can take place. It also focuses on the monitoring and evaluation framework, with particular emphasis on establishing appropriate baselines to facilitate the measurement of gender-informed changes in the business environment. The eight thematic modules provide specific guidance on key investment climate issues comprising: (i) public-private dialogue, (ii) business start-up and operation, (iii) business taxation...

Evaluating a Decade of World Bank Gender Policy : 1990-99

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
As part of the Bank's poverty reduction mandate, the Bank's 1994 Operational Policy on Gender Dimensions of Development aimed to reduce gender disparity and increase the participation of women in the economic development of their countries. This evaluation examines the relevance and results of this policy.

Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs : Component 1. Case Study Summary and Final Report

IC Net
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
The World Bank in November 2001 commissioned IC Net Limited of Japan to carry out a study titled 'Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs' in accord with the terms of reference (TOR) issued in June 2001. The study was financed by a grant from the Japanese Large Studies Trust Fund. The contract came into effect on 15 December 2001 and covers the period to 15 June 2004. IC Net was to work in association with TRL Limited and the International Forum for Rural Transport and Development, both of the United Kingdom. The TOR defines the overall objective of the study as follows: 'to assist the World Bank and other international development agencies, developing country governments and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), to improve the efficiency and equity of transport policies and programs through ensuring that projects respond to the needs of both women and men.' This report brings together the findings of ten case studies from nine countries (China, Laos, Vietnam, Bangladesh [two studies]...

Belarus : Country Gender Profile

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Belarus demonstrated strong economic growth 2000-2008 and this translated into fast poverty reduction. Belarus invested a lot in the human capital of its population both in men and women. This assessment identifies and describes main gender disparities in Belarus in agency, education, health, and access to economic opportunities. The report builds on the framework of the World Bank's regional gender report, Europe and Central Asia: opportunities for men and women, as well as the World development report on gender and development. The assessment takes a quantitative approach using a wide range of different international data sources including World Bank's world development indicators, the global financial inclusion database, the life in transition survey, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)-World Bank business environment and enterprise performance survey as well as local household living standards survey. The report is organized as follows: section one discusses agency and describes factors which may shape the process how men and women use their endowments and utilize economic opportunities to achieve desired outcomes. The second section analyzes gender disparities in endowments...

Going beyond Conflict: Secular Feminists, Islamists, and Gender Policy Reform

Shehabuddin, Sarah Tasnim
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
Today, most Muslim-majority countries must contend with two realities: Islamists’ increasing access to political participation on the one hand and domestic and international pressures for women’s rights on the other. This dissertation seeks to identify the conditions necessary for resolving tensions between Islamist demands for political inclusion and secular feminists’ demands for the institutionalization of women’s rights in Muslim-majority countries. Attempts at gender reform have not only been rare, but have also usually excluded either secular feminists or Islamists due to state actors’ inability or unwillingness to resolve conflict between them. In some contexts, however, power holders have initiated inclusive consultative arrangements, mechanisms (commissions, committees, and mediation) that enable both secular feminists and Islamists to participate in gender policy-making processes, in spite of divergent ideological preferences, and thereby generated more broadly supported reforms. This dissertation argues that attempts at conflict resolution between secular feminists and Islamists are more likely to arise in the context of an autonomous state where the power holder needs the support of both groups. Such a state has both the flexibility and willingness to include both Islamists and secular feminists in the policy-making process. In states that do not enjoy autonomy from non-state actors...

Social right to education: initial elements to situate a gender policy at the university; Direito social à educação: elementos iniciais para situar uma política de gênero na universidade

Ferreira, Márcia Ondina Vieira; Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; "Avaliados por pares"; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/09/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
The text aims at providing some information in order to trigger some thinking concerning a gender policy at the University. In order to do so, initially some concepts related to social inequality are presented with the purpose of making clear which types of inequality are involved whenever gender is concerned. Afterwards, the concept of gender itself is discussed, previously to speaking of education as a means of production and reproduction of gender relations in society, and of how such phenomenon can be perceived within the University. With such purpose some data concerning the masculine and feminine presence at the University is presented: students enrolled, professors, researchers and Senior Researchers (with grant). Finally, as a conclusion, some conditions for female empowerment in higher education will be highlighted: fostering research on the mechanisms and practices which ascribe specific places for men and women at the University; settling a more effusive policy on the preparation of faculty; and interfering towards the establishment of more equal gender relationships since the school years, overcoming the idea of mixed school towards the one of coeducation.; O texto tem como objetivo fornecer alguns subsídios para pensar-se uma política de gênero na Universidade. Para tanto...

Conflicting policy narratives: moving beyond culture in identifying barriers to gender policy in South Africa

Mannell, Jenevieve
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
This paper explores barriers to gender policy implementation arising from the narratives framing gender as a policy issue. Through examining the influence of gender policy narratives on practitioners, it challenges those who represent policy failures as the result of unsupportive cultural contexts. The paper draws on Fraser’s (1995, 2005; Fraser and Honneth, 2003) conceptualisation of recognition and redistribution to highlight tensions between three different gender policy narratives: (1) gender as instrumental for development; (2) gender as women’s rights and empowerment; and (3) gender as relations of power requiring personal transformation. Interviews with 32 gender practitioners in 26 South African non-governmental organisations and observations of meetings between these organisations show how these narratives lead to unhelpful conflicts between practitioners. These conflicts inhibit both the uptake of gender policy recommendations and collaboration between practitioners in ways that undermine efforts to address gender inequalities in the South African context.